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It also became an important fashion centre. The airport at Deurne is important for freight and passenger flights. On the local level, public transportation in the city consists of a network of bus lines and tramways; some of the tramways have been transformed into subway lines. Like all Belgian municipalities, Antwerp is governed by an elected city council, which in turn elects a board of aldermen, headed by a burgomaster , nominated by the king on recommendation of the council.

Generally, the burgomaster is a member of the elected council, but this is not obligatory. Each alderman has a specified department to manage, but decisions and resolutions are always taken by the board as a whole. Under the board of aldermen is the town clerk, the chief official to whom the different administrative services report. The city is also the residence of the government of the province of Antwerp, headed by a governor appointed by the king; a provincial council, elected every four years; and its board of deputies, who have, in regard to the province, the same task as the city aldermen.

The provincial recorder is the counterpart of the town clerk. A third kind of public service is the Commission for Public Relief. The members of the commission are appointed for six years by the city council. The Commission for Public Relief, responsible for public health and care of the aged and orphans, manages a series of institutions, among which are several large hospitals. Together with these official establishments, there are a number of independent, mostly Roman Catholic, institutions.

This duality is also found in education. Besides the different schools of all grades i. This is also the case at the university level: both an official state and an independent Jesuit institute were founded in James, where the painter is buried. Rubens united Italianate traits and an attachment to the Flemish artistic tradition to create a highly personal style. His students and coworkers included the three 17th-century Antwerpians Jacob Jordaens , Anthony Van Dyck , and Frans Snyders ; their works also may be seen in the Royal Museum, which houses a vast collection from the 15th to the 20th century.

Physical and human geography

Museums for folklore and for ethnography are located not far from the Schelde. For modern art , there is the Museum of Contemporary Art, installed in a s Art Deco grain silo in the old dock area of the port, which is close to the Provincial Museum of Photography, housed in a former warehouse built in In the Middelheim Open-Air Museum of Sculpture, the permanent collection is displayed among the trees and lawns of a public park located south of the old city, and every other year a special exhibition features works by young contemporary sculptors. The site of Antwerp was probably already inhabited, as excavations on the right bank of the Schelde have proved, in Gallo-Roman times, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries ce.


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The city probably developed from two nuclei: a southern one called Chanelaus—Caloes—Callo and a later northern nucleus grown around the Steen, which eventually became the more important of the two. Christianity was introduced in the 7th century. In the 9th century the region became a border county of the Holy Roman Empire.

In the religious centre was transferred from Chanelaus to the northern nucleus. It was around the castle, built originally as a seat for the border county, that Antwerp developed, in the course of the centuries, in more or less concentric half circles. Situated relatively far inland on the deep right bank of the Schelde, Antwerp was predestined to become a trade and shipping centre. This was already fully the case in the 13th century. At the end of that century and the beginning of the 14th, freedom of trade was given to the English, Venetians, and Genoese by the dukes of Brabant , who had made themselves masters of the county.

In the first quarter of the 14th century, the Antwerp fairs began to flourish. Antwerp succeeded in the 15th century in becoming the successor of Brugge Bruges in Flanders, which until then had been the mercantile metropolis of western Europe. At the end of the 15th century, when nearly all the Low Countries were united under the Burgundian and Habsburg dynasties , the economic preeminence of Antwerp over Brugge is indicated by the fact that the majority of foreign merchants transferred their residence from the old Flemish town to Antwerp.

It quickly became the leading commercial centre of western Europe, profiting from the beginnings of colonial trade and stimulated by the great discoveries of the Portuguese and Spaniards. Toward the midth century, the population totaled nearly ,, whereas there had been about 20, people in the city at the end of the 14th century. Extensive urbanization plans were developed to lodge the increasing population, who earned their livelihood in trade, transport, and industry.

