The compound was also reported to reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells by directly damaging microtubules and inducing mitotic arrest Ishiguro et al. Its activation is also linked to mitogen-activated protein MAP kinase signaling pathways Schulze-Osthoff et al. In an earlier study, -gingerol was reported to inhibit both the vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF -and basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF -induced proliferation of human endothelial cells and cause cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase Kim, Min et al.
Investigators suggested that the effectiveness of ginger might be related to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis Srivastava and Mustafa Some researchers showed that gingerol actively inhibits arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis Kiuchi et al. The leukotriene A4 hydrolase LTA4H protein is regarded as a relevant target for cancer therapy, and our in silico prediction using a reverse-docking approach revealed that LTA4H might be a potential target for -gingerol Jeong et al.
We further found that -gingerol effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in nude mice, an effect that was mediated by the inhibition of LTA4H activity. Collectively, these findings indicate a crucial role of LTA4H in cancer and also support the anticancer efficacy of -gingerol targeting of LTA4H for the prevention of colorectal cancer Jeong et al. Importantly, these are the first results that identify a direct target of -gingerol to explain its anticancer activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 is an important enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and is regarded as a promising molecular target for many anti-inflammatory as well as chemopreventive agents.
In contrast to most reports, dietary consumption of ginger 0. Dietary ginger did not significantly change the proliferative or apoptotic indexes of the colonic crypt cells induced by DMH Dias, In addition to its effects in relation to cancer, some evidence supports a protective role for ginger in cardiovascular function and a number of other disease conditions. Ginger has gained interest for its potential to treat various aspects of cardiovascular disease, and the in vitro and animal data supporting the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic effects of this condiment have been reviewed Nicoll and Henein However, human trials are less convincing and more investigations are needed Nicoll and Henein Caution when taking ginger and other herbal extracts has been suggested because of an apparent association of ginger with reported incidences of increased risk of bleeding following surgery Chang and Whitaker ; Pribitkin and Boger or if taken with anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin Heck, DeWitt, and Lukes However, the data are not conclusive Vaes and Chyka At least one study indicates that ginger has no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or coagulation parameters and does not interact with anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin Weidner and Sigwart These findings were supported in a later study in which ginger was reported to have no effect on clotting status or the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects Jiang, Williams et al.
An aqueous ginger extract was reported to induce a dose-dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure in a variety of animal models Ghayur and Gilani a , b. At least one group found that administration or consumption of standardized ginger extract decreased aortic atherosclerotic lesion areas, plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein LDL -associated lipid peroxides, and LDL aggregation in mice Fuhrman et al.
In rabbits that were fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of ginger extract resulted in a significant antihyperlipidemic effect and a lower degree of atherosclerosis compared to the group that was fed cholesterol alone Bhandari, Sharma, and Zafar Triglyceride and cholesterol were substantially decreased as was LDL levels compared to placebo group. Notably, the high-density lipoprotein HDL level of the ginger group was higher than that of the placebo group, whereas the very-low-density lipoprotein VLDL level of the placebo group was higher than that of the ginger group Alizadeh-Navaei et al.
Dried ginger powder 0. This effect was associated with decreased lipid peroxidation and increased fibrinolytic activity with ginger, but blood lipid levels were not different from control animals Verma et al. Ginger was also reported to slightly reduce retinoid-binding protein mRNA expression levels in liver and visceral fat in male rats that were fed cholesterol to induce hyperlipidemia Matsuda et al.
These results hint that ginger consumption might improve lipid metabolism Matsuda et al. Antiplatelet therapy is an effective approach for preventing coronary heart disease. Ginger components are suggested as a potential new class of platelet-activation inhibitors without the potential side effects of aspirin, which is most commonly used in this approach. In a comparison of gingerols and analogs with aspirin, ginger compounds were found to be less potent compared to aspirin in inhibiting arachidonic acid-induced platelet release and aggregation and COX activity Koo et al.
