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As specialized knowledge becomes more valuable, the ability to identify and hire knowledge stars will be game changing for many companies. The authors undertook a review of the latest literature on the topic, and they suggest that several aspects of traditional hiring processes fail to account for the unique, often quirky nature of knowledge stars. Similarly, the conventional practice of offering the lowest possible salary could turn knowledge stars away. With this in mind, the authors propose a new hiring framework — one that is more dynamic and reciprocal than jumping through the current HR hoops — to aid firms in their search for knowledge stars.

This will be both firm- and industry-specific; some might need brilliant designers, others logistics experts. As specialized knowledge becomes more valuable, the ability to identify and hire knowledge stars will be game changing. The search process must begin not at the moment of placing a job ad for a certain open position, but months before that opening even occurs, especially in these high-value areas. Recruitment for these skilled workers must be a long-term, evolving process.

This will mean that the time it takes to fill specific job openings will be shorter, a reversal of the traditional approach. To find knowledge stars, companies need to get creative. Line managers need to become an integral part of the hiring process as well. For instance, a conversation at a trade show between a manager and a potential knowledge star could lead to that prospect talking up the firm to colleagues.

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Finally, firms need to hang on to the knowledge stars they already have and further tap into their skills by creating internal systems in which workers share their best practices. Hamilton University of Mississippi and H. Reviews and mentions of publications, products, or services do not constitute endorsement or recommendation for purchase. All rights reserved. Please see www. No reproduction is permitted in whole or part without written permission of PwC. The item has been saved. Sign Up for Newsletters.

Photo illustration by cintascotch. Planetary migration is the most likely explanation for hot Jupiters, extrasolar planets with jovian masses, but orbits of only a few days. It takes 1, years to complete one orbit. Sedna, Eris and Makemake have all been discovered in the past decade or so.

Add to that Pluto. Occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer. The term is often used in astronomy, but can also refer to any situation in which an object in the foreground blocks from view occults an object in the background. In this general sense, occultation applies to the visual scene observed from low-flying aircraft or computer-generated imagery when foreground objects obscure distant objects dynamically, as the scene changes over time. Planets that have no stars are called Rogue Planets , there may be billions of rogue planets in the Milky Way.

Oort Cloud is an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system. A theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from 50, to , AU 0. It is divided into two regions: a disc-shaped inner Oort cloud or Hills cloud and a spherical outer Oort cloud. Both regions lie beyond the heliosphere and in interstellar space.

The Kuiper Belt and the scattered disc, the other two reservoirs of trans-Neptunian objects, are less than one thousandth as far from the Sun as the Oort cloud. Galaxies Galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars , stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter in the Universe. Satellites - Telescopes. Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. The Milky Way is a combination of smaller galaxies. Our galaxy contains — billion Stars , with at least 50 billion Planets , million of which could be located in the Habitable Zone of their parent star.

But even at that high rate, it still takes us about million years to make one complete orbit around the Milky Way. The Milky Way's black hole is 26, light years away. Space - Dark Matter. We have estimated the size of our galaxy to be around , Light Years in Diameter.

But the latest evidence may bring that size to almost , light-years in size.


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Newly discovered adolescent star Gaia 17bpi seen undergoing 'growth spurt'. Star Formation burst in the Milky Way billion years ago. More than 50 percent of the stars that created the galactic disc may have been born. Massive Galaxies are Still Forming. If these galaxies are indeed newly formed, then this implies parts of the universe are still hotbeds of galaxy birth. There are three-dozen bright, compact galaxies that greatly resemble the youthful galaxies of more than 10 billions years ago. These new galaxies are relatively close to us, ranging from two to four billion light-years away.

They may be as young as million to one billion years old. The Milky Way is approximately 10 billion years old. Galaxy Formation and Evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies. Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang.

