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All watched over by machines of silent grace? Altered states: the artistic quest in the stone flower and la sylphide Bruce Ross in: Destiny, the inward quest, temporality and life, Dordrecht : Springer. An emerging new model for consciousness: the consciousness field model in: Neuroscience, consciousness and spirituality, Dordrecht : Springer. An explication of the use of inference to the best explanation Adam Grobler in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. An investigation into the social network between three generations in a household: bridging the interrogational gaps between the Senior and the youth Tsai-Hsuan Tsai , Yi-Lun Ho , Kevin C.

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Analytic philosophy of education and Jewish education: the road not taken Barry Chazan in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. Andrighetto, Giulia, Universali linguistici e categorie grammaticali. Angewandte Linguistik in Deutschland — eine Disziplin? Appropriation of mobile phones in and across formal and informal learning John Cook , Norbert Pachler in: Digital difference, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Art: educating with art without ruining it Robbie Gringras in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer.

Rivista di estetica 48 Arte, psicologia e realismo Arts and Jewish day school education in north America Ofra A. Backenroth in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. As long as they don't know where i live: information disclosure strategies for managing identity in second lifetm Poppy Lauretta McLeod , Gilly Leshed in: Reinventing ourselves, Dordrecht : Springer.

Assessments in large- and small-scale wiki collaborative learning environments: recommendations for educators and wiki designers Portia Pusey , Gabriele Meiselwitz in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Astrobiology: from extremophiles in the solar system to extraterrestrial civilizations Joseph Seckbach , Julian Chela-Flores in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. Astronomy and the soul Nicholas Campion in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer.

Astronomy: brightest and most fascinating shining path for mankind future H Minoo , S M T Bathaee in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. At home in theory? Attentiveness: a phenomenological study of the relation of memory to mood Wayne Froman in: Philosophy's moods, Dordrecht : Springer.

Attunement and disorientation: the moods of philosophy in Heidegger and Sartre Stephen Mulhall in: Philosophy's moods, Dordrecht : Springer. Attunement and translation Frank Schalow in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Audience appreciation of nigerian films nollywood Oluyinka Esan in: Valuing films, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Authenticity, popular aesthetics and the subcultural politics of an unwanted blockbuster: the case of transformers Lincoln Geraghty in: Valuing films, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Barbarie de la politique et barbarie de la police Jean-Luc Gautero Noesis Beauvoir on the allure of self-objectification Nancy Bauer in: Feminist metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Bedeutende Psychologinnen des Being and cinema: beyond time in poetic cinema Judith Sacal Rivista di estetica Being and time Martin Heidegger Oxford, Blackwell. Berkeley and his contemporaries: the question of mathematical formalism Claire Schwartz in: George Berkeley, Dordrecht : Springer. Berkeley's metaphysical instrumentalism Marc A. Hight in: George Berkeley, Dordrecht : Springer.

Berlin Mitte and the anxious disavowal of Beijing modernism: architectural polemics within globalization Daniel Purdy in: After the Berlin wall, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Berlin's history in context: the foreign ministry and the spreebogen complex in the context of the architectural debates Carol Anne Costabile-Heming in: After the Berlin wall, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

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Haver in: Bedeutende Psychologinnen des Bioethics without analogy Robert Hunt Sprinkle in: Clinical ethics and the necessity of stories, Dordrecht : Springer. Bolzano's theoretical philosophy: an introduction Sandra Lapointe Dordrecht, Springer. Book symposium on A. Brain structure and meditation: how spiritual practice shapes the brain Ulrich Ott , Britta K. Breaking down the walls: interventionist performance strategies in French Street theatre Susan Haedicke in: Contemporary French theatre and performance, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Bridging the gap: does closure to efficient causation entail quantum-like attributes?

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Can persistence be a matter of convention? Can transcendental intersubjectivity be naturalised? Can we afford theories of learning? Carnap's theories of confirmation Pierre Wagner in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Causality and evidence discovery in epidemiology Michael Joffe in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Causality and explanation: issues from epidemiology Raffaella Campaner in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Causation, association and confirmation Gregory Wheeler , Richard Scheines in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer.

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Zaner ed Dordrecht, Springer. McDonald in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Coming of age under the night sky: The importance of astronomy in shaping worldviews Stephen Cook in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. Common law lawyers should mind their trial practices: understanding, identifying, and correcting a semiotic imbalance Edward J.

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Contrer la barbarie. Walter Benjamin et la notion de "barbarie positive" Christine Schmider Noesis Conversational lives: visualizing interpersonal online social interactions Heng Chen , Aisling Kelliher in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Corso di linguistica generale Ferdinand de Saussure Roma, Laterza. Cosmologies and lifestyles: a cultural ecological framework and its implications for education systems Phil Bayliss , Patrick Dillon in: Navigating in educational contexts, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

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Cultural impacts of astronomy Stanislaw Iwaniszewski in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. Curriculum development: what we can learn from international curricula Roberta Louis Goodman , Jan Katzew in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. Curriculum integration in Jewish day schools: the search for coherence Mitchel Malkus in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer.

Haudricourt — son voyage au Japon Tadahiko L. Shintani Le Portique Das Jahrhundert Peggy H. Dasein and da-sein in being and time and in contributions to philosophy from enowning Friedrich-Wilhelm Von Herrmann , Bernhard Radloff in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Day schools in the liberal sector: challenges and opportunities at the intersection of two traditions of Jewish schooling Alex Pomson in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer.

Day schools in the orthodox sector — a shifting landscape Shani Bechhofer in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. Deformalization and phenomenon in Husserl and Heidegger Burt C. Hopkins in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Deleuze and philosophy of religion Philip Goodchild in: Continental philosophy and philosophy of religion, Dordrecht : Springer.

