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Assuming this responsibility provides a means of survival and liberation. Loaded is not prescriptive, although its author does make one recommendation: work for implementation of the International Arms Trade Treaty, to which the U. She does not think changing U. Something much more fundamental is required: to become a different type of society than we have been.

I believe that this is possible for Americans to achieve a leftist author might take exception to my exceptionalism here. Dunbar-Ortiz was raised Southern Baptist; she would know what I mean. The only thing that stops me giving Loaded five stars is that it sometimes reads as if it was rushed into print. More than a few sentences really need a comma for clarity, if not a verb! Understanding what the Second Amendment was for means we can no longer look at it as a sacred part of the Constitution, but more like the three-fifths clause, the compromise around slavery that was eliminated from the Constitution along with the abomination itself.

As long as we continue to talk at cross purposes about the Second Amendment, about philosophy or hunting, the bodies of men, women, and children will continue to pile up, just as they have since colonial times. New York: Basic Books, Jun 06, Eric Bottorff rated it really liked it. Although a bit unfocused at times, this is nonetheless vital reading for anyone interested in the Second Amendment and the ongoing scourge of gun violence in our country.

Mar 11, Sugarpunksattack Mick rated it it was amazing. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz's 'Loaded' is a popularly written account of the role of guns and corresponding gun culture that began in the British colonies and was present at the founding of the US on stolen native land. She argues that the US is exceptional in a way not often known or understood: the US is the only country to make gun ownership paramount to its system of governance which rest upon settler colonialism and barbaric system of slavery.

This framework sets her apart from the usual approache Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz's 'Loaded' is a popularly written account of the role of guns and corresponding gun culture that began in the British colonies and was present at the founding of the US on stolen native land. This framework sets her apart from the usual approaches to the second amendment and in that way goes deeper to the historical, political, and cultural roots of the US drawling a connection between the vast and expansive US colonial, imperial and military history and the violence at home or domestically.

Dunbar-Ortiz is unrepentant in her analysis of the US and the way US history is generally understood putting the falsehoods and myth making in the open to be dissected. She spends one chapter on both mythical confederate guerrilla and mythical hunter. She explains how the former sanitizes southern brutality in the form of irregular army that would kill anyone with pro-union sympathies.

These same confederate soldiers are later turned into mythical 'western heroes' leaving behind their brutal history. Dunbar-Ortiz does not spend much time on theorizing solutions in terms of gun control regulations nor does she theorize the role guns should or should not play within left-radical circles. It is an easy and quick read, but will definitely reorient one to see the US as a colonial settler state whose brutal history needs to be confronted and reconciled, which must be part of any conversation about the role of guns in society.

Sep 12, C. Malerich rated it liked it. The 2nd Amendment to the U. Constitution reads, "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Importantly, the first function of militias in the American colonies was killing and terrorizing the indigenous population, making way for the acquisition of more land by white settlers; not, as sometimes im The 2nd Amendment to the U. Importantly, the first function of militias in the American colonies was killing and terrorizing the indigenous population, making way for the acquisition of more land by white settlers; not, as sometimes imagined, protecting "the people" from a tyrannical government.

Tracing the evolution of gun culture from the Revolutionary War through the legends of the Wild West and the startling mass shootings of today, Dunbar-Ortiz convincingly argues that white supremacy has been the underlying rationale for the protection of individual gun ownership since the beginning of the nation. Some of the re-framing work she does here is eye-opening; for instance the pop culture transformation of Jesse James and other bushwackers Confederate irregulars into Wild West outlaw-heroes was all new to me.

In a later chapters, she notes how the conflation of political power with firearms allows working-class gun-owners to feel enfranchised and empowered, when actual political influence has far more to do with wealth. After all, the modern U. So gun ownership itself has to signify something greater than the mere capacity of the gun itself: a right to exert one's desires on others, similar to -- and in fact intertwined with -- the bribes of whiteness offered to Euro-descended working-class Americans, to keep us from siding too strongly with exploited black and brown comrades.