The simplest model in general agreement with observed phenomena is the Lambda-CDM model—that is, that clustering and merging allows galaxies to accumulate mass, determining both their shape and structure. Light from a galaxy is 14 billon years old, which means if you go there now, it will not be there. It's been traveling for 14 billion years and it will not be in the same place or even look the same as it did 14 billon years ago. Space Time. Galaxies originally form when large clouds of hydrogen gas collapse and are converted into stars, if you remove that gas, the galaxy cannot grow further.

Lifespan of Atoms. Astronomers reported that Sagittarius B2, a dust cloud at the center of the Milky Way, includes the molecule ethyl formate , which is one of the compounds behind the flavor of raspberries and the scent of rum. Monoceros Ring is a long, complex, ringlike filament of stars that wraps around the Milky Way three times.

Galaxy Rotation Curve of a disc galaxy also called a velocity curve is a plot of the orbital speeds of visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that galaxy's centre. Galactic Year. Estimates of the length of one orbit range from to million terrestrial years. The Earth takes one day to rotate, spins 1, MPH and travels 67, miles per hour. Earth orbits the Sun once every The Sun is moving , Mph. Halo Stars or outer disk stars, are the stars bordering the outer reaches of Segmentum Obscurus. Galactic Halo extends beyond the main, visible component.

Time-Laps Video of Space at Night shows Rotation of Earth Great Attractor is a gravitational anomaly in intergalactic space at the center of the Laniakea Supercluster that reveals the existence of a localised concentration of mass tens of thousands of times more massive than the Milky Way. It is typically rendered graphically as a plot. Dwarf Galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's — billion stars. Antlia 2 Antlia 2 Ant 2 is a low-surface-brightness dwarf satellite galaxy of the Milky Way at a galactic latitude of It spans 1.

The galaxy is similar in size to the Large Magellanic Cloud, despite being 10, times fainter. This is what we call a ghost of a galaxy. Oddball Galaxy NGC DF2, doesn't have a noticeable central region, or even spiral arms and a disk, typical features of a spiral galaxy. The photo on the right , in about 4 Billion years from now, the Galaxy Andromeda and the Milky way will come in contact with each other to form one big Galaxy.

But the chance of even two stars colliding is negligible because of the huge distances between the stars. The Andromeda Galaxy , 2. In order to see this image above would mean that Andromeda Galaxy is still around , light years away. There are about 50 Galaxies that we know of Circling the Milky way. Laniakea Supercluster is the galaxy supercluster that is home to the Milky Way and approximately , other nearby galaxies. Supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy groups, which is among the largest-known structures of the cosmos. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group galaxy cluster that contains more than 54 galaxies , which in turn is part of the Laniakea Supercluster with approximately , other nearby galaxies.

This supercluster spans over million light-years, while the Local Group spans over 10 million light-years. The number of superclusters in the observable universe is estimated to be 10 million. Virgo Supercluster wiki. Great Attractor is an apparent gravitational anomaly in intergalactic space at the center of the local Laniakea Supercluster , in which the Milky Way is located, in the so-called Zone of Avoidance that is very difficult to observe in visible wavelengths due to the obscuring effects of our own galactic plane.

This anomaly suggests a localized concentration of mass thousands of times more massive than the Milky Way. The anomaly is observable by its effect on the motion of galaxies and their associated clusters over a region hundreds of millions of light-years across. These galaxies are all redshifted , in accordance with the Hubble Flow , indicating that they are receding relative to us and to each other, but the variations in their redshift are sufficient to reveal the existence of the anomaly. The Great Attractor is moving towards the Shapley Supercluster. Recent astronomical studies by a team of South African astrophysicists revealed a supercluster of galaxies, termed the Vela Supercluster , in the Great Attractor's theorized location.

Coma Cluster is a large cluster of galaxies that contains over 1, identified galaxies. Globular Cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities toward their centers. Globular clusters, which are found in the halo of a galaxy, contain considerably more stars and are much older than the less dense galactic, or open clusters, which are found in the disk.

The galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component. Several distinct components of galaxies comprise the halo: the galactic spheroid stars. The distinction between the halo and the main body of the galaxy is clearest in spiral galaxies, where the spherical shape of the halo contrasts with the flat disc. In an elliptical galaxy, there is no sharp transition between the body of the galaxy and the halo. Magellanic Clouds are two irregular dwarf galaxies visible from the southern hemisphere; they are members of the Local Group and are orbiting the Milky Way galaxy.