However, several analogs had a significant inhibitory effect, suggesting that further development of more potent gingerol analogs might have value as an alternative to aspirin therapy in preventing ischemic heart disease Koo et al. Consumption of ginger 5 g inhibited platelet aggregation induced in men who consumed g of butter daily for 7 days Verma et al. An evaluation of the antiplatelet activity of 20 pungent constituents of ginger revealed that -paradol was the most potent COX-1 inhibitor and antiplatelet aggregation agent Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra et al.
Ginger and nifedipine a calcium-channel blocker were reported to have a synergistic effect on antiplatelet aggregation in normal human volunteers and hypertensive patients Young et al. Ginger compounds have been reported to directly stimulate myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum SR calcium uptake Antipenko, Spielman, and Kirchberger ; Maier et al.
Ginger is also used to treat asthma, diabetes, and other conditions. Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and hypersensitivity of airway smooth muscle cells to different substances that induce spasms, and ginger has been used for centuries in treating respiratory illnesses. Components of ginger rhizomes are reported to contain potent compounds capable of suppressing allergic reactions and might be useful for the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases Chen et al. Ghayur, Gilani, and Janssen reported that a ginger extract inhibits airway contraction and associated calcium signaling, possibly by blocking plasma membrane calcium channels.
In a mouse model of Th2-mediated pulmonary inflammation, an intraperitoneal injection of a ginger extract mainly comprised of gingerols markedly decreased the recruitment of eosinophils to the lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized mice and also suppressed the Th2 cell-driven response to allergen Ahui et al. Ginger has been suggested to have antidiabetic effects.
In the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, rats that were fed ginger exhibited better glucose tolerance and higher serum insulin levels than untreated rats, suggesting that it can help control blood sugar levels Islam and Choi Treatment with a ginger extract produced a significant reduction in fructose-induced elevation in lipid levels, body weight, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance Kadnur and Goyal These results give some suggestion that ginger might be valuable in managing the effects of diabetes in humans.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin, and in rats, ginger extract alleviated the symptoms of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis El-Abhar, Hammad, and Gawad Ginger is recognized by the U. The extract had been adulterated with a neurotoxic organophosphate compound, triorthocresyl phosphate TOCP; Crandall ; Morgan and Penovich The extract was banned in A later study suggests that -shogaol is much less mutagenic than -gingerol and that the active part of -gingerol is the aliphatic chain moiety containing a hydroxyl group Nakamura and Yamamoto To our knowledge, these studies have not been confirmed nor repeated, and no recent evidence suggests that ginger or its components are mutagenic.
This result is somewhat in contrast to an earlier study, in which administration of ginger tea to pregnant rats resulted in twice the loss of embryos but heavier surviving fetuses compared to untreated controls Wilkinson a. Ginger rhizome extract 0. No overt organ abnormalities were observed and hematological and blood biochemical parameters in treated and untreated control animals were similar.
Observational studies in humans suggest no evidence of teratogenicity from treatments for early pregnancy nausea that included ginger Jewell and Young Overall, these data indicate that ginger consumption appears to be very safe with very limited side effects. Ginger is not only an extremely popular dietary condiment used for flavoring food but also an herb that has been used for thousands of years as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of ailments.
Chemical and metabolic analyses have revealed that ginger comprises hundreds of compounds and metabolites. The most extensively studied bioactive components include gingerols and shogaols, especially -gingerol and -shogaol, respectively. The content of each component is clearly dependent on the source and preparation of the ginger rhizome.
Research interest in determining the role of natural compounds in preventing disease has increased markedly over the last few years. In spite of the abundance of research studies, many of the results are phenomenon based and provide data that are descriptive and observational rather than mechanistic. More studies are needed in animals and humans on the kinetics of ginger and its constituents and on the effects of consumption over a long period of time. Specific molecular targets and mechanisms of action need to be identified. Ginger clearly has a vast number of components and metabolites, many of which have not been studied in detail.
The lack of standardization of ginger supplements is disconcerting, and whether consumption of high levels of isolated components e. Ginger acts as a potent antioxidant in vitro and ex vivo, but the data are not obvious for in vivo application and specific targets and mechanisms are lacking.
