Another study found that 59 percent of women had experienced forced marriage. Forced marriage remains common for Kurdish girls in Iran and is also one of the major reasons for self-immolation in Iran. As in other parts of South Asia , girls in Nepal are often seen as an economic burden to the family, due to dowry.
Parents often compel young girls to marry, because older and more educated men can demand a higher dowry. Because widows often lose social status in Nepalese society, this policy was meant to 'solve' their problems. However, many widows and human rights groups protested these regulations, denouncing them as humiliating and as encouraging coerced marriages. During the Sri Lankan Civil War , a report in the journal Reproductive Health Matters found that forced marriage in Sri Lanka was taking place in the context of the armed conflict, where parents forced teenage girls into marriage in order to ensure that they do not lose their chastity considered an increased risk due to the conflict before marriage, which would compromise their chances of finding a husband.
In the family ministry of Germany found that people were in forced marriages, nearly all from migrant families and most Of those , were girls, were from Syria, were Afghans and were Iraqis. Forced marriages can be made because of family pride, the wishes of the parents, or social obligation. For example, according to Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood , many forced marriages in Britain within the British Pakistani community are aimed at providing British citizenship to a member of the family currently in Pakistan to whom the instigator of the forced marriage feels a sense of duty.
Similar legislation was passed in Scotland: the Forced Marriage etc. Protection and Jurisdiction Scotland Act  gives courts the power to issue protection orders. In , it was estimated that about forced marriages took place each year. Mr Justice Holman said that the girl, now 17, would have to initiate proceedings herself to have the marriage nullified. The Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act makes forcing someone to marry including abroad a criminal offence. In July , the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child marriage , early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.
The first conviction for forced marriage in the United Kingdom occurred in June , with the convicted being a man from Cardiff , who was subsequently sentenced to 16 years in prison. The maximum sentence is 4 years. In July an Afghani man in Sweden was sentenced to 4 years in prison for forcing his daughter to marry someone in Afghanistan in the first Swedish conviction. He was also convicted for sexually molesting her Swedish boyfriend, assault, threats, robbery, blackmailing and false imprisonment.
In January convicted the maternal uncle and aunt of a year-old girl of an Iraqi family were sentenced to 21 months in jail and to pay euro in damages for forced marriage. In december her family discovered that the girl was dating a boy and the family decided to marry her off to a cousin without her knowledge.
Under the false pretense that her grandmother was mortally ill, the girl, her mother, aunt and uncle travelled to Iraq where all but the girl had return tickets. In Iraq the grandmother proved to be in good health and the girl was to marry her cousin.
I was a victim of forced marriage - BBC Three
Despite having no contacts in Iraq and the mobile phone had been taken from her, she managed to return to Sweden eight months later. Although forced marriage in Europe is most often associated with the immigrant population, it is also present among some local populations, especially among the Roma communities in Eastern Europe. The UK Forced marriage consultation , published in , found forcing someone to marry to be a distinct criminal offence in Austria , Belgium , Turkey , Denmark , Norway and Germany. The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence defines and criminalizes forced marriage, as well as other forms of violence against women.
Forced marriage may be practised among some immigrant communities in Canada. That lack of attention has protected the practice from legal intervention.
In addition to these criminal offences, the Civil Marriage Act stipulates: Marriage requires the free and enlightened consent of two persons to be the spouse of each other, as well as setting 16 as the minimum age for marriage. Estimates are that hundreds of Pakistani girls in New York have been flown out of the New York City area to Pakistan to undergo forced marriages; those who resist are threatened and coerced. Child Marriage : . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marriage and other equivalent or similar unions and status.
Validity of marriages. Void and Voidable marriages Annulment Marriage fraud. Dissolution of marriages. Parenting coordinator U.
Other issues. Private international law. Family and criminal code or criminal law. Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child selling. Further information: Honor killing.
- BBC - Ethics - Forced Marriages: Motives and methods?
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Further information: Dowry and Bride price. Main articles: Bride kidnapping and Groom kidnapping. Further information: Vani custom. Main articles: Widow inheritance and Levirate marriage. This section uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them.
Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources , with multiple points of view. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Sharia and Islamic marital jurisprudence. See also: Women in Islam and Islam and domestic violence. By country or region. Opposition and resistance. Abolitionism U. Main article: Ukuthwala. London: Refuge : 6, Archived PDF from the original on 10 August Winnipeg : Canadian Journal of Human Rights. Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 29 September Scharf 19 October Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 30 January Huffington Post.
Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 28 October Center for Reproductive Rights. Archived from the original on 23 December Girls Not Brides. Archived from the original on 29 October Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 10 July Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Retrieved 9 October Archived PDF from the original on 1 October Retrieved 7 October This marked the legal end of the 'housewife marriage' and a transition to the ideal of 'marriage in partnership'.
Archived from the original on 21 January Women's movements of the world: an international directory and reference guide, edited by Sally Shreir , p. Archived from the original PDF on 24 August Retrieved 25 August Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 3 April CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link and the paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children , it was only in that a legal reform abolished the stipulation that the husband had the sole power to administer the children's property.
Karma Nirvana. Archived from the original on 10 August Archived PDF from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 6 October Archived from the original on 12 July Jewitt, only survivor of the crew of the ship Boston, during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound: with an account of the manners, mode of living, and religious opinions of the natives. Memorandum: Charging forced marriage as a crime against humanity.
Documentation Center of Cambodia. Archived from the original PDF on 2 November Archived from the original on 16 February Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 15 June Plan UK. Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 11 November Protection and Jurisdiction Scotland Act ".
Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 1 October BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 21 June Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 11 November Archived from the original PDF on 21 June Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 21 September Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 13 February Serious Violence.
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Loneliness and Vulnerability. Social Media. Setting up a Neighbourhood Watch Scheme. Spotting the signs Modern Slavery What's being done? Types of modern slavery Modern Slavery Campaign Toolkit.
Where do I start? Running a scheme and keeping it going Relaunching or reviving a scheme What does being a member involve? What is forced marriage? Is it a crime? How common is forced marriage? Who is most at risk from it? Victims taken to Pakistan to be married 0. Reports to Forced Marriage Unit in 0 k. What sort of signals might suggest that someone is at risk of forced marriage? There are some common warning signs that might suggest someone is at risk:. But in most cases the pressure is emotional, so it is harder to detect If someone you think is at risk suddenly goes away on holiday without warning, especially in the summer, this could indicate they are in danger If someone has siblings who were forced to marry — or even just married young — this can be an indication they are at risk If an older child refuses to marry, this can increase the pressure on younger siblings especially girls in order to uphold the family honour.
- Forced marriage - Wikipedia.
- Conflits régionaux et indépendances nationales en Afrique de lOuest (French Edition).
- Mountains of the Moon.
- What is Forced Marriage?.
- I was a victim of forced marriage.
- What to do if you're being forced into marriage;
- Motives and methods?
What can you do if you suspect someone is at risk of forced marriage? You should give as many details as you can, including: — Where the person has gone — When they were due back — When you last heard from them Never raise the issue with, or make an approach to, the family of the victim. What will happen next? What options are available to a victim involved in an offence of forced marriage?
What punishment will offenders receive? Printable resources Neighbourhood Watch has produced a leaflet urging members to be aware of the signs of forced marriage, honour-based violence or female genital mutilation in their communities. British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Forced marriages happen for a number of reasons and are sometimes brought about by taking the victim abroad.
People force others into marriage due to a range of factors such as preserving wealth and family reputation. Many victims are subject to emotional blackmail and physical threats. A number of them may be forced to marry a member of their extended family, for example, a cousin. Some young people, especially of South Asian background, are tricked into visiting their family's country of origin for a holiday, only to find that there are plans to get them married there.
They may be isolated, have no access to money, telephones or their passports, and their movement will be restricted. The local British embassy will get involved if the victim - or someone they know - informs them or the UK's Forced Marriage Unit about their situation. Therefore visitors are recommended to leave details of their passport, flights and overseas residence with a trusted friend in the UK and contact the Foreign Office before they travel.
Even though they are abroad, victims still have the right to legal protection as the people forcing them into marriage may be in breach of the law in the UK and other countries. This can lead onto mental and physical health problems including depression, eating disorders and self-harm. Although both men and women are affected, the latter especially encounter many difficulties after the forced marriage occurs.