Because they both show signs of a bar structure, they are often reclassified as Magellanic spiral galaxies. There are 52 stellar systems beyond our own Solar system that currently lie within 5. These systems contain a total of 63 stars, of which 50 are red dwarfs, by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way.

Much more massive stars, such as our own, make up the remaining In addition to these "true" stars, there are 11 brown dwarfs objects not quite massive enough to fuse hydrogen , and 4 white dwarfs extremely dense objects that remain after stars such as our Sun exhaust all fusable hydrogen in their core and slowly shed their outer layers while only the collapsed core remains.

Despite the relative proximity of these objects to Earth, only nine not including the Sun are brighter than 6. Based on results from the Gaia telescope's second data release from April , an estimated stars will possibly approach the Solar system to less than 5. Of these, 26 have a good probability to come within 1.

This number is likely much higher, due to the sheer number of stars needed to be surveyed; a star approaching the Solar System 10 million years ago, moving at a typical Sun-relative 20— kilometers per second, would be —6, light years from the Sun at present day, with millions of stars closer to the Sun.

The easiest way to determine stellar distance to the Sun for objects at these distances is parallax, which measures how much stars appear to move against background objects over the course of Earth's orbit around the Sun.

Knowledge portal - STARS Project

As a parsec parallax-second is defined by the distance of an object that would appear to move exactly one second of arc against background objects, stars less than 5 parsecs away will have measured parallaxes of over 0. Determining past and future positions relies on accurate astrometric measurements of their parallax and total proper motions how far they move across the sky due to their actual velocity relative to the Sun , along with spectroscopically determined radial velocities their speed directly towards or away from us, which combined with proper motion defines their true movement through the sky relative to the Sun.

Both of these measurements are subject to increasing and significant errors over very long time spans, especially over the several thousand-year time spans it takes for stars to noticeably move relative to each other. Quantum Fluctuation is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space. This allows the creation of particle-antiparticle pairs of virtual particles. A vision of the universe. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.

The objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere is within the preview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Ask an Astronomer at Cornell University - Telescopes. Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

Celestial is of the sky or relating to the sky, or inhabiting a divine heaven. Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and large areas of the night sky. Astronomical Symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity. Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space.

Plasma Physics is one of the four fundamental states of matter , the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states. Constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union IAU. The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names.

Physical Cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmos is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos. Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe, as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities.

It includes Planets , Moons , minor planets, Stars , Galaxies , the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy. The size of the entire Universe is unknown. Universe Basics PDF. This discovery also represents the most distant oxygen ever detected in the universe and the most distant galaxy ever observed by ALMA or the VLT. Wendy Freedman: This new telescope might show us the beginning of the universe video The most distant galaxy ever seen ' UDFj is about The galaxy dated back to a time just million years after the big bang.

Giant Galaxies die from the inside out : Star formation shuts down in the centers of elliptical galaxies first. Older galaxies may only seem to be moving faster because in the past, time was faster? Charting the Slow Death of the Universe is an international team of astronomers studying more than , galaxies has measured the energy generated within a large portion of space more precisely than ever before.

They confirm that the energy produced in a section of the Universe today is only about half what it was two billion years ago and find that this fading is occurring across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Is the Universe slowly dying? When the Universe began was Dark Matter Present then? Was Dark Energy Present then? What is Space? Big Bang is a theory of the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements , the cosmic microwave background , large scale structure and Hubble's Law. Fire Investigation is the analysis of fire-related incidents. After firefighters extinguish a fire, an investigation is launched to determine the origin and cause of the fire or explosion.