Delivering the quality experience: Franco Zeffirelli Mary P. Wood in: Valuing films, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Der philosophische Ideenaustausch. Derrida, Husserl's disciple: How we should understand deconstruction of transcendental philosophy Daniel Lipka in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer. Des conflits de valeurs et de points de vue en discours Alain Rabatel Semen Design and evaluation of an online social support application for family caregivers Matthieu Tixier , Myriam Lewkowicz in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer.

Design science research for user-centeredness Juhani Iivari , Netta Iivari in: Reframing humans in information systems development, Dordrecht : Springer. Designing a pedagogical model for virtual reality and simulation-based learning environments of healthcare Tuulikki Keskitalo , Heli Ruokamo in: Navigating in educational contexts, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Designing to support long-term growth and development Richard Lehrer , Leona Schauble in: Theories of learning and studies of instructional practice, Dordrecht : Springer.

Breitenstein in: Philosophie, Stuttgart : Metzler. Sarkozy Alain Rabatel Semen Developing fluency versus conceptual change Bruce Sherin in: Theories of learning and studies of instructional practice, Dordrecht : Springer. Dewey, economic democracy, and the mondragon cooperatives Kenneth W. Dialogue, critical consciousness, and praxis Cathy Vaughan in: The social psychology of communication, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Difference and discontinuity — making meaning through hypertexts Colleen Mckenna , Claire Mcavinia in: Digital difference, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Different women: gender and the realism-nominalism debate Natalie Stoljar in: Feminist metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Differentiation of the logos Daniela Verducci in: Reason, spirit and the sacral in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. Digital technology, indexicality, and cinema David Davies Rivista di estetica Rivista di estetica 47 Disegno Un bozzetto Manlio Brusatin Rivista di estetica Diversity of situations Ole Skovsmose in: An invitation to critical mathematics education, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Do I hate theory? Do moments sum to years? Does process matter?

Does scientific progress necessarily lead to a unified science? Moulines in: Otto Neurath and the unity of science, Dordrecht : Springer. Doom, destiny, and grace: The prodigal son in marilynne robinson's home Rebecca Painter in: Destiny, the inward quest, temporality and life, Dordrecht : Springer. Duration discrimination performance: no cross-modal transfer from audition to vision even after massive perceptual learning Simon Grondin , Rolf Ulrich in: Multidisciplinary aspects of time and time perception, Dordrecht : Springer.

Dziga Vertov o del cinema come assenza: Ontologia del pensiero iconoclasta nel cinema Ivelise Perniola Rivista di estetica E-business solutions in the cable tv industry Viorica Harrison , June Wei in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. E-learning, constructivism, and the disappearance of difference Karim A. Remtulla in: Digital difference, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

Early formations of teacher identity: prospective teacher candidates notions of teacher roles Lisa A. Gross , Susan D. Gilbert in: Navigating in educational contexts, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Echoes from the past: the persisting shadow of classical determinism in contemporary health sciences Kenneth Rochel de Camargo in: Brazilian studies in philosophy and history of science, Dordrecht : Springer. Eco-phenomenology and the interiorization of man: Using Merleau-Ponty and Nietzsche to release the "psyche" from the human skull Lars Petter Storm Torjussen in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer.

Edgar Zilsel on historical laws Elisabeth Nemeth in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Educational research with our youngest: voices of infants and toddlers Eva Johansson , E. Jayne White ed Dordrecht, Springer. Effects of a synchronized scoring interface on musical quality Yuji Takai , Masao Ohira , Ken-ichi Matsumoto in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Effects of weight and syntactic priming on the production of cantonese verb-doubling Elaine J. Eine Deutsche Soziologie? Einleitung Helmut E. Una carta: Correspondencia entre Gottfried Boehm y W.

El gito pictorial. Una respuesta: Correspondencia entre Gottfried Boehm y W. Electrophysiological evidence for an accumulation process in the timing of emotional stimuli Nathalie Mella , Viviane Pouthas in: Multidisciplinary aspects of time and time perception, Dordrecht : Springer. Embodied voices and voicing embodied knowing: accessing and developing young children's aesthetic movement skills Cecilia Wallerstedt , Niklas Pramling , Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson in: Educational research with our youngest, Dordrecht : Springer. Encountering oneself and the other: a case study of identity formation in second life Maeva Veerapen in: Reinventing ourselves, Dordrecht : Springer.

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Enhanced audiovisual temporal sensitivity when viewing videos that appropriately depict the effect of gravity on object movement Argiro Vatakis in: Multidisciplinary aspects of time and time perception, Dordrecht : Springer. Enriched stratified systems for the foundations of category theory Solomon Feferman in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Environment: Jewish education as if the planet mattered Eilon Schwartz in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer.

Epilegomena zu I. Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft: I. Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft: II. Epiphaniebasierte Medizin? Epistemic trust: Outline for a phenomenology of shared intentionality Roberta de Monticelli Humana. Espace-temps thermodynamique? Essays on more than life itself Aloisius H. Ethical non-naturalism and normative properties William J. Ethics and self-knowledge: respect for self-interpreting agents Peter Lucas Dordrecht, Springer. Euclidean arithmetic: the finitary theory of finite sets J. Mayberry in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Even more than life itself: beyond complexity Donald C. Evolutionary application development: tools to make tools and boundary crossing Anders I. Experiential Jewish education: reaching the tipping point David Bryfman in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. Explanation and interpretation in the sciences of man Jan Faye in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer.

Expressivism, inferentialism and the theory of meaning Matthew Chrisman in: New waves in metaethics, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Faces face to face Jan Broekman in: The semiotics of law in legal education, Dordrecht : Springer. Facticity and transcendentalism: Husserl and the problem of the "Geisteswissenschaften" Peter Reynaert in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer.