The port underwent its first northward extension. New industries included breweries, malt factories, and bleaching works. Together with the already established finishing works of English cloth, tapestry, and silk factories, the sugar refineries, and the diamond industry, they made Antwerp one of the greatest industrial centres of western Europe. Antwerp also became a financial centre: its Stock Exchange inaugurated , a model for the younger London and Amsterdam exchanges, was the scene of dramatic and momentous events, in which financial agents and bankers of the Habsburg, Tudor , and Valois monarchs played their part, together with Antwerpian, English, French, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, and German merchants.

State bankruptcies in Spain , Portugal, and elsewhere, together with religious troubles and ensuing wars Antwerp early in the 16th century became a centre of Protestant activity , brought about a decline. Antwerp became involved in the revolt of the Netherlands and was taken, in , by Alessandro Farnese , duke of Parma, governor general for the Spanish king.

The consequences of this strife with Spain were severe: from to the population diminished from 80, to 42, Capital and enterprise emigrated from Antwerp, mostly northward. The economic greatness of Amsterdam in the 17th century was due in part to Antwerp emigrants and their financial support, as was the case, to a lesser extent, for Hamburg , Frankfurt am Main , and other mercantile cities. Yet Antwerp was not reduced to the status of a nonentity. The city remained the dynamic economic centre of the Spanish later, in the 18th century, the Austrian Netherlands.

Antwerp became a more famous art centre than ever before: this was the time of Rubens , Van Dyck , Jordaens , and other major artists. With the Schelde once more freely navigable restored by the French in , the attraction of Antwerp as a seaport became evident again. Population grew, and the city began to expand and modernize. In Antwerp hosted the Olympic Games. Since World War II Antwerp, its suburbs, and its seaport have grown apace, spurred by a commercial, industrial, and maritime boom.

Port facilities, highways, and inland waterways have all been extended and improved. Some of this expansion, however, has created ecological problems, which have been investigated and addressed to some degree. Antwerp also has become the most important centre of finance and other services in northern Belgium, although the closure of the Antwerp Stock Exchange in reflects the increasing concentration of financial activities in Brussels.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Written By: Jan L. Van Roey Tilde A. See Article History. Read More on This Topic.

Antwerp - Wikipedia

Despite the prestige of Rome, the centre of gravity in the 17th-century art world shifted increasingly toward the northern cities of Antwerp …. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Despite the prestige of Rome, the centre of gravity in the 17th-century art world shifted increasingly toward the northern cities of Antwerp and Amsterdam.

During the 16th century, Antwerp had been a major centre of artistic production, exporting paintings throughout Europe. About , Antwerp was the chief port of the north. Museums for folklore and for ethnography are located not far from the Schelde. For modern art , there is the Museum of Contemporary Art, installed in a s Art Deco grain silo in the old dock area of the port, which is close to the Provincial Museum of Photography, housed in a former warehouse built in In the Middelheim Open-Air Museum of Sculpture, the permanent collection is displayed among the trees and lawns of a public park located south of the old city, and every other year a special exhibition features works by young contemporary sculptors.

The site of Antwerp was probably already inhabited, as excavations on the right bank of the Schelde have proved, in Gallo-Roman times, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries ce. The city probably developed from two nuclei: a southern one called Chanelaus—Caloes—Callo and a later northern nucleus grown around the Steen, which eventually became the more important of the two.

Christianity was introduced in the 7th century. In the 9th century the region became a border county of the Holy Roman Empire. In the religious centre was transferred from Chanelaus to the northern nucleus. It was around the castle, built originally as a seat for the border county, that Antwerp developed, in the course of the centuries, in more or less concentric half circles. Situated relatively far inland on the deep right bank of the Schelde, Antwerp was predestined to become a trade and shipping centre. This was already fully the case in the 13th century. At the end of that century and the beginning of the 14th, freedom of trade was given to the English, Venetians, and Genoese by the dukes of Brabant , who had made themselves masters of the county.