Investigations of such incidents require a systematic approach and knowledge of basic fire science. Or the knowledge of life before life even existed. All you heard was a noise before you even knew what sound was, or before you even knew what time was, or anything else for that matter. Not to say that measurements of background radiation is not important, because it is. The question is Do you Know enough? Background Radiation is a measure of the ionizing Radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

Background radiation originates from a variety of sources, both natural and artificial. These include cosmic radiation and environmental radioactivity from such as naturally occurring radioactive materials including radon and radium, and man-made fallout from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear accidents. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate. Big Bounce is a hypothetical scientific model of the formation of the known universe. It was originally suggested as a property of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe; however, it is also a consequence of applying loop quantum gravity techniques to Big Bang cosmology and this need not be cyclic.

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology the universe iterates through infinite cycle. Recombination in cosmology refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms. The word "recombination" is misleading, since the big bang theory doesn't posit that protons and electrons had been combined before, but the name exists for historical reasons since it was named before the Big Bang hypothesis became the primary theory of the creation of the universe.

Primordial Fluctuations are density variations in the early universe which are considered the seeds of all structure in the universe. Currently, the most widely accepted explanation for their origin is in the context of cosmic inflation. According to the inflationary paradigm, the exponential growth of the scale factor during inflation caused quantum fluctuations of the inflaton field to be stretched to macroscopic scales, and, upon leaving the horizon, to "freeze in".

At the later stages of radiation- and matter-domination, these fluctuations re-entered the horizon, and thus set the initial conditions for structure formation. The statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations can be inferred from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and from measurements of the distribution of matter, e. Since the fluctuations are believed to arise from inflation, such measurements can also set constraints on parameters within inflationary theory. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter normal matter of the universe, caused by acoustic density waves in the primordial plasma of the early universe.

In the same way that supernovae provide a "standard candle" for astronomical observations, BAO matter clustering provides a "standard ruler" for length scale in cosmology. The length of this standard ruler is given by the maximum distance the acoustic waves could travel in the primordial plasma before the plasma cooled to the point where it became neutral atoms the epoch of recombination , which stopped the expansion of the plasma density waves, "freezing" them into place. BAO measurements help cosmologists understand more about the nature of dark energy which causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe by constraining cosmological parameters.

The Light from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach us, if it went out 7 minutes ago we wouldn't know it for another minute. Spatial Intelligence - Digital Physics Nebular Hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System.

It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous material. Morphs Collaboration was a coordinated study to determine the morphologies of galaxies in distant clusters and to investigate the evolution of galaxies as a function of environment and epoch. Eleven clusters were examined and a detailed ground-based and space-based study was carried out. Is Space In Motion just like the planets and the stars? Maybe the Big Bang is the reason why we're Flying through the universe? Formation and evolution of the Solar System Maybe the Big Bang was needed to create motion, which is needed to create Energy and Gravity?

Interstellar Medium is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space.

The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field. Vacuum Energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. Their behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy—time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy that relates to the quantum vacuum.

Locating Planets. A telescope is like a time machine , you see distant stars and galaxies as there once were and not as we see them now. Why do we see the same stars every night? National Reconnaissance Operations Center Almaz program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program where 3 crewed military reconnaissance stations were launched between and Optical Telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light , mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum , to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.

There are three primary types of optical telescope: Refractors , which use lenses dioptrics. Reflectors, which use mirrors catoptrics. Catadioptric Telescopes , which combine lenses and mirrors. Galileo Galilei February 5th, — January 8th, Refracting Telescope is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image also referred to a dioptric telescope. The refracting telescope design was originally used in spy glasses and astronomical telescopes but is also used for long focus camera lenses. Although large refracting telescopes were very popular in the second half of the 19th century, for most research purposes the refracting telescope has been superseded by the Reflecting Telescope which allows larger apertures.

A refractor's magnification is calculated by dividing the focal length of the objective lens by that of the eyepiece. Lens in optics is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses elements , usually arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or moulded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism , which refracts light without focusing.

Devices that similarly focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are also called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses. Optical Engineering. Bending Light Eyepiece is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes. The objective lens or mirror collects light and brings it to focus creating an image. The eyepiece is placed near the focal point of the objective to magnify this image. The amount of magnification depends on the focal length of the eyepiece. An eyepiece consists of several "lens elements" in a housing, with a "barrel" on one end.