Factors influencing online social interactions Ravi Shankar in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Fardels of the heart: obesity and the unbearable heaviness of being Paul Komesaroff in: Clinical ethics and the necessity of stories, Dordrecht : Springer. Fare cose con i fenomeni. Immagini e percezione: Magritte e la natura delle rappresentazioni pittoriche Luca Taddio Rivista di estetica Fatti da nulla: Considerazioni sul digitale e il reale Mario Pezzella Rivista di estetica Faulkner's The sound and the fury as anti-entropic novel Jerre Collins in: Destiny, the inward quest, temporality and life, Dordrecht : Springer.

Features to support persistent chat conversation Mohsen Rahimifar , Siti Salwah Salim in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer. Feminist metaphysics: explorations in the ontology of sex, gender and the self Charlotte Witt ed Dordrecht, Springer.

Fichte's programme for a philosophy of freedom Michael Kolkman in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer. Film and skepticism: Stanley Cavell on the ontology of film Temenuga Trifonova Rivista di estetica First, do no harm Vinton G. Firstness and phenomenology: Peirce and Husserl on attitude change Jan Broekman in: Prospects of legal semiotics, Dordrecht : Springer. Five steps forward — developing pedagogical expertise during teacher education Helena Koskinen in: Navigating in educational contexts, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

Foldout includes foreshortening in drawings by a blind man John M. Kennedy , Sherief Hammad Rivista di estetica Forgiveness in marriage: healing or chronicity. Aesthetics and Philosophical Experience 1. Foundational frameworks Geoffrey Hellman in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics Giovanni Sommaruga ed Dordrecht, Springer. Foundations: structures, sets, and categories Stewart Shapiro in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Foundations for computable topology Paul Taylor in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer. Frank Wagner et Francine Dugast-Portes dir. Freudian psychoanalysis as a model for overcoming the duality between natural and human sciences Richard Theisen Simanke in: Brazilian studies in philosophy and history of science, Dordrecht : Springer. From dialectic to dialogic Rupert Wegerif in: Theories of learning and studies of instructional practice, Dordrecht : Springer. From photography to philosophy: two moments of post-traditional art Arthur Danto Rivista di estetica From sets to types, to categories, to sets Steve Awodey in: Foundational theories of classical and constructive mathematics, Dordrecht : Springer.

From the Berlin wall to the West Bank barrier: how material objects and psychological theories can be used to construct individual and cultural traits Christine Leuenberger in: After the Berlin wall, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. From theory to practice: literary studies in the classroom Katherine Byrne in: Teaching theory, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Further steps in the science of temporal consciousness? Gaining insight into the application of second life in a computing course: students' perspectives James Braman , Alfreda Dudley , Kidd Colt , Giovanni Vincenti , Yuanqiong Wang in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer.

Gaudio, M. Gazo gazo kun: photo-sharing system using an anthropomorphic photo frame for communication support Takashi Yoshino , Tomoya Matsuo in: Online communities and social computing, Dordrecht : Springer.

About the author(s)

Epstein in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer. Geometrie da vedere Ugo Savardi Rivista di estetica George Berkeley: religion and science in the age of enlightenment Silvia Parigi ed Dordrecht, Springer. Geschichtsphilosophie Peggy H.

Geste, geste punitif et institution judiciaire Tony Ferri Appareil 8. Gibt es ein materiales Apriori? Glimmering light of transcendence Erkut Sezgin in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer. Glisser - petite topographie du geste en milieu fluide Charlotte Serrus Appareil 8. Guardare e vedere allo specchio Ivana Bianchi Rivista di estetica Handlung Karl H. Handshake: a case study for exploring business networking for the enterprise, inside and out Laurie E.

Hard problems in philosophy of mind and physics: do they point to spirituality as a solution? Harold E. Thomas , Luc Bouquiaux Le Portique Havruta: what do we know and what can we hope to learn from studying in havruta? Hegel: Die spekulative Anmerkung. Heidegger's contributions to philosophy: the challenge of its translation George Kovacs in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Heidegger's experience with language George Kovacs in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer.

Heidegger's thinking of difference and the god-question Thomas Kalary in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Ireland in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Heidegger, restorative justice and desistance: a phenomenological perspective David Polizzi in: Crime, governance and existential predicaments, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking: essays in honor of Parvis Emad Frank Schalow ed Dordrecht, Springer. Henri Becquerel and radioactivity: a critical revision Roberto de Andrade Martins in: Brazilian studies in philosophy and history of science, Dordrecht : Springer.

Hermann Diels: le savoir des Anciens et la science de l'antique Lucia Saudelli Revue germanique internationale Hermann Grassmann: his Contributions to historical linguistics and speech acoustics John J. Historical narratives, evidence, and explanations Paolo Garbolino in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Historicity and transcendental philosophy Konrad Rokstad in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer. Historiography of American Jewish education: a case for guarded optimism Jonathan Krasner in: International handbook of Jewish education, Dordrecht : Springer.

History: issues in the teaching and learning of Jewish history Benjamin M. History and semiotics: preliminary thoughts William A. Pencak in: The semiotics of law in legal education, Dordrecht : Springer. Holistic social causation and explanation Raimo Tuomela in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer. Homi K. How Berkeley's works are interpreted Stephen H. Daniel in: George Berkeley, Dordrecht : Springer. How can we get a knowledge of being? How the earth moved Leah P. Human evolution: compatibilist approaches Paulo C. Abrantes in: Brazilian studies in philosophy and history of science, Dordrecht : Springer.