If you aren't already sympathetic to these arguments, I'm not sure this is the book to convince you; but if you are, there's much food for thought here and avenues for further exploration. Dunbar-Ortiz covers a lot of ground here, so necessarily some of her main points are supported through summary rather than point-by-point evidence.

Feb 22, Don rated it really liked it Shelves: social-political-commentary , history , non-fiction. This was an interesting book to read, and certainly timely considering the recent events in the U. Dunbar-Ortiz, as the title of the book suggests, is looking at the history of the Second Amendment. However, its not a history of how it was adopted, how it has been interpreted throughout history, etc. Rather, she avoids that path to discuss the prevalence of guns, gun culture and mythos, and its role throughout the history of the U.

In particularly, she examines the outsize role guns played in This was an interesting book to read, and certainly timely considering the recent events in the U. In particularly, she examines the outsize role guns played in the identity of "manifest destiny" and the removal genocide or indigenous peoples from western territories in the United States. She also ties the history of guns to slave patrols in the antebellum South, the glorification of the Western outlaw often former Confederates post-Civil War, and the use of various aspects of 20th Century culture to reinforce guns as part of the identity of Americans.

The book, in many ways, is less a history book and more of a history argument. It argues that how we understand the history is wrong, and until we change that understanding, no progress will be made in changing the negative relationship our country has with guns. At least, this is how I took Dunbar-Ortiz's writing; I admit there were times I had trouble following some of her history and how it connected to each other, and her use of footnotes were not as useful as I have encountered in other history books.

But, assuming that my understanding is correct, I think her suggestion is incredibly on point. Simply, we can't change something if we don't understand what that something is. America's issue with guns is not simply about the number of guns or the access to guns permitted. Its about their exalted status, their connection to white supremacy throughout our country's history and how that plays in contemporary politics, and the protected and sancrosanct status of the 2nd Amendment and the Constitution.

These factors all act as barriers to real understanding and genuine conversation, and thus as a barrier to any substantive change. Books of this nature are, in my opinion, supposed to challenge you, make you think critically, and make you want to have dialogue. I believe, regardless of one's opinions on subject, the book succeeds on these counts, and thus is worthy read.

Apr 24, Emily rated it really liked it Shelves: america , non-fiction. Like other reviewers have pointed out, it seems as if Loaded was rushed to print. The author doesn't always tie all of her points together well or make it clear what relevance they have.

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The first three or four chapters seemed much tighter and better written than the second half of the book. Nevertheless, this was a quick read that was more than wor 3. Nevertheless, this was a quick read that was more than worth it. Dunbar-Ortiz's main argument is that the Second Amendment does grant individuals the right to bear arms, but not for the reasons often thought. Not for resisting tyranny, but rather for imposing it. From the genocide of Indigenous peoples, slave patrols, Confederate guerilla outlaws, and lynch mobs to the Mexican border "minutemen" and neo-Nazis marching through Charlottesville last October.

Loaded 's well-defined argument is that the reason the Second Amendment exists and persists is white supremacy. Dunbar-Ortiz also intriguingly links early America's wide-spread use of guns and irregular war to the twenty and twenty-first century American philosophy of war. I learned a lot about American history from this book; the kinds of things that deep down I knew and yet didn't have a real understanding of. For example, the fact that in the days of the thirteen colonies, Anglo men could actually be fined for not being armed, because it was considered irresponsible when one could happen upon 'savages' at any moment.

Or that men were forced to participate in slave patrols aka militias , because it was civic duty to maintain the slave economy. These were not individual fringe groups-- they were enforced by the government. Again, I knew it, but I didn't know it. I wish that the author and editors had taken the time to really forge this book into what it could have been. As it is, it definitely feels like a rush job, and bit sloppy especially towards the end. Still, it's packed with good information, especially for those like me who are only just starting to dip into this topic.

