She thinks puritanism is synonymous with dissent, that sociology is synonymous with social determinism. But, in the words of Chandler, the American critic who devoted several books to the genre,. And the footnote indicates that Chandler was writing in ! Mrs Spearman has never been trained as a literary critic. Of course this is difficult to assess. The preface acknowledges the help of Karl Popper.
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Diana Spearman , The Novel and Society. Email required. Password required. False pretences as a concept in the criminal law is no longer used in English law.
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It used to refer to the means whereby the defendant obtained any chattel , money or valuable security from any other person with intent to defraud, indictable as a misdemeanour under the Larceny Act as amended by the Larceny Act The modern concept is a deception and it is used as the common basis of the actus reus the Latin for "guilty act" in the deception offences under the Theft Act and in the Theft Act The Fraud Act repealed these latter two Acts and replaced deception offences with other offences.
The three major theft offences were larceny , embezzlement and false pretences. Larceny was a common law offence created by judicial action while embezzlement and false pretences were statutory offences created by legislative action. Larceny is by far the oldest. The elements of larceny were "well-settled" by the thirteenth century. The only other theft offence then existing was cheat which was a misdemeanor.
False Pretences by Margaret Yorke
Cheat was a primitive version of the crime of false pretences and involved obtaining property by the use of false weights or measures. The broad distinction between this offence and larceny is that in the former the owner intends to part with his property, in the latter he does not.
This offence dates as a statutory crime practically from At common law the only remedy originally available for an owner who had been deprived of his goods by fraud was an indictment for the crime of cheating, or a civil action for deceit. The scope of the offence was enlarged to include practically all false pretences by the Act of , the provisions of which were embodied in the Larceny Act The pretence must be a false pretence of some existing fact, made for the purpose of inducing the prosecutor to part with his property e.
The property, too, must have been actually obtained by the false pretence.
The owner must be induced by the pretence to make over the absolute and immediate ownership of the goods, otherwise it is larceny by means of a trick. It is not always easy, however, to draw a distinction between the various classes of offences. In the case where a man goes into a restaurant and orders a meal, and, after consuming it, says that he has no means of paying for it, it was usual to convict for obtaining food by false pretences.
But in R v Jones  1 QB , an English court found that it is neither larceny nor false pretences, but an offence under the Debtors Act , of obtaining credit by fraud. R v Danger  revealed a lacuna in the law. This was remedied by section 90 of the Larceny Act That section was replaced by section 32 2 of the Larceny Act Section 32 of the Larceny Act read:.
The offence of obtaining by false pretences , contrary to section 32 1 of the Larceny Act , was replaced by the offence of obtaining property by deception , contrary to section 15 of the Theft Act From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the films, see False Pretenses film.
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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. West Sec. West n. People , , , Ill. Laws, ch. Dumar, N.
Tattlekan , , N. The Theft Acts and Fifth Edition. Sweet and Maxwell. Paragraph at page Digest of the Criminal Law. Ninth Edition.