Adaptive Optics is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions: it aims at correcting the deformations of an incoming wavefront by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes and laser communication systems to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion, in microscopy , optical fabrication and in retinal imaging systems to reduce optical aberrations. Adaptive optics works by measuring the distortions in a wavefront and compensating for them with a device that corrects those errors such as a deformable mirror or a liquid crystal array.

Active Optics is a technology used with reflecting telescopes developed in the s, which actively shapes a telescope's mirrors to prevent deformation due to external influences such as wind, temperature, mechanical stress. Without active optics, the construction of 8 metre class Telescopes is not possible, nor would telescopes with segmented mirrors be feasible. Geometrical Optics describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction useful for approximating the paths along which light propagates under certain circumstances. The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include that light rays: propagate in straight-line paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium.

Bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media. Follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes. May be absorbed or reflected. Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts.

The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations. Alhazen's Problem is a problem in geometrical optics first formulated by Ptolemy in AD. It is named for the 11th-century Arab mathematician Alhazen Ibn al-Haytham who presented a geometric solution in his Book of Optics. The algebraic solution involves quartic equations and was found only as late as , by Jack M. The problem comprises drawing lines from two points in a circle meeting at a third point on its circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point.

Thus, its main application in optics is to solve the problem, "Given a light source and a spherical mirror, find the point on the mirror where the light will be reflected to the eye of an observer. Combining metasurface lenses with MEMS technology could add high-speed scanning and enhance focusing capability of optical systems.

Lens technologies have advanced across all scales, from digital cameras and high bandwidth in fiber optics to the LIGO instruments. Now, a new lens technology that could be produced using standard computer-chip technology is emerging and could replace the bulky layers and complex geometries of traditional curved lenses. Researchers have developed a device that integrates mid-infrared spectrum metalenses onto MEMS.

Scanning Electron Micrograph. The Universe looks like one large experiment , trying all kind of things. Not every planet has life, not every star gives life, but you can still learn something from all these different outcomes. It seems that we see the same Stars every Night, well almost. If you only look at the stars at the same time at night and at the same time of year and in the same direction, it will seem that you see the same stars all the time. You need to see time-lapse photos of the night sky to better understand our planet, our solar system and our galaxy.

The night sky in winter looks different than the summer. This occurs because the Earth is orbiting the Sun. In winter, we see the constellation Orion in the south at night and during the day the Sun is in the sky with the constellation Scorpius. In summer, we see the opposite we see Scorpius at night and Orion is in the sky during the day. This is why you cannot see Orion or any one constellation all year long, except for constellations in the northern circumpolar sky, which include Auriga, Camelopardalis, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Draco, Lynx, Perseus, Ursa Major, and Ursa Minor.

These constellations are always visible in the night sky of the Northern Hemisphere. Peripheral vision. Celestial Sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth. All objects in the observer's sky can be thought of as projected upon the inside surface of the celestial sphere, as if it were the underside of a dome or a hemispherical screen. The celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy, allowing observers to plot positions of objects in the sky when their distances are unknown or unimportant. Celestial Equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator.

In other words, it is a projection of the terrestrial equator out into space. As a result of the Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by Circumpolar Star is a star that, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, never sets that is, never disappears below the horizon , due to its proximity to one of the celestial poles. Circumpolar stars are therefore visible from said location toward nearest pole for the entire night on every night of the year and would be continuously visible throughout the day too, were they not overwhelmed by the Sun's glare.

Copernican Principle is a working assumption that arises from a modified cosmological extension of Copernicus's heliocentric universe. Under the modified Copernican principle, neither the Sun nor the Earth are in a central, specially favored position in the universe. In some sense, it is equivalent to the mediocrity principle. More recently, the principle has been generalized to the relativistic concept that humans are not privileged observers of the universe.

Principle of Locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings. A theory which includes the principle of locality is said to be a "local theory". This is an alternative to the older concept of instantaneous "action at a distance".