Now I have an idea of where to go from here. Jul 03, Judith rated it really liked it. What they have in common with the people who still honor the Confederate flag? The conviction that their individual rights as white people are endangered and the only means of protection they can rely on is the guns they own. The militias of the time were not the National Guard we have now, they were armed groups of frontier settlers and slaveholders who organized to protect the rights of free white people, their rights to own the lands they stole and the Africans they enslaved.

This is the book that explains how the U. This book by historian Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz should be an essential read as we seek to understand our current situation as the world leader in guns per capita guns for every one hundred citizens and as we explore the historical roots of our gun culture and Constitution.


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Dunbar-Ortiz begins her book with a MLK quote from his historic speech at Riverside Church condemning the war in Vietnam not often shared when we post them on social media, "I could never again raise my voice against the vio This book by historian Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz should be an essential read as we seek to understand our current situation as the world leader in guns per capita guns for every one hundred citizens and as we explore the historical roots of our gun culture and Constitution. Dunbar-Ortiz begins her book with a MLK quote from his historic speech at Riverside Church condemning the war in Vietnam not often shared when we post them on social media, "I could never again raise my voice against the violence of the oppressed in the ghettos without having first spoken clearly to the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today--my own government.

It is a history which debunks some of the more liberal objections to readings of the second amendment that it doesn't imply or encourage individual gun rights in the service of asking the reader to explore much of the history of America's founding and Westward expansion from the viewpoint of indigenous peoples. This brief book touches on our situation past and present looking at the early founding of the country, the Confederacy, the formation and legacy of slave patrols, the view of the Second Amendment as sacred covenant, mass shootings, and white nationalism past and present.

It is a provocative and, I contend, and essential read. There are no policy recommendations here. Instead we have a historical account connecting the nation's historical founding to our current situation and debate. The problem I had with this book is that if you've alreaedy read Dunbar-Ortiz's previous book An Indigenous People's History of the United States, much of this book repeats what is in that one.

Sometimes it feels like it's word for word although I cannot confirm that since I got both books from the library. To this book's credit, it makes its core argument - that gun rights and the Second Amendment are inherently tied to America's history of racism and genocide, specially towards Native Americ The problem I had with this book is that if you've alreaedy read Dunbar-Ortiz's previous book An Indigenous People's History of the United States, much of this book repeats what is in that one.

To this book's credit, it makes its core argument - that gun rights and the Second Amendment are inherently tied to America's history of racism and genocide, specially towards Native Americans - well. It does this through pages and pages of sometimes meandering and barely-relevant tangential arguments, though. Especially when it came to the end 30 pages of the book, which gets into a long for a book that's barely pages, anyway tangent about an academic disagreement regarding two previous books about gun rights.

Sure, you could argue that this fight informed the gun debate in America and muddied the waters, but a. It's almost like an editor told her to cut the end argument that justified the preceding 30 pages but then didn't cut the preceding 30 pages. Apr 11, Lance rated it liked it. In her book, I think Dunbar-Ortiz succinctly yet comprehensively explains how the genocide of the Native Americans and appropriation of tribal lands, white nationalism, and imperialism were the progeny of the US's modern gun culture. Dunbar-Ortiz argues that today the gun lobby has seized on our country's violent roots and is using it to craft a narrative that guns are the last bastion of individual rights all while making obscene profits while people die.

I took off two stars because I feel li In her book, I think Dunbar-Ortiz succinctly yet comprehensively explains how the genocide of the Native Americans and appropriation of tribal lands, white nationalism, and imperialism were the progeny of the US's modern gun culture. I took off two stars because I feel like this book was rushed to print so that it could seize on the re-ignited gun debate caused by the Las Vegas massacre and perhaps the Parkland shooting.

The effect of this was bad editing in the form of the author appearing to go on tangents about somewhat mundane topics like the Winchester Mystery House of all things which while relevant, sometimes bogged down certain chapters. Additionally, the endnotes were mostly out of order which made it frustrating to follow up on citations. Overall, I would definitely recommend this book! Jul 07, Lizzie rated it it was amazing Shelves: Does anyone believe that centuries of racial and economic domination of the United States by white men have left no traces in our culture, views or institutions?