Human transcending on the pathway of moral creative becoming Carmen Cozma in: Transcendentalism overturned, Dordrecht : Springer. Humanity en route to the glorious unity of our universe Ion Soteropoulos in: Astronomy and civilization in the new enlightenment, Dordrecht : Springer. Husserl and Heidegger on da-sein: with a suggestion for its interlingual translation Ivo De Gennaro in: Heidegger, translation, and the task of thinking, Dordrecht : Springer.

Husserl et le mythe des objets Robert Brisart Philosophie Husserl's Galileo needed a telescope! Icarus' second Chance: the basis and perspectives of space ethics Jacques Arnould Dordrecht, Springer. Idealism without limits: Hegel and the problem of objectivity Klaus Brinkmann Dordrecht, Springer. Identity thresholds: researching the socio-political impact of learning in immersive virtual worlds Maggi Savin-Baden in: Navigating in educational contexts, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

Ideology, generics, and common ground Sally Haslanger in: Feminist metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Il disegno e la rappresentazione: lezioni dall'architettura contemporanea Agostino De Rosa Rivista di estetica Il ruolo delle emozioni nell'esperienza estetica Stefano Mastandrea Rivista di estetica Image ethics in Shakespeare and Spenser James A. Knapp Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Imagination and explanation in history Peter Kemp in: Explanation, prediction, and confirmation, Dordrecht : Springer.

It is also well known that in the domain of information technology European languages have borrowed extensively from English. Lexical borrowing appears as a natural phenomenon of language development. Auckland: Penguin. Cross-Cultural Encounters: Communication and Mis-communication. Melbourne: River Seine Publications, — Auckland: Auckland University Press. PhD thesis, Victoria University, Wellington. Winter: Heidelberg. Migration of Forms. Forms for Migration. Bari: Progedit, 53— Bern: Peter Lang, — PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch. Rosedale, Northshore: Pearson. Borrowing: A Pacific Perspective.

Stanford, Dennis R. Preston eds. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 59— Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wellington: Huia. Auckland: Pearson. Wellington: Learning Media. Ryan, Peter M. Third edition. Auckland: Heinemann. Thomason, Sarah G. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wellington: Owen Government Printer.

The language as well as the structure of such texts differ, however, from the standards and rules of every-day communication, which, in consequence, may lead to many problems. Reading the instructions to the form may not always constitute great help or assistance. It is very common that people, who are obliged to fill in the particular form, come across different terms or sophisticated grammatical structures they do not know or at least do not fully comprehend. Let us add to all these problem a notion of a foreign language, and as a consequence, a foreign culture for which the form is prepared, we may be facing an insurmountable barrier — both linguistic and cultural.

This is a matter which, nowadays, modern philologists have to face. Particular intercultural problems or difficulties which may additionally constrain the communication should also be overcome. The first part of the article expounds upon some of the problems that people, who have to fill in the Dutch forms, may encounter. The second part of the article discusses how the official forms may be introduced to the educational curriculum as a didactic means that helps in the process of both language teaching and learning.

Keywords: form, intercultural communication, Dutch studies, glottodidactics. The title of the article contains a standard office annotation, found on a variety of forms in Dutch. Het lezen van die instructies helpt echter niet altijd. Vaak wordt de invullende persoon geconfronteerd met begrippen die hij of zij niet kent, of met structuren die niet altijd duidelijk zijn. Wanneer bepaalde kennis die noodzakelijk is om een dergelijk formulier in te kunnen vullen ontbreekt, komt hij of zij er niet uit. Vaak zijn die teksten geschreven vanuit een andere culturele achtergrond, waardoor interculturele problemen kunnen ontstaan.

De transnationale neerlandistiek moet die moeilijkheden aanpakken en er een oplossing voor vinden. In het eerste deel van dit artikel worden een aantal problemen gepresenteerd, die voorkomen bij het invullen van Nederlandstalige formulieren. Het tweede deel biedt een voorstel om formulieren te gebruiken als didactische middel in de transnationale neerlandistiek.

Formulier als intercultureel probleem in de transnationale neerlandistiek Formulieren2 worden tegenwoordig in bijna alle instellingen in de wereld gebruikt. Hun aantal, omvang en diversiteit neemt voortdurend toe. Ze zijn een belangrijk arbeids- en organisatiemiddel, omdat ze de mogelijkheid bieden om verschillende gegevens te verzamelen en naar onderwerp te ordenen, en tegelijkertijd om gegevens met elkaar te kunnen koppelen en op te kunnen slaan. De realiteit ziet er echter heel anders uit. Uit publieksonderzoek van Trendbox BV uit blijkt dat overheidsteksten, die door de meeste mensen weliswaar redelijk goed begrepen worden, een slecht imago hebben.

Op taalniveau leveren formulieren in de interculturele communicatie veel problemen op. De taalwetenschappelijke literatuur kent veel verschillende definities van het begrip formulier. Informatie Beheer Groep, Studiefinanciering. Wijzigingen student beroepsonderwijs en hoger onderwijs Wenst u Mountain Bikes max. Wenst u kinderstoelen? Wenst u kampeerstoelen? RA tbv bew. Februar zu bewerben. Gemeente Purmerend, Meldingsformulier.

Besluit Horeca-, Sport- en Recreatie-inrichtingen Milieubeheer Aanvraag Voorzieningen Functiebeperking Grosse 11 benadrukt, dat tekortkomingen in formulieren heel duidelijk zijn en dat niet alleen de getroffen burgers daarop wijzen en daarover klagen, maar ook ambtenaren, juristen, psychologen, sociologen en publicisten.