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Ginger appears to exert anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing COX-2 with subsequent inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis. On the other hand, the data supporting the effectiveness of ginger in alleviating pain and swelling associated with arthritis are somewhat conflicting. The most common use of ginger is to alleviate the vomiting and nausea associated with pregnancy, chemotherapy, and some types of surgery. The clinical data undoubtedly indicate that ginger is at least as effective, and may be better, than vitamin B6 in treating these symptoms.
Again, mechanisms are lacking, but no reports indicate that ginger has any adverse side effects or that it can worsen illness in pregnant women or patients. Interest in ginger as an anticancer agent has markedly increased over the last few years and a direct protein target has been identified in colon cancer. Ginger also appears to reduce cholesterol and improve lipid metabolism, thereby helping to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In summary, ginger has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, although its specific biological targets are largely unknown and remain to be determined.
However, in spite of the lack of specific mechanistic information, use of ginger appears to be safe and its effects are mighty and amazing in its many applications. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. G eneral A ntioxidant P roperties of G inger The presence of oxidative stress is associated with numerous diseases and a common mechanism often put forth to explain the actions and health benefits of ginger is associated with its antioxidant properties Aeschbach et al.
G inger as an A ntinausea A gent The most common and well-established use of ginger throughout history is probably its utilization in alleviating symptoms of nausea and vomiting. A nticarcinogenic A ctivities of G inger A great deal of interest by numerous research groups, including our own, is now being focused on the cancer-preventive and potential cancer therapeutic applications of ginger and its various components. C ardiovascular and O ther D isease -P reventive E ffECTs of G inger In addition to its effects in relation to cancer, some evidence supports a protective role for ginger in cardiovascular function and a number of other disease conditions.
Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, -gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol. Ginger: An ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. Aggarwal B. B, Kunnumakkara A. B, Harikumar K. B, Tharakan S. T, Sung B, Anand P.
Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Planta Med. Ahmad N, Katiyar S. K, Mukhtar H. Antioxidants in chemoprevention of skin cancer. Curr Probl Dermatol. Ahmed R. S, Seth V, Banerjee B. Influence of dietary ginger Zingiber officinales Rosc. Indian J Exp Biol. S, Seth V, Pasha S. T, Banerjee B. S, Suke S. K, Banerjee B. Protective effects of dietary ginger Zingiber officinales Rosc.
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Phytother Res. Ahui M. L, Champy P, Ramadan A, editors. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. Aikins Murphy P. Alternative therapies for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. H, Duke C. C, Roufogalis B. D, Ammit A. Al-Amin Z. Anti-diabetic and hypo- lipidaemic properties of ginger Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Br J Nutr. Ali B. H, Blunden G, Tanira M. O, Nemmar A. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe : A review of recent research. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. Altman R. D, Marcussen K. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum.
Antipenko A. Y, Spielman A. I, Kirchberger M. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. Bailey-Shaw Y. A, Williams L. A, Junor G. A, Green C. E, Hibbert S. L, Salmon C. N, Smith A. Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe during maturation. J Agric Food Chem. Baldwin A. Annu Rev Immunol. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: An overview of scientific evidence.
Altern Ther Health Med. Bhandari U, Sharma J. N, Zafar R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger Zingiber officinale extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. Bidinotto L. T, Spinardi-Barbisan A. L, Rocha N. S, Salvadori D. M, Barbisan L. Effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on DNA damage and development of urothelial tumors in a mouse bladder carcinogenesis model.
Environ Mol Mutagen. Black C. D, Oconnor P. Acute effects of dietary ginger on quadriceps muscle pain during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Bode A. M, Dong Z. Packer L, Ong C. M, Ma W. Y, Surh Y. J, Dong Z.
Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced cell trans-formation and activator protein 1 activation by -gingerol. Cancer Res. Boone S. A, Shields K. Treating pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting with ginger. Ann Pharmacother. H, Izzo A. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Brown A. T, Zhang J.
G, Jadus M. Ginger's Zingiber officinale Roscoe inhibition of rat colonic adenocarcinoma cellsproliferation and angiogenesis in vitro. Bryer E. A literature review of the effectiveness of ginger in alleviating mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Midwifery Womens Health.
Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: A meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Chang L. K, Whitaker D. The impact of herbal medicines on dermatologic surgery. Dermatol Surg. Chen C. Y, Chen C. H, Kung C. H, Kuo S. J Nat Prod. Y, Li Y. W, Kuo S. Y, Liu T. Z, Liu Y. W, editors. Chen B. H, Wu P. Y, Chen K.
M, Fu T. F, Wang H. M, Chen C. Antiallergic potential on RBL- 2H3 cells of some phenolic constituents of Zingiber officinale ginger. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Chrubasik S, Pittler M. Addendum to a recent systematic review on ginger. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. H, Roufogalis B. Zingiberis rhizoma: A comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles.
Chung W. Y, Jung Y. J, Surh Y. J, Lee S. S, Park K. Antioxidative and antitumor promoting effects of -paradol and its homologs. Mutat Res. Cohen R. J, Ek K, Pan C. Complementary and alternative medicine CAM use by older adults: A comparison of self-report and physician chart documentation. Crandall F. Paralysis-from spurious Jamaica ginger extract: Report on Los Angeles county outbreak. Cal West Med.
Dedov V. N, Tran V. C, Connor M, Christie M. J, Mandadi S, Roufogalis B. Gingerols: A novel class of vanilloid receptor VR1 agonists. Br J Pharmacol. DerMarderosian A, Beutler J. The Review of Natural Products. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer; Dias M.
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C, Spinardi-Barbisan A. L, Rodrigues M. A, de Camargo J. L, Teran E, Barbisan L. Lack of chemopreventive effects of ginger on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Ding G. Pharmacokinetics of -gingerol after intravenous administration in rats.
Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo. Dong Z, Birrer M. J, Watts R. G, Matrisian L. M, Colburn N. Blocking of tumor promoter- induced AP-1 activity inhibits induced transformation in JB6 mouse epidermal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci. Dupuis L. L, Nathan P. Options for the prevention and management of acute chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in children. Paediatr Drugs. Eberhart L. H, Mayer R, Betz O, editors. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg.
El-Abhar H. S, Hammad L. N, Gawad H. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. El-Sharaky A. S, Newairy A. A, Kamel M. A, Eweda S. Protective effect of ginger extract against bromobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Eldershaw T. P, Colquhoun E. Q, Dora K. A, Peng Z. C, Clark M. Pungent principles of gin-ger Zingiber officinale are thermogenic in the perfused rat hind limb.
Eliopoulos C. Ginger: More than a great spice. Identification and exploration of herb-drug combinations used by cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther. Ensiyeh J, Sakineh M. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Ernst E, Pittler M. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Br J Anaesth. Ernst E, Schmidt K. Wien Med Wochenschr. Frondoza C. V, Hungerford D. S, Lindmark L. An in vitro screening assay for inhibitors of proinflammatory mediators in herbal extracts using human synoviocyte cultures. Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. Fugh-Berman A, Kronenberg F. Complementary and alternative medicine CAM in reproductive- age women: A review of randomized controlled trials. Reprod Toxicol. Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
J Nutr. Funk J. L, Frye J. B, Oyarzo J. N, Timmermann B. Comparative effects of two gingerol- containing Zingiber officinale extracts on experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Ghayur M. N, Gilani A. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders.
Dig Dis Sci. A, Agbedahunsi J. M, Choudhary M. I, Houghton P. J Pharm Pharmacol. H, Janssen L. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. Gilmore T. Clinically relevant findings. J Clin Invest. Grant K. L, Lutz R. Am J Health Syst Pharm. Ginger root against seasickness: A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol. Ginger-an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions.
J Med Food. Gupta Y. K, Sharma M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger Zingiber officinale. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. Habib S. A, Das S, Ngah W. Z, Yusof Y. Ginger extract Zingiber officinale has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats.
Clinics Sao Paulo. Halvorsen B. L, editor. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. Heck A. M, De Witt B. A, Lukes A. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. T, Dong Z. J Biol Chem. Huang C, Ma W. Y, Dong Z. Mol Cell Biol. Ihlaseh S. M, de Oliveira M. L, Teran E, de Camargo J. L, Barbisan L. Chemopreventive property of dietary ginger in rat urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis.