It's not likely, given all the evidence to the contrary. The ongoing influence of this history is compounded by the lack of acknowledgment of the colonists' savage violence across the continent that continued until the twentieth century, and the legacies of African slavery through such p "What are the majority of white men so afraid of? The ongoing influence of this history is compounded by the lack of acknowledgment of the colonists' savage violence across the continent that continued until the twentieth century, and the legacies of African slavery through such practices as convict leasing, legal segregation, rampant institutional racism, discrimination, police killings, mass surveillance, criminalization, and incarceration.

The tour guides and literature point to the case of a seriously deluded rich woman. Yet there is another possibility, a message, a warning: that the house is a kind of hologram in the minds of each and every person on the continent, just barely below their consciousness.

Mar 20, Sarah rated it liked it. In the process, the United States has invented enemies and spent hoards of wealth to erect the largest military force in history, including a vast network of hundreds of military bases in more than seventy "The United States created its armed forces and police to carry out a genocidal policy against Native peoples, seize Native land, and control African Americans, which continues to this day in other forms, including police shooting unarmed Black men and incarcerating a large percentage of them. In the process, the United States has invented enemies and spent hoards of wealth to erect the largest military force in history, including a vast network of hundreds of military bases in more than seventy countries and territories around the globe.

Apr 14, David Arch rated it it was amazing Shelves: non-fiction. Much of the debate today on guns focuses on the individual right to bear arms, as gun rights advocates claim the 2nd amendment was intended. But why was this amendment necessary in the first place? A fascinating, and thoroughly disturbing book. American Exceptionalism take on a totally different meaning in her thesis. Given the historical evidence, especially if you are an African-American, or of indigenous descent, her thesis is hard to argue against There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Readers also enjoyed. North American Hi About Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz. Stock futures fell while Treasury yields and the dollar advanced. The jobless rate ticked up to 3. Since that occurred, I had the most sought-after endorsement for the mayor of Atlanta, a black woman who is a great leader, endorse me.

Joseph Dunford. The two men awkwardly flanked Trump as he delivered part of his speech in the rain. Marine Corps and U. There was no air travel in 18th Century America. Friday to explain how it intends to proceed. The printing of census forms continued Thursday, according to administration officials. British Royal Marines abseiled onto the ship off the coast of the British territory on Thursday and seized it. They landed a helicopter on the moving vessel in pitch darkness.

Biden said he was satisfied with his debate performance, which was widely criticized. He dismissed several polls taken in the aftermath of the back-to-back forums that show his once-solid lead evaporating. His poll numbers have sunk to low single digits. Glowing press coverage has given way to questions about how long he can hang on. Justin Amash I-Mich. Rashida Tlaib D-Mich. It certainly does not in express terms. The only answer that can be given is, that these are implied in the general powers granted.

With equal truth it may be said, that all the powers which the bills of rights guard against the abuse of, are contained or implied in the general ones granted by this Constitution. Ought not a government, vested with such extensive and indefinite authority, to have been restricted by a declaration of rights? It certainly ought. So clear a point is this, that I cannot help suspecting that persons who attempt to persuade people that such reservations were less necessary under this Constitution than under those of the States, are wilfully endeavoring to deceive, and to lead you into an absolute state of vassalage.

Supporters of the Constitution, known as Federalists, opposed a bill of rights for much of the ratification period, in part due to the procedural uncertainties it would create.

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In response, Hamilton argued that the Constitution was inherently different:. Bills of rights are in their origin, stipulations between kings and their subjects, abridgments of prerogative in favor of privilege, reservations of rights not surrendered to the prince.

In December and January , five states—Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut—ratified the Constitution with relative ease, though the bitter minority report of the Pennsylvania opposition was widely circulated. Following Massachusetts' lead, the Federalist minorities in both Virginia and New York were able to obtain ratification in convention by linking ratification to recommended amendments.