Locality evolved out of the field theories of classical physics. The concept is that for an action at one point to have an influence at another point, something in the space between those points such as a field, wave, or particle must carry i. To exert an influence, something must travel through the space between the two points, carrying the influence.

Image of the Angle our Solar System as it Travels through the Milky Way Triangulation Planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in Hellenistic astronomy, is a predecessor of the modern planisphere.

The term planisphere contrasts with armillary sphere, where the celestial sphere is represented by a three-dimensional framework of rings. That is Sextillion. Star Chart is a map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily. They are used to identify and locate astronomical objects such as stars, constellations and galaxies. They have been used for human navigation since time immemorial. Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, which is a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose.

Tools utilizing a star chart include the astrolabe and the planisphere. Spatial Intelligence. Today, it's 20 light-years away from us in the constellation Monoceros. But in a study published by Astrophysical Journal Letters , researchers say it passed right by us at a distance of 5 trillion miles 8 trillion kilometers, or 52, astronomical units, or 0.

No other star has been known to come that close. A different star called HIP might make a dangerous pass through the Oort Cloud , to , years from now. Coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects — which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare — can be resolved. Most coronagraphs are intended to view the corona of the Sun, but a new class of conceptually similar instruments called stellar coronagraphs to distinguish them from solar coronagraphs are being used to find extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars.

A real direct distance measurement of an astronomical object is possible only for those objects that are "close enough" within about a thousand parsecs to Earth. The techniques for determining distances to more distant objects are all based on various measured correlations between methods that work at close distances and methods that work at larger distances. Several methods rely on a standard candle, which is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity.

The ladder analogy arises because no single technique can measure distances at all ranges encountered in astronomy. Instead, one method can be used to measure nearby distances, a second can be used to measure nearby to intermediate distances, and so on. Each rung of the ladder provides information that can be used to determine the distances at the next higher rung.

Standard Ruler is an astronomical object for which the actual physical size is known. By measuring its angular size in the sky, one can use simple trigonometry to determine its distance from Earth. In simple terms, this is because objects of a fixed size appear smaller the further away they are. Measuring distances is of great importance in cosmology, as the relationship between the distance and redshift of an object can be used to measure the expansion rate and geometry of the Universe.

Distances can also be measured using standard candles; many different types of standard candles and rulers are needed to construct the cosmic distance ladder. Redshift is a phenomenon where electromagnetic radiation such as light from an object undergoes an increase in wavelength. Whether or not the radiation is visible, "redshift" means an increase in wavelength, equivalent to a decrease in wave frequency and photon energy, in accordance with, respectively, the wave and quantum theories of light.

Neither the emitted nor perceived light is necessarily red; instead, the term refers to the human perception of longer wavelengths as red, which is at the section of the visible spectrum with the longest wavelengths. Examples of redshifting are a gamma ray perceived as an X-ray, or initially visible light perceived as radio waves. The opposite of a redshift is a blueshift, where wavelengths shorten and energy increases. However, redshift is a more common term and sometimes blueshift is referred to as negative redshift. There are three main causes of red and blue shifts in astronomy and cosmology: Objects move apart or closer together in space.

This is an example of the Doppler effect. Space itself expands, causing objects to become separated without changing their positions in space. This is known as cosmological redshift. All sufficiently distant light sources generally more than a few million light years away show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase in their distance from Earth, known as Hubble's Law.

Gravitational redshift is a relativistic effect observed due to strong gravitational fields, which distort spacetime and exert a force on light and other particles. Knowledge of redshifts and blueshifts has been used to develop several terrestrial technologies such as Doppler radar and radar guns.

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Redshifts are also seen in the spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects. Its value is represented by the letter z. Earth Earth was formed about 4. The third planet from the Sun , the densest planet in the Solar System , the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets , and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its own axis Earth's Circumference : 24, Radius: 3, mi.