Goed taalgebruik in formulieren is echter niet voldoende voor geslaagde communicatie tussen de burgers en de overheid. Daartoe behoren ook kennis van symbolen visueel waarneembare dingen, die kenmerkend zijn voor een bepaalde cultuur , helden mensen, die iets van de cultuur representeren , rituelen handelingen die binnen een cultuur als essentieel worden beschouwd en waarden vroeg aangeleerde gedragsregels aan de hand waarvan mensen handelen en andere mensen beoordelen. Niettemin is het contact met een vreemde cultuur altijd nog een uitdaging.

Contact met het vreemde wekt sterke emoties — afwijzing, vrees, verontwaardiging en — in extreme gevallen — zelfs afkeer. Om die reden zijn culturele fouten vaak voorkomende fouten, die tot communicatieproblemen kunnen leiden, ook bij het invullen van formulieren. Hierbij gaat het om situaties, waarin bijvoorbeeld begrippen in een vreemde taal over9 Vgl. Appel 27v. Hofstede Ze zullen zich moeten richten op de vooronderstelling van het begrijpen en de voorwaarden van mislukken en de mogelijkheden tot succesvol begrip.

Inhoudelijke fouten zijn fouten die veroorzaakt worden door gebrek aan kennis van de wereld. Ze komen vaak voor bij het invullen van formulieren, vooral als er begrippen worden gebruikt die landspecifieke fenomenen beschrijven, bv. Opgaaf BTW-compensatiefonds De vragende partij zoals een instelling of een dienst is een anonieme instantie, de invullende partij daarentegen kan niet anoniem blijven, omdat alle gegevens die hij of zij moet verstrekken heel sterk met hem of haar verbonden zijn.

De sociale status van de ambtenaar, zijn machtspositie, zijn ervaring, en zijn kennis van de taal en van de cultuur als moedertaalspreker, die in die bepaalde cultuur is opgegroeid , kunnen leiden tot het versterken van zijn positie. Om problemen bij het invullen van formulieren te voorkomen, stellen sommige instellingen eigen adviseurs aan, die daarbij behulpzaam kunnen zijn, maar de meeste overheidsdiensten doen steeds nog niet veel om dit proces eenvoudiger te maken. Formulier als intercultureel hulpmiddel in de transnationale neerlandistiek In het contact met andere culturen zijn, in tegenstelling tot verschillende taalfouten, de communicatieve fouten niet zo makkelijk op te lossen.

Het behoeft dus geen betoog dat ook in het kader van de transnationale neerlandistiek veel aandacht besteed moet worden aan het interculturele aspect van de institutionele communicatie — en dus aan het invullen van Nederlandstalige formulieren, waarmee iedereen vroeg of laat geconfronteerd zal worden. Studenten moeten vertrouwd raken niet uitsluitend met de Nederlandse taal, maar ook wat niet minder belangrijk is met de Nederlandse en Vlaamse praktijken symbolen, helden, rituelen en waarden.

Authentieke teksten bieden voldoende mogelijkheden voor interculturele reflectie en vormen een basis om informatie over de cultuur van Nederland en Vlaanderen te vergelijken met de thuiscultuur. Op die basis kunnen verschillende onderwerpen besproken worden en de onderwerpen, die een verschil vormen tussen bepaalde culturen, nog verder uitgediept. Meldingskaart14 als uitgangspunt voor een discussie over de eerste stappen in Nederland of Vlaanderen, over verschillen en overeenkomsten tussen woonmogelijkheden in een Nederlandstalig land en in het eigen land, etc.

De authenticiteit van formulieren speelt een belangrijke rol, aangezien de studenten daardoor worden voorbereid op concrete situaties, waarmee ze geconfronteerd kunnen worden in een Nederlandstalig land. Het vermogen om te kunnen gaan met zulke teksten, die door de moedertaalsprekers in het alledaagse leven gebruikt worden, moet zijn plaats in de transnationale neerlandistiek vinden.

Aangezien woordenschat een belangrijk onderdeel vormt van het vreemdetalenonderwijs en gezien het feit dat neerlandici extra muros moeten leren het vreemde te begrijpen, zou er op de cultuurspecifieke betekenissen ingegaan moeten worden. Van belang in die context is de problematiek van verschillende registers, stijlen en gespreksconventies, zoals die van toepassing zijn in verschillende culturen. Conclusie De in dit artikel genoemde problemen bij het invullen van formulieren en de mogelijkheden om formulieren in het interculturele taalonderwijs te gebruiken zijn slechts een druppel in de taalkundige discussie over het concept transnationaliteit binnen de diverse subdisciplines van de neerlandistiek.

Maar transnationalisering betekent een verandering van perspectief. Het gaat er om de taal te conceptualiseren vanuit het perspectief van de vreemdheid …. Transnationale taal-, literatuur- en cultuurwetenschappen … ontstaan in en door een constructieve onderlinge uitwisseling. Grosse, W. Mentrup eds.

Internationale Neerlandistiek. Hofstede, Geert Allemaal Andersdenkenden. Omgaan met cultuurverschillen. Amsterdam, Antwerpen: Contact. Selmistraitis eds. Kalba ir kontekstai. Mokslo darbai. II tomas. Vilnius: Vilniaus Pedagoginio Universiteto Leidykla; — Nederlandse Taalunie Taalpeil Abstract The author of the following article propounds that when planning the general translation teaching program for students of translation studies, the methodologists should not narrow it only to the formal curriculum used during regular classes.

The author does not refer here to the possibility of broadening the formal program to include practices, internships or meetings with various experts in the field, however, but rather to the redefinition of the notion of curriculum, so that it always includes both formal and informal aspects of the translation studies. The co-existence of the two modules indicates their interdependence in the process of teaching.