In the first quarter of the 14th century, the Antwerp fairs began to flourish. Antwerp succeeded in the 15th century in becoming the successor of Brugge Bruges in Flanders, which until then had been the mercantile metropolis of western Europe. At the end of the 15th century, when nearly all the Low Countries were united under the Burgundian and Habsburg dynasties , the economic preeminence of Antwerp over Brugge is indicated by the fact that the majority of foreign merchants transferred their residence from the old Flemish town to Antwerp.

It quickly became the leading commercial centre of western Europe, profiting from the beginnings of colonial trade and stimulated by the great discoveries of the Portuguese and Spaniards. Toward the midth century, the population totaled nearly ,, whereas there had been about 20, people in the city at the end of the 14th century. Extensive urbanization plans were developed to lodge the increasing population, who earned their livelihood in trade, transport, and industry. The port underwent its first northward extension. New industries included breweries, malt factories, and bleaching works.

Together with the already established finishing works of English cloth, tapestry, and silk factories, the sugar refineries, and the diamond industry, they made Antwerp one of the greatest industrial centres of western Europe. Antwerp also became a financial centre: its Stock Exchange inaugurated , a model for the younger London and Amsterdam exchanges, was the scene of dramatic and momentous events, in which financial agents and bankers of the Habsburg, Tudor , and Valois monarchs played their part, together with Antwerpian, English, French, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, and German merchants.

State bankruptcies in Spain , Portugal, and elsewhere, together with religious troubles and ensuing wars Antwerp early in the 16th century became a centre of Protestant activity , brought about a decline. Antwerp became involved in the revolt of the Netherlands and was taken, in , by Alessandro Farnese , duke of Parma, governor general for the Spanish king. The consequences of this strife with Spain were severe: from to the population diminished from 80, to 42, Capital and enterprise emigrated from Antwerp, mostly northward. The economic greatness of Amsterdam in the 17th century was due in part to Antwerp emigrants and their financial support, as was the case, to a lesser extent, for Hamburg , Frankfurt am Main , and other mercantile cities.

Yet Antwerp was not reduced to the status of a nonentity. The city remained the dynamic economic centre of the Spanish later, in the 18th century, the Austrian Netherlands. Antwerp became a more famous art centre than ever before: this was the time of Rubens , Van Dyck , Jordaens , and other major artists. With the Schelde once more freely navigable restored by the French in , the attraction of Antwerp as a seaport became evident again. Population grew, and the city began to expand and modernize. In Antwerp hosted the Olympic Games. Since World War II Antwerp, its suburbs, and its seaport have grown apace, spurred by a commercial, industrial, and maritime boom.

Port facilities, highways, and inland waterways have all been extended and improved. Some of this expansion, however, has created ecological problems, which have been investigated and addressed to some degree. Antwerp also has become the most important centre of finance and other services in northern Belgium, although the closure of the Antwerp Stock Exchange in reflects the increasing concentration of financial activities in Brussels.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: Jan L.


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Van Roey Tilde A. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Despite the prestige of Rome, the centre of gravity in the 17th-century art world shifted increasingly toward the northern cities of Antwerp ….

Antwerp - Belgium HD

Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Despite the prestige of Rome, the centre of gravity in the 17th-century art world shifted increasingly toward the northern cities of Antwerp and Amsterdam. During the 16th century, Antwerp had been a major centre of artistic production, exporting paintings throughout Europe. About , Antwerp was the chief port of the north. In , the Portuguese moved their trading station from Brugge to Antwerp , making it the chief northern market for the spices they were importing from India.

The Antwerp bourse,…. Antwerp , for example, more than doubled its population in the second half of the 15th century and doubled it again by In Alessandro Farnese, duke di Parma, succeeded in recovering the allegiance of….

SHIPPING FREIGHT IN ANTWERP

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Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction Physical and human geography The landscape The city site The city layout The character of the city The people The economy Industry and commerce Transportation Administration and social conditions Government Health and education Cultural life History Early settlement and growth From the 15th to the 19th century The modern city.

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