United States Bill of Rights

A minority of the Constitution's critics, such as Maryland's Luther Martin , continued to oppose ratification. They began to take exception to the Constitution "as it was," seeking amendments. Several conventions saw supporters for "amendments before" shift to a position of "amendments after" for the sake of staying in the Union. The New York Anti-Federalist "circular letter" was sent to each state legislature proposing a second constitutional convention for "amendments before", but it failed in the state legislatures.

Ultimately, only North Carolina and Rhode Island waited for amendments from Congress before ratifying. Article Seven of the proposed Constitution set the terms by which the new frame of government would be established. The new Constitution would become operational when ratified by at least nine states. Only then would it replace the existing government under the Articles of Confederation and would apply only to those states that ratified it. Following contentious battles in several states, the proposed Constitution reached that nine-state ratification plateau in June On September 13, , the Articles of Confederation Congress certified that the new Constitution had been ratified by more than enough states for the new system to be implemented and directed the new government to meet in New York City on the first Wednesday in March the following year.

The Senate of eleven states contained 20 Federalists with only two Anti-Federalists, both from Virginia. In retaliation for Madison's victory in that battle at Virginia's ratification convention, Henry and other Anti-Federalists, who controlled the Virginia House of Delegates , had gerrymandered a hostile district for Madison's planned congressional run and recruited Madison's future presidential successor, James Monroe , to oppose him. Originally opposed to the inclusion of a bill of rights in the Constitution, Madison had gradually come to understand the importance of doing so during the often contentious ratification debates.

By taking the initiative to propose amendments himself through the Congress, he hoped to preempt a second constitutional convention that might, it was feared, undo the difficult compromises of , and open the entire Constitution to reconsideration, thus risking the dissolution of the new federal government. Writing to Jefferson, he stated, "The friends of the Constitution, some from an approbation of particular amendments, others from a spirit of conciliation, are generally agreed that the System should be revised.

But they wish the revisal to be carried no farther than to supply additional guards for liberty. On the occasion of his April 30, inauguration as the nation's first president , George Washington addressed the subject of amending the Constitution. He urged the legislators,. James Madison introduced a series of Constitutional amendments in the House of Representatives for consideration. Among his proposals was one that would have added introductory language stressing natural rights to the preamble.

Several sought to protect individual personal rights by limiting various Constitutional powers of Congress. Like Washington, Madison urged Congress to keep the revision to the Constitution "a moderate one", limited to protecting individual rights. Madison was deeply read in the history of government and used a range of sources in composing the amendments.

The English Magna Carta of inspired the right to petition and to trial by jury , for example, while the English Bill of Rights of provided an early precedent for the right to keep and bear arms although this applied only to Protestants and prohibited cruel and unusual punishment. The greatest influence on Madison's text, however, was existing state constitutions. That there be prefixed to the Constitution a declaration, that all power is originally vested in, and consequently derived from, the people.

That Government is instituted and ought to be exercised for the benefit of the people; which consists in the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the right of acquiring and using property, and generally of pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. That the people have an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or change their Government, whenever it be found adverse or inadequate to the purposes of its institution.

That in article 1st, section 2, clause 3, these words be struck out, to wit: "The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative, and until such enumeration shall be made;" and in place thereof be inserted these words, to wit: "After the first actual enumeration, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number amounts to—, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that the number shall never be less than—, nor more than—, but each State shall, after the first enumeration, have at least two Representatives; and prior thereto.

That in article 1st, section 6, clause 1, there be added to the end of the first sentence, these words, to wit: "But no law varying the compensation last ascertained shall operate before the next ensuing election of Representatives. That in article 1st, section 9, between clauses 3 and 4, be inserted these clauses, to wit: The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.

The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably assembling and consulting for their common good; nor from applying to the legislature by petitions, or remonstrances for redress of their grievances. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country: but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.