The primary goal of the informal module is to complement the formal teaching curriculum with various supplementary subject matters, teaching and learning methods as well as interactions that are difficult to implement within the basic frames of the educational program. What is more, the informal initiatives are supposed to give students of translation a chance to take part in various self development programs and events even after they graduate from university, which, as a consequence, provides the students with the opportunity to acquaint themselves with the notion of lifelong learning and, simultaneously, makes them realise how necessary and vital the process is.

Key words: dictionary, translation, translator, curriculum, lifelong learning. Until the year , the debate on translator education was predominated by the attempts to define the concepts of translation competence and to develop models of its acquisition and evaluation cf. Schaeffner and Adab Donald Kiraly, in , introduced yet another perspective on translator education: the student-teacher interaction.

Nevertheless, the author pinpoints four main observations made by Kiraly , since they constitute the basis for the arguments and proposals made in the main part of this paper. In consequence, the teacher is completely in control of the translation process and product. The main, strategic didactic problem that Kiraly points out in his criticism of the transmissionist approach is that teachers believe too much in the false metaphor of teaching,1 rather than concentrating on helping students to learn.

There are two remedies that Kiraly proposes. Firstly, to overcome the drawbacks of the transmissionist approach, teachers should realize the potential of the social constructivist perspective on education. It has it that knowledge or skills are not transferred or taught. They can only be learned or developed by each person individually. Nevertheless, the growth of an individual is fostered when people learn in groups and teams. This is why Kiraly favours an educational model where learners collaborate in a shared environment in the classroom. In this way, Kiraly makes the point that the studentteacher relationship is pivotal for the success of any translation curriculum.

Most researchers accept the holistic understanding of the transformation: the change concerns the emotional and the axiological facets of human functioning, along with the cognitive domain. Miller and Seller , referred to by Kiraly , claim that the transformation also takes place in the classroom when a constructivist teacher creates an exploratory environment for their students.

In this case, the student-teacher interaction enables the transformation of all the protagonists of the educational process: the students and the teacher. Donald Kiraly makes a strong appeal to teachers and curriculum designers to introduce empowerment into the formal academic curriculum. Nonetheless, the author ventures a claim that comprehensive translator education must not rest on empowering the formal curriculum exclusively.

This paper discusses reasons for expanding the formal 1. See e. Apart from explaining why, the author demonstrates how to expand the formal framework; in other words how to implement empowerment beyond the formal classroom. In an attempt to provide the reason for expanding the formal framework of translator education, the author refers to three concepts that recur in the debate in the field of adult education: autonomous learning, heutagogy and non-formal learning.

Grow ff. The stages that a learner can go through are presented below: Table 1. Four stages of learning by Grow Stage Dependence Interest Engagement Autonomy. Secondly, both authors stress the transition that the learner and the teacher can experience in the classroom and beyond. At the same time, the assumption that there can be a reasonable degree of overlap between the two is viable.

This difference is obvious in view of the fact that autonomy concerns learning rather than teaching. In fact, autonomy as a learning style is a necessary prerequisite for the engaged or transformative stage in learning or teaching. In other words, at some stage learners abandon the formal framework and develop their own self-directed learning skills. In this paper, the author discusses the concept of heutagogy, as proposed and advocated by Hase and Kenyon , since it illustrates well a radical approach to deschooling education.

Heutagogy The concept of heutagogy is easier to explain when presented in juxtaposition to the notion of andragogy. The latter was proposed by one of the most prominent American researchers in the field of education, Malcolm Knowles. On the one hand, Hase and Kenyon accept the fact that human learning changes with age. It may be argued that the rapid rate of change in society, and the so-called information explosion, suggest that we should now be looking at an educational approach where it is the learner himself who determines what and how learning should take place.

What Hase and Kenyon propose instead is a radical vision of the learner whose autonomy reaches far beyond organizing their own deliberate practice with the use of material assigned by the tutor. The authors formulate explicitly the claim that at some stage the learner must transcend the formal curriculum if they intend to successfully meet their individual and social educational needs.

Although Knowles presented the concept of andragogy already in the s, the author refers the reader to one of the later works by Knowles and his collaborators, that is Knowles, Holton and Swanson The notion of andragogy is most extensively discussed in chapter 4 of the book p. The concept of self-directed learning is another important notion discussed in the literature of the field. For reasons of clarity, the author abstains from further defining the notion.

Zusammenfassung

More details to be found in e. Non-formal Elements in Academic Translator Education the whole spectrum of the education and learning lifespan. This revolution recognises the changed world in which we live. A world in which: information is readily and easily accessible; where change is so rapid that traditional methods of training and education are totally inadequate; discipline based knowledge is inappropriate to prepare for living in modern communities and workplaces; learning is increasingly aligned with what we do; modern organisational structures require flexible learning practices; and there is a need for immediacy of learning.

In response to this environment there have emerged some innovative approaches that address the deficiencies of the pedagogical and andragogical methods. In other words, if education is to help the learner meet the demands of the contemporary world, it must seek paths towards heutagogy. It may well be that a person does not identify a learning need at all but identifies the potential to learn from a novel experience as a matter of course and recognises that opportunity to reflect on what has happened and see how it challenges, disconfirms or supports existing values and assumptions.

Hence, learning cannot be limited to the formal educational context, as a lot of learning happens out of that context, even if it is inspired by what goes on in the formal curriculum. Informal and non-formal education The concepts of formal, informal and non-formal education require some preliminary comments. Coombs, Prosser and Ahmed defined the three concepts as distinct but related. The relation may be presented graphically in the following way:. Figure 1. Formal, informal and non-formal learning on the basis of Coombs, Prosser and Ahmed As may be inferred from Figure 3, formal and non-formal learning share the characteristics of being organized and planned, although with a different extent of institutionalization.

