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Aerospace Daily and Defense Report, June There has also been considerable investment in the problem of tracking potentially hostile aircraft. The problem has involved fusing data from multiple radars on multiple targets. A nonmilitary application is described by Rogova and colleagues in their report on the use of data fusion algorithms for improved traffic flow for crisis management. Improved human intelligence collection, improved intelligence integration and fusion, improved analysis of terrorist threats and targets, and improved technical collection against potential chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive weapons are all critical in this regard.

This success of these principles is described by Assistant Secretary of Defense Benjamin Riley as follows:. In Afghanistan, U.

Distributed Data Fusion for Network-Centric Operations - CRC Press Book

In Iraq, national intelligence moved in minutes to a B-1 Bomber that. Llinas, C. Drury, W. Bialas, and A. Ann M. Report for the Center for Multi-source Information Fusion. Bar-Shalom and X-R. Kameda, S. Tsujimichi, and Y. Target tracking using range rate measurements under dense environments, Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, Communications 85 3 Rogova, P. Scott, and C.

Higher level fusion for post-disaster casualty mitigation operations. Department of Defense. The military proved adept at developing tactical knowledge in information-constrained operations. Now consider this: most state and local agencies that would initially respond to a terrorist attack in the United States do not have compatible abilities to cull knowledge from the resulting flow of on-scene information. Overall, the experience of the DOD with data fusion has been one of gradual learning, with successful systems now deployed throughout all of the services.

In most cases the initial versions of these systems did not meet expectations or specifications; however, the development, testing, and deployment of these initial attempts informed the later developments of the successful systems. These experiences have motivated the recommendations by this committee for the establishment of a data fusion authority to provide oversight to systems development, for a formal systems engineering approach of the data fusion processes, and for realistic operational testing and feedback from this testing to systems development. Finding: While the DOD has achieved successes in data fusion, information sharing, and networked operations, it has also had numerous unsuccessful programs in these areas.

Those involved in transportation security can learn a lot from both the successes and the failures of the DOD. Finding: Improvements can be made in security operations by effectively employing data fusion. These improvements can be accomplished with existing technologies. Experience in the DOD indicates the potential effectiveness of and benefits to security operations from applying data fusion. Private industry uses data fusion to increase production, decrease costs, and minimize the need for operator attention during manufacturing activities.

Network Enabled Capability

An example of data fusion needs in private industry can be drawn from the manufacture of computer chips. This manufacturing activity requires more than individual process steps, each of which must be controlled within a well-characterized range to produce a profitable yield of usable chips. For many years, the data from each individual step—for example, regarding film thickness and line width—were monitored individually, even though it was well understood that interaction between the individual steps could compensate for errors in processing.

Using straightforward data integration, wafer lots could be tracked as they moved from the beginning of the manufacturing line to final testing. Benjamin Riley, Assistant Secretary of Defense. Department of Defense, Washington, D. September, p.

As the ability to fuse data improves with the increased networking of tools in the manufacturing facility, industry is moving away from measuring a physical dimension on a processed wafer; it is moving toward monitoring voltages and impedances on the processing tool during the actual wafer processing, using the same mathematical modeling approach to predict the final yield. In addition to saving measurement and operator time, understanding which process steps have the largest impact on reducing yield allows the manufacturer to focus resources on improving those critical process steps. This increasing amount of data fusion and the move to monitoring more fundamental parameters are possible because semiconductor manufacturers agreed on interface protocols and made the providing of these interfaces a requirement to the sale of manufacturing equipment.

No equipment vendor could survive without being able to support all of the common equipment interface protocols. Research conducted at the Center for Embedded Network Sensing of the University of California at Los Angeles has focused on the development of shared databases that allow multiple users and systems to share, manage, and search continuous data streams. Finding: Private industry has employed data fusion to enhance quality and to improve production and has developed data fusion infrastructure, including interface specifications and data structure, to allow the collection and analysis of information.

  1. Distributed Multisensor Data Fusion under Unknown Correlation and Data Inconsistency!
  2. Gamechan (Japanese Edition).
  3. Using Human-Centric Wireless Sensor Networks to Support Personal Security | SpringerLink.

The TSL has been involved in a number of projects that might inform the design, implementation, and use of data fusion for transportation security. Table summarizes these projects and categorizes them by type: infrastructure for data fusion, data integration, or data fusion. Infrastructure projects look at communications, data modeling, database resources, and techniques for data fusion and data integration.

Data integration projects have been focused on centrally locating data from multiple sources. The central location could be the terminal for security personnel or a data store. Finally, data fusion projects have considered the combination of data from multiple sources for threat estimates. Chen, N. Yau, M.

Distributed Data Fusion for Network-Centric Operations

Hansen, and D. Sharing Sensor Network Data. Accessed March 8, The Secure Perimeter Awareness Network SPAN program combines multiple detection systems designed to provide early warning and alerts for unauthorized access. Essentially, the program takes advantage of the Airport Security Detection Equipment radar to detect unauthorized entry and combines the data from this radar with data from optical and infrared camera security systems.

When deployed near facilities close to water, it could also incorporate data from underwater detection systems. A related program, the Seattle Airport Project, has as its objective the fusion of ground surveillance radar and intelligent video into a single track for intrusion detection.