World J Urol. Life Sci. Mechanism of inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration by -gingerol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Ginger ingredients reduce viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms. Islam M. S, Choi H. Comparative effects of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale and garlic Allium sativum investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.
A nonpungent componentof steamed ginger--shogaol-increases adrenaline secretion via the activation of TRPV1. Nutr Neurosci. Jackson E. Is ginger root effective for decreasing the severity of nausea and vomiting in early preg-nancy? J Fam Pract. Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. Jagetia G. C, Baliga M. S, Venkatesh P, Ulloor J. Influence of ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Radiat Res. Jeong C. H, Bode A. M, Pugliese A, editors. Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy Cochrane Review. Jiang H, Solyom A. M, Timmermann B. N, Gang D. Characterization of gingerol-related compounds in ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale Rosc. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. Jiang S. Z, Wang N.
S, Mi S. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of -gingerol in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos.
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Jiang X, Williams K. M, Liauw W.
S, Ammit A. J, Roufogalis B. D, Duke C. C, Day R. O, McLachlan A. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. J, McLaughlin S. P, Timmermann B. Metabolic profiling and phylogenetic analysis of medicinal Zingiber species: Tools for authentication of ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc. Jolad S. D, Lantz R.
C, Chen G. J, Bates R. B, Timmermann B. Kadnur S. V, Goyal R. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Kapadia G. J, Azuine M. Inhibitory effect of herbalremedies on 12 -O -tetradecanoylphorbolacetate-promoted Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation. Pharmacol Res. Katiyar S. K, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H. Kaul P. N, Joshi B. Alternative medicine: Herbal drugs and their critical appraisal-part II. Prog Drug Res. Keum Y. S, Kim J, Lee K. H, editors. Induction of apoptosis andcaspase-3 activation by chemopreventive -paradol and structurally related compounds in KB cells.
Cancer Lett. Kim S. O, Chun K. S, Kundu J. K, Surh Y. Kim J. K, Kim Y, Na K. M, Surh Y. J, Kim T. Free Radic Res. O, Kundu J. K, Shin Y. K, Park J. H, Cho M. H, Kim T. S, Lee S. I, Park H. Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Arch Pharm Res. Kim E. C, Min J. K, Kim T. Y, editors.
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Zerumbone, a tropical ginger sesquiterpene, inhibits colon and lung carcinogenesis in mice. Int J Cancer. Kim H. Screening of edible Japanese plants for suppressive effects on phorbol ester-induced superoxide generation in differentiated HL cells and AS52 cells. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids.
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Modulation of macrophage functions by compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale. Koo K. L, Ammit A. J, Tran V. Gingerols and related analogues inhibit arachidonic acid-induced human platelet serotonin release and aggregation. Thromb Res. Krishnakantha T. P, Lokesh B. Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles. Indian J Biochem Biophys. Langmead L, Rampton D. Review article: Herbal treatment in gastrointestinal and liver disease-benefits and dangers.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Lee S. H, Cekanova M, Baek S. Multiple mechanisms are involved in -gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. Lee T. Y, Lee K. C, Chen S. Y, Chang H. Lee E, Park K. K, Lee J. M, Chun K. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD 9. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Nitric oxide is a relative newcomer to the arsenal of medicine. While a small and simple molecule that last but seconds after release, nitric oxide is a very useful gas. Nitric oxide is an active component of the endocrine, immune, and cardiovascular systems and is an extremely versatile and significant factor in a wide variety of functions within and throughout the human body.
While nitric oxide may not be a magic bullet for all persons and their health issues, its medical application has become an increasingly interesting field of study for researchers and doctors alike as they consider the effect a little or a lot of nitric oxide can have on the health and welfare of the human body. This is the story of the mighty molecule that could and does play a vital role in keeping your body healthy, in prolonging your life, lowering your blood pressure, alleviating the problem of erectile dysfunction, and helping your memory.