Informal learning, in contrast, is devoid of direct institutional influences, although they can also be used to facilitate informal learning, listed among a cornucopia of experiences that make people construct knowledge, skills and attitudes. While the adjectives formal and non-formal are used to name forms of education, informal learning is perhaps best understood as a learning style. This latter concept concentrates on the learning individual, rather than describing the educational process.

This is why, for the purposes of this paper, the author reduces the tripartite division presented above to the dichotomy between the formal and the nonformal educational frameworks, assuming that the informal aspect will always be present within the two approaches to education.

An analysis of research in the field5 made the author adopt the following criteria to distinguish between the formal and non-formal education: Table 2. The criteria in the table above represent the extremes on the scale of contrasts between the formal and the non-formal educational frameworks. One of the most prominent researchers to adopt this contrastive view on formal and non-formal learning and education is Eraut In his opinion, learning takes place almost exclusively in a non-formal context. In this way, Eraut falls within the group of researchers of education who find non-formal education superior to the formal one, especially as regards adults and their professional development.

Leadbeater However, the formal v. While formal education always relies on organized content, it is also capable of recognizing the importance of those aspects of knowledge that are difficult to include within the curriculum. Internships and student practice are a way of admitting that the formal curriculum needs support from extra-curricular educational initiatives. Alternatively, not all sorts of non-formal education need to depend on unplanned, incidental learning exclusively.

Garrison observes that self-directed learning, which the non-formal framework promotes, depends on conscious effort on the part of the learners in providing themselves with an adequate educational environment. Finally, there comes the problem of results and evaluation. Formal education is close-ended in that it expects measurable effects from the educational process. Non-formal education is said to be open-ended in that it does not rely on planned results.

Again, these extreme positions can be seen as an abstraction, while educational practice calls a compromise between the two. The author finds questionable a claim that the formal curriculum can develop tools for precise 5. The author relied mostly on Livingstone , Livingstone et al. Unlike e. Take the above-mentioned idea of transformative learning for example: is it feasible to assume that the effects of such a transformation can be measured?

Also, the non-formal framework can also make a good use of collaborative learning. The above arguments are meant to demonstrate that, apart from the radical, contrastive stance that sees non-formal education as superior to the formal one, an integrated view is possible under which the formal and the non-formal approaches merge.

This view is represented in the literature of the subject e. On the other hand, Billett asserts that learning always takes places in some form of formal social context: school, work, home or church. Thus, the formal and non-formal coincide and they must be seen as the two faces of one coin. Concluding this section, the author states that a number of researchers express their awareness that the formal curriculum on its own does not do the justice to the educational needs of the present-day adult learner. Some of the researchers argue that the sooner the curriculum becomes less formal, non-formal or self-directed informal , the better for the learners, educators and the society at large Eraut ; Hayse and Kenyon Others opt for merging the formal and the non-formal aspects of learning and education Billett Both these approaches serve as the basis for the proposals made by the author in what follows.

Non-formal elements in support of the formal curriculum With all the observations made so far in this paper, the author wishes to proceed to his own theoretical and practical proposals concerning the introduction of non-formal elements into the formal framework of translator education. These initiatives are not only to accompany the curriculum, but also to be an element of it.

The proposal put here is that they should be integrated with the formal curriculum more closely and more purposefully. Table 3 below sums up the major areas in which the formal curriculum can gain support from the non-formal programme. As with Table 2, contrasts that are shown in Table 3 represent extreme opposites. And also in this case the author reads these contrasts in a less radical way. Hence, the author does not claim that no flexibility in the formal curriculum is possible at all, but that it is reduced in contrast to the non-formal context. One reason for the reduced flexibility of formal education is that it serves the goal of certification: to be able to award certificates of education, universities must rely on a stable and transparent curriculum.

Unfortunately, this often leads to the inadequacies remarked above in the quote from Hase and Kenyon 2. Non-formal initiatives, on the other hand, can cater for redefinitions of the scope of interest in accordance with the needs of the students or the market. It is also easier to extend the educational arena in the non-formal context by inviting experts or practicing translators. And so, it has its projection onto the real engagement of students and teachers in teamwork over a translation project like the one described below. A key problem worth highlighting here is assessment.

When used in this way, the assessment system is degraded to the function of a reward or punishment, understood in the terms of the classical conditioning theory. This reduction also suggests that students and teachers get trapped in the game of give-and-take concerning grades, which renders the development of skills or competences completely irrelevant.

Grades without feedback put the educational process to an end, like settling the account ends a transaction. The non-formal context allows students and teachers to free themselves from the game. It opens a chance of creating a working and learning environment where learners want to do their best in realizing translation tasks.

This view of assessment should help students realize that attitudes expected of them when they become professionals differ from those of students. The project was realized in the years , with over a hundred students involved in three yearly cycles. The team members and some team managers were recruited from the second year students of the BA course in translation. There were also teams managed by MA course students.

In the edition, a number of students who were not obliged to participate in the practice joined in by forming two teams of eight members. MA students who were team managers were all volunteers. Each team, consisting of about seven members plus two managers, worked for a week on a commission from the Lublin City Office. Texts were in translation until late Monday, then they were peer-proofread. On Wednesday or Thursday, the texts were sent to the reviewer in the City Office, and on Friday they were submitted to the City Office representative for publication.

In most cases the City Office representatives were able to prepare texts in advance, so as to allow a week for the translation process and to avoid delay in the publication of the English language version of the service. When a given week was over, a feedback meeting was held for students, at which the City Office reviewer discussed the project with the students. To achieve this goal, the author needed to reframe the formal grading system into the system of feedback information on performance quality.