No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor at any time, but in a manner warranted by law. No person shall be subject, except in cases of impeachment, to more than one punishment, or one trial for the same offence; nor shall be compelled to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor be obliged to relinquish his property, where it may be necessary for public use, without a just compensation.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The rights of the people to be secured in their persons, their houses, their papers, and their other property, from all unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated by warrants issued without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, or not particularly describing the places to be searched, or the persons or things to be seized. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the cause and nature of the accusation, to be confronted with his accusers, and the witnesses against him; to have a compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

The exceptions here or elsewhere in the Constitution, made in favor of particular rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other rights retained by the people, or as to enlarge the powers delegated by the Constitution; but either as actual limitations of such powers, or as inserted merely for greater caution. That in article 1st, section 10, between clauses 1 and 2, be inserted this clause, to wit: No State shall violate the equal rights of conscience, or the freedom of the press, or the trial by jury in criminal cases.

That, in article 3d, section 2, be annexed to the end of clause 2d, these words, to wit: But no appeal to such court shall be allowed where the value in controversy shall not amount to — dollars: nor shall any fact triable by jury, according to the course of common law, be otherwise re-examinable than may consist with the principles of common law. That in article 3d, section 2, the third clause be struck out, and in its place be inserted the clauses following, to wit: The trial of all crimes except in cases of impeachments, and cases arising in the land or naval forces, or the militia when on actual service, in time of war or public danger shall be by an impartial jury of freeholders of the vicinage, with the requisite of unanimity for conviction, of the right with the requisite of unanimity for conviction, of the right of challenge, and other accustomed requisites; and in all crimes punishable with loss of life or member, presentment or indictment by a grand jury shall be an essential preliminary, provided that in cases of crimes committed within any county which may be in possession of an enemy, or in which a general insurrection may prevail, the trial may by law be authorized in some other county of the same State, as near as may be to the seat of the offence.

In cases of crimes committed not within any county, the trial may by law be in such county as the laws shall have prescribed. In suits at common law, between man and man, the trial by jury, as one of the best securities to the rights of the people, ought to remain inviolate. That immediately after article 6th, be inserted, as article 7th, the clauses following, to wit: The powers delegated by this Constitution are appropriated to the departments to which they are respectively distributed: so that the Legislative Department shall never exercise the powers vested in the Executive or Judicial, nor the Executive exercise the powers vested in the Legislative or Judicial, nor the Judicial exercise the powers vested in the Legislative or Executive Departments.

The powers not delegated by this Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the States respectively. That article 7th, be numbered as article 8th. Federalist representatives were quick to attack Madison's proposal, fearing that any move to amend the new Constitution so soon after its implementation would create an appearance of instability in the government.

The eleven-member committee made some significant changes to Madison's nine proposed amendments, including eliminating most of his preamble and adding the phrase "freedom of speech, and of the press". Roger Sherman of Connecticut persuaded the House to place the amendments at the Constitution's end so that the document would "remain inviolate", rather than adding them throughout, as Madison had proposed. The Senate edited these amendments still further, making 26 changes of its own.

Madison's proposal to apply parts of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as the federal government was eliminated, and the seventeen amendments were condensed to twelve, which were approved on September 9, On September 21, , a House—Senate Conference Committee convened to resolve the numerous differences between the two Bill of Rights proposals. On September 24, , the committee issued this report, which finalized 12 Constitutional Amendments for House and Senate to consider.

This final version was approved by joint resolution of Congress on September 25, , to be forwarded to the states on September By the time the debates and legislative maneuvering that went into crafting the Bill of Rights amendments was done, many personal opinions had shifted. A number of Federalists came out in support, thus silencing the Anti-Federalists' most effective critique.

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Many Anti-Federalists, in contrast, were now opposed, realizing that Congressional approval of these amendments would greatly lessen the chances of a second constitutional convention. Madison remained active in the progress of the amendments throughout the legislative process. Historian Gordon S. Wood writes that "there is no question that it was Madison's personal prestige and his dogged persistence that saw the amendments through the Congress.