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  • Area: Mass: 5. Distance from Sun : Subterranean Biosphere. The length of an Earth day has grown by 1. These include the chemistry at Earth's Surface , the rate of cooling of the planet's interior, the gravitational interactions with other objects in the Solar System , and a steady increase in the Sun's luminosity. An uncertain factor in this extrapolation is the ongoing influence of technology introduced by humans, such as climate engineering, which could cause significant changes to the planet. The current Holocene extinction is being caused by ignorance and the effects may last for up to five million years.

    Early humans ‘advanced knowledge’ REVEALED: Early cave drawings ‘show star constellations’

    In turn, ignorance may result in the extinction of humanity, leaving the planet to gradually return to a slower evolutionary pace resulting solely from long-term natural processes. High and Low Areas of Earth Chart image. If the Sun was the same size as a Basketball. If you took all the water on earth and put it into a ball, the ball would be half the size of the Moon , around miles in diameter. About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered , and the oceans hold about Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog.

    A day on Earth is actually 23 Hrs, 56 Mins and 4. Sidereal Time is a time-keeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects. Using sidereal time it is possible to easily point a telescope to the proper coordinates in the night sky. Briefly, sidereal time is a "time scale that is based on Earth's rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars" rather than the Sun.

    Without such a correction, time reckoned by Earth's rotation drifts away from atomic time because of irregularities in the Earth's rate of rotation. Since this system of correction was implemented in , 27 leap seconds have been inserted, the most recent on December 31, at UTC. On Mercury , a day is two years long.

    Time Management. The Earth is slowing at a rate of 4. Earth's Rotation wiki The Moon is currently moving away from the Earth at about 3. Navigation how to find your way around planet earth The earth is not perfectly Round. Ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scaling's.

    Geodesy is the measurement and representation of the Earth or any planet , including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion. For this they design global and national control networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying on datums and coordinate systems. The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes. After the winter solstice the sun shines a little longer each day about 2 minutes and 7 seconds.

    How do we study the stars? - Yuan-Sen Ting

    Orbit - Pression. It is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice , when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent. Tropic of Capricorn is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December or southern solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be directly overhead. Its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of Earth. The angular measure of an object is usually expressed in degrees, arcminutes or arcseconds.

    Just as an hour is divided into 60 minutes and a minute into 60 seconds, a degree is divided into 60 arcminutes and an arcminute is divided into 60 arcseconds. Tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone see geographical zone. The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts the zenith, a point directly overhead, at least once during the solar year which is a subsolar point. The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone.

    Each zone is 10 degrees F warmer or colder than an adjacent zone during an average winter. Earth's Motion around the Sun, not as simple as I thought youtube Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a year interval. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region. A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

    Climatology is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as Weather conditions averaged over a period of time. Temperate Climate is when the temperatures in certain regions are generally relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold, and the changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate.

    Highest Temperature Recorded on Earth. The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is Air - Weather - Wind - Clouds - Rain - Storms - Lightening - Fires - Volcanoes - Earthquakes Season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather , ecology and hours of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of the orbit.

    In temperate and polar regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface, variations of which may cause animals to go into hibernation or to migrate, and plants to be dormant. During May, June, and July, the northern hemisphere is exposed to more direct sunlight because the hemisphere faces the sun. The same is true of the southern hemisphere in November, December, and January.

    It is the tilt of the Earth that causes the Sun to be higher in the sky during the summer months which increases the solar flux. However, due to seasonal lag, June, July, and August are the hottest months in the northern hemisphere and December, January, and February are the hottest months in the southern hemisphere. Seasonality consists of periodic, repetitive, and generally regular and predictable patterns in the levels of a time series. Seasonality can repeat on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, these periods of time are structured and occur in a length of time less than a year.

    Atmosphere Atmosphere is a layer of Gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if its gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low. Exosphere : to 10, km to 6, miles. Thermosphere : 80 to km 50 to miles. Mesosphere : 50 to 80 km 31 to 50 miles.

    Stratosphere : 12 to 50 km 7 to 31 miles. UV Troposphere : 0 to 12 km 0 to 7 miles. Weather - Lightning Atmospheric Chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary approach of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines.