For this purpose, the author decided to employ a double system of assessment. By peer-proofreading the author means a system in which translator no. We the author and the reviewer were able to trace the development at the particular stage of project realization because we used two separate channels for file exchange. The latter was sent to the reviewer directly. Similarly, the proofreaders were to sent their two files, and so were the managers. The first type of assessment was product-oriented: the text was accepted for publication by the City Office, or rejected.

The other type of assessment concerned the particular team members and their individual performance. A special evaluation sheet was devised for that purpose, employing a number of criteria, such as original text analysis, language correctness, textual coherence and the communicative effectiveness of the target text.

It also included points on terminology management and proof-reading done by the translators themselves. Although this latter assessment system used points, it was mostly employed to monitor progress in performance. So it happened that the same statistic score of e. Students were informed of their points and were given feedback on their progress. They were asked to comment on the data, the potential reasons behind the status quo, and also asked what they planned to do next as regards skill development.

Extending the curriculum The conclusion that the author wishes to draw here is that it is perhaps no longer enough to provide students of translation with a considerable amount of student practice as a form of completion of the formal curriculum. The point here is that our conception of the curriculum should evolve towards one in which the two areas are inseparably intertwined: the formal and the non-formal. The relationship between the two is illustrated below. From this viewpoint, the purpose of the non-formal component is not only to provide students with professional practice, but also to inform the curriculum of the changes it can undergo in order to empower translator education.

This supportive function of the non-formal component concerns both content and methodology. One of the main methodological problems it can help to solve is how to adapt academic assessment to the requirements of professional quality management. The final point to make here brings us back to Donald. Boyd, Robert, D. Coombs, Philip, H. Prosser, Roy, C. The Necessity of Informal Learning. Bristol: Policy Press; 12— Teaching Translation and Interpreting 3.

New Horizons. Translation in Context. Jonasson, Kerstin Non-Professional Translators. Manchester: St. Knowles, Malcolm; Holton, Elwood, F. III and Swanson, Richard. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Professional Translators. A Case Study. Leadbeater, Charles Living on Thin Air. The New Economy. London: Penguin. Livingstone, David, W. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Miller, John, P. Curriculum Perspectives and Practice. New York: Longman; 37— Translationwissenschaft im Umbruch.

New York: Palgrave. Schaeffner, Christina and Beverly Adab, Beverly eds. Shreve, Gregory, M. Foreword to Kiraly, Donald. Pathways to Translation. Pedagogy and Process. The article, farther more, describes two common variations of this kind of music, i. Enciclopedia Luso-Brasileira de Cultura, Ainda em se falasse dos indiscutivelmente bons bailarins do fado. O fado, enfim, socializa-se. E assim depois de se ter instalado. Nem tinha de estar. Numa palavra: fora assumido por um determinado grupo humano. Lisboa: Grafia Boa Nova. Lisboa: Editorial Aster. Lisboa: Livraria Central de Gomes de Carvalho.

Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. Lisboa: Rei dos Livros. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora. Clara, Ana, Sem autor, n. Abstract General Typology and Historical Typology. Selected Aspects of Methodology The author of this paper seeks to explore certain mechanisms and rules that collate and shape the types of systemic organization of various languages spoken all over the world, which appear irrespective of the degree of genetic relationship between those languages.

Both universal features as well as historical — typological features are closely related to one another, hence general typologies may justify particular theories using various types of research methods that examine and evaluate the origins of the language in question. Keywords: systemic organization, typology, language family, historical studies, comparative method, synchrony, diachrony.

Z jednej strony wska-. Das Buch wurde gesucht, itp. Sternemann , I tak, n. Ebert , 46, Simmler , , Pilecka , Behaghel op. Admoni, Wladimir Der deutsche Sprachbau. Behaghel, Otto Deutsche Syntax. Heidelberg: Winter. Curme, Georg O. Boston: D. Stuttgart: Metzler. Paris: Chez L. Neu hg. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Leitzmann, Albert von, et al. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Akten des Linguisten-Seminars Kyoto. Kotin et al. Synchronie — Diachronie — Sprachkontrast — Glottodidaktik. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang; — Bern: Peter Lang; 87— Studien zur deutschen Sprachgeschichte. Geburtstag, Stuttgart: Heinz; — Abstract The paper aims at presenting the contemporary usage of the verb shall in Modern English. The traditional principles governing the usage of shall constitute a complex paradigm in which the implications of different forms change according to the person of the subject.

The statistics show that the verb shall experienced a dramatic fall in frequency of use between the early s and s. The author is aiming at presenting the evolution of the verb shall throughout the centuries, its reorganization and the way it has altered. Furthermore, the author explores the difference in application between will and shall. The semantic shift of shall appears to be a natural consequence of the competition it lost to will. Moreover, in shall seems to be retracting to the narrow niche of seldom usage.

The article also indicates to the use of shall in present-day English both in American and British varieties. In American English, which is commonly assumed to be more advanced and open to change than British English, shall seems to survive in the contexts where it expresses deontic meaning. D'Auria Editore. Aristoteleio Panepistemio Thessalonikes. Praktika g' panelleniou symposiou Latinikon spoudon: Thema: retorike techne kai retorike grammateia.

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3 Tipps zu Exzellenter Nonverbaler Kommunikation

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Hildesheim New York: Georg Olms. Baier, M. Die metaphorische Textkonstitution. Bailey, D. Essays on rhetoric. Bailey, F. The tactical uses of passion: An essay on power, reason, and reality. The need for enemies: A bestiary of political forms. Bailey, R. English stylistics: A bibliography. Baillaud, B. Auteurs, lecteurs, savoirs anonymes. Bain, A. English composition and rhetoric, Delmar, N. Bainbrigge, S. Baird, A. Rhetoric: A philosophical inquiry.

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