There might have been a federal Constitution without Madison but certainly no Bill of Rights. The twelve articles of amendment approved by congress were officially submitted to the Legislatures of the several States for consideration on September 28, The following states ratified some or all of the amendments: [68] [69] [70]. Having been approved by the requisite three-fourths of the several states, there being 14 States in the Union at the time as Vermont had been admitted into the Union on March 4, , [64] the ratification of Articles Three through Twelve was completed and they became Amendments 1 through 10 of the Constitution.

President Washington informed Congress of this on January 18, As they had not yet been approved by 11 of the 14 states, the ratification of Article One ratified by 10 and Article Two ratified by 6 remained incomplete. The ratification plateau they needed to reach soon rose to 12 of 15 states when Kentucky joined the Union June 1, On June 27, , the Kentucky General Assembly ratified all 12 amendments, however this action did not come to light until Article One came within one state of the number needed to become adopted into the Constitution on two occasions between and Despite coming close to ratification early on, it has never received the approval of enough states to become part of the Constitution.

Since no state has approved it since , ratification by an additional 27 states would now be necessary for the article to be adopted. Article Two, initially ratified by seven states through including Kentucky , was not ratified by another state for eighty years. The Ohio General Assembly ratified it on May 6, in protest of an unpopular Congressional pay raise. Wilson and subsequently affirmed by a vote of Congress on May 20, Three states did not complete action on the twelve articles of amendment when they were initially put before the states.

Georgia found a Bill of Rights unnecessary and so refused to ratify. Both chambers of the Massachusetts General Court ratified a number of the amendments the Senate adopted 10 of 12 and the House 9 of 12 , but failed to reconcile their two lists or to send official notice to the Secretary of State of the ones they did agree upon.

The Bill of Rights had little judicial impact for the first years of its existence; in the words of Gordon S. Wood , "After ratification, most Americans promptly forgot about the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Baltimore New York Mayes , the Court ruled that Constitutional protections, including the provisions of the Bill of Rights, do not apply to the actions of American Indian tribal governments.

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Barnette case that the founders intended the Bill of Rights to put some rights out of reach from majorities, ensuring that some liberties would endure beyond political majorities. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

The First Amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion , impeding the free exercise of religion , abridging the freedom of speech , infringing on the freedom of the press , interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances. Initially, the First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by Congress, and many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today.

In Everson v. Board of Education , the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. Sullivan The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, and applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota [96] and New York Times v. United States , [97] the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint —pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases.

The Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. The Second Amendment protects the individual right to keep and bear arms. The concept of such a right existed within English common law long before the enactment of the Bill of Rights.

Long a controversial issue in American political, legal, and social discourse, the Second Amendment has been at the heart of several Supreme Court decisions. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

The Third Amendment restricts the quartering of soldiers in private homes, in response to Quartering Acts passed by the British parliament during the Revolutionary War. The amendment is one of the least controversial of the Constitution, and, as of [update] , has never been the primary basis of a Supreme Court decision. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

The Fourth Amendment guards against unreasonable searches and seizures , along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause. It was adopted as a response to the abuse of the writ of assistance , which is a type of general search warrant , in the American Revolution. Search and seizure including arrest must be limited in scope according to specific information supplied to the issuing court, usually by a law enforcement officer who has sworn by it. The amendment is the basis for the exclusionary rule , which mandates that evidence obtained illegally cannot be introduced into a criminal trial.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury , except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

The Fifth Amendment protects against double jeopardy and self-incrimination and guarantees the rights to due process , grand jury screening of criminal indictments, and compensation for the seizure of private property under eminent domain. The amendment was the basis for the court's decision in Miranda v. Arizona , which established that defendants must be informed of their rights to an attorney and against self-incrimination prior to interrogation by police. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

In Gideon v. Wainwright , the Court ruled that the amendment guaranteed the right to legal representation in all felony prosecutions in both state and federal courts. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. The Seventh Amendment guarantees jury trials in federal civil cases that deal with claims of more than twenty dollars.

It also prohibits judges from overruling findings of fact by juries in federal civil trials. In Colgrove v. Battin , the Court ruled that the amendment's requirements could be fulfilled by a jury with a minimum of six members.