    Research is increasingly connected with other arenas of study such as climatology. Atmospheric Physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation budget, and energy transfer processes in the atmosphere as well as how these tie into other systems such as the oceans. Atmospheric and Space Scientists investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses.

    Atmospheric Escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases or Air to outer space. A number of different mechanisms can be responsible for atmospheric escape, operating at different time scales; the most prominent is Jeans Escape, named after British astronomer Sir James Jeans, who described the process of atmospheric loss to the molecular kinetic energy.

    Hydrogen and Helium are very light gases, so light that Earth's gravity is too weak to hold them. Most of the hydrogen and helium of the early atmosphere escaped into space. Root-Mean-Square Speed is the measure of the speed of particles in a gas which is most convenient for problem solving within the kinetic theory of gases.

    It is defined as the square root of the average velocity-squared of the molecules in a gas. Atmosphere of Earth at sea level, by contrast, is packed with about billion billion molecules per cubic centimetre. Plasmasphere or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the Earth's Magnetosphere consisting of low energy cool plasma. It is located above the ionosphere.

    The outer boundary of the plasmasphere is known as the plasmapause, which is defined by an order of magnitude drop in plasma density. Troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where all weather takes place. The average depths of the troposphere are 20 km 12 mi in the tropics, 17 km 11 mi in the mid latitudes, and 7 km 4. The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer. This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km 1. Atop the troposphere is the tropopause, which is the border between the troposphere and stratosphere.

    The tropopause is an inversion layer, where the air temperature ceases to decrease with height and remains constant through its thickness. Tropospheric Ozone is a constituent of the troposphere it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer. The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface to between 12 and 20 kilometers above sea level and consists of many layers. Ozone is more concentrated above the mixing layer, or ground layer. Ground-level ozone, though less concentrated than ozone aloft, is more of a problem because of its health effects.

    Oxygen is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust.

    In one atom of oxygen is 8 protons. Every Breath you Take - Antioxidants free radicals - Exercise Oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. The ground state of dioxygen is known as triplet oxygen because it has two unpaired electrons. The first excited state, singlet oxygen, has no unpaired electrons and is metastable, which means it is continuing in its present state of equilibrium unless sufficiently disturbed to pass to a more stable state of equilibrium.

    Triplet Oxygen the electron configuration of the oxygen molecule has two electrons occupying two molecular orbitals MOs of equal energy that is, degenerate MOs , therefore remaining unpaired. These orbitals are classified as antibonding and are of higher energy, so the resulting bonding structure between the oxygen atoms is weakened i. Singlet Oxygen is a high-energy form of oxygen. A gas with the formula O2, its physical properties differ only subtly from those of the more prevalent triplet ground state of O2.

    In terms of its chemical reactivity, however, singlet oxygen is far more reactive toward organic compounds. Featherweight Oxygen discovery opens window on nuclear symmetry. Oxygen can be produced only in a laboratory. It decays immediately after its creation by emitting two protons, and it can be observed solely through detection of its decay products. Two-proton decay is the most recently discovered nuclear decay channel. Oxygen is the nuclear mirror of lithium Isotopes of Oxygen wiki. Air that stuff you breathe - Geological History of Oxygen wiki Great Oxygenation Event is when oceanic cyanobacteria are believed to have become the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis.

    Before the GOE, any free oxygen they produced was chemically captured by dissolved iron or organic matter. The GOE was the point in time when these oxygen sinks became saturated, at which point oxygen, produced by the cyanobacteria, was free to escape into the atmosphere. When it appeared, this shield allowed life to leave the ocean and the continents to become green with forests. O2 rendered the once deadly continents habitable for life. Oxygen Depletion - Global Warming Dissolved Oxygen - Joseph Priestley wiki There is more oxygen in forests and in green areas then there is in deserts and in cities.

    Air would also be cleaner and more humidified in forests and in other green areas like near waterfalls. Cities have less oxygen because there are less trees and more pollution. There is also more oxygen at lower altitudes and less