Exchange Discount Summary

Conduct secure network design, development, implementation, and engineering activities to support an evolving architecture for networking of sensors. Infrastructure for data fusion a. Evaluate an architecture and design of existing and new commercial-off-the-shelf sensors for perimeter security and stakeholder data distribution. However, the airborne project is ongoing. Fuse sensors in subterranean environments rail, light rail, vehicular traffic, tunnels.

The Seattle Airport Project intends to fuse the radar data with data from video systems. The TSL has also developed projects to explore other security approaches for the airport perimeter and aircraft on the ground.

The motion detection will direct slewing of camera systems. These projects demonstrate an interest in the use of data fusion to improve perimeter security. Again, they lack a systems approach to their development and common data structures for the extant security systems that would provide the foundation for significant improvements through data fusion.

Distributed Multisensor Data Fusion under Unknown Correlation and Data Inconsistency

It is designed to provide access control at intended entry points by integrating data from biometric systems with data from the legacy access-control systems. The goal of this fusion approach is to stop intruders and to provide adequate access control at doorways. This registered-traveler program was created to enable frequent travelers between Dulles International Airport in the Washington, D.

However, the TSL will be allowed to postprocess the data with more advanced fusion logic. In addition, the National Biometrics Security Project will provide data on 10 fingerprints, 9 facial poses, and both irises for 10, people. The combination of data obtained through normal business practices plus the additional data should allow for experiments with fusion as a means to enable improved access control; the project has the potential to reduce the burdens of transportation security.

While the projects described in Table provide useful information and results in particular locations, the committee has seen no obvious attempt to develop a comprehensive strategy for the use of data fusion to improve transportation security. Each project is essentially a stand-alone attempt to build localized infrastructure or to share information.

There has been no obvious attempt to plan or implement these projects to achieve the most effective use of data fusion at all levels. After a brief description of the. There will probably be some Five fifth-generation warfare dilemmas. But in recent years the expression has morphed into a useful buzzword encapsulating several deeper concepts. It encompasses four major approaches:. Advancements in the information age, coupled with the ongoing RMA, are poised to make a dramatic impact over automation, network Advancements in the information age, coupled with the ongoing RMA, are poised to make a dramatic impact over automation, network centricity and communication security.

Net-Centric Warfare NCW is an established theory of war that seeks to translate the gains of information gathered into a competitive war-fighting advantage through the robust networking of geographically dispersed forces. Network Robustness and Graph Topology. Network robustness and graph topology. Two important recent trends in military and civilian communications have been the increasing tendency to base operations around an internal network, and the increasing threats to communications infrastructure.

This combination of factors This combination of factors makes it important to study the robustness of network topologies. We use graph-theoretic concepts of connectivity to do this, and argue that node connectivity is the most useful such measure. We examine the relationship between node connectivity and network symmetry, and describe two Knowledge Management for Command and Control.

This paper highlights s ome major trends and developments in knowledge management with particular emphasis on knowledge c apturing a nd au thoring, and how this technology c an be combined with intelligent agents to p roduce advanced This paper highlights s ome major trends and developments in knowledge management with particular emphasis on knowledge c apturing a nd au thoring, and how this technology c an be combined with intelligent agents to p roduce advanced capabilities for command and control systems. Past t rends, p resent accomplishments and future work in knowledge management systems are covered.

Back to swarming: Networked micro-drones. After a decades-long history of development of netwar and swarm tactics ideas, the Perdix micro-drones tests are an interesting proof of concept. Using simulation and virtual machines to identify information assurance requirements. The US military is changing its philosophy, approach, and technologies used for warfare. In the process of achieving this vision for high-speed, highly mobile warfare, there are a number of issues that must be addressed and solved; issues In the process of achieving this vision for high-speed, highly mobile warfare, there are a number of issues that must be addressed and solved; issues that are not addressed by commercial systems because Department of Defense DoD Information Technology IT systems operate in an environment different from the commercial world.

The differences arise from the differences in the scope and skill used in attacks upon DoD systems, the interdependencies between DoD software systems used for network centric warfare NCW , and the need to rely upon commercial software components in virtually every DoD system. As a result, while NCW promises more effective and efficient means for employing DoD resources, it also increases the vulnerability and allure of DoD systems to cyber attack. A further challenge arises due to the rapid changes in software and information assurance IA requirements and technologies over the course of a project.

Therefore, the four challenges that must be addressed are determining how to specify the information assurance requirements for a DoD system, minimizing changes to commercial software, incorporation of new system and IA requirements in a timely manner with minimal impact, and insuring that the interdependencies between systems do not result in cyber attack vulnerabilities. In this paper, we address all four issues. In addition to addressing the four challenges outlined above, the interdependencies and interconnections between systems indicate that the IA requirements for a system must consider two important facets of a system's IA defensive capabilities.

The facets are the types of IA attacks that the system must repel and the ability of a system to insure that any IA attack that penetrates the system is contained within the system and does not spread. The IA requirements should be derived from threat assessments for the system as well as for the need to address the four requirements challenges outlined above. To address these issues, we developed a system architecture and acquisition approach designed to separate the system's IA capabilities requirements and development from the other system capability requirements; thereby, allowing the IA capabilities to be developed rapidly and assessed separately from the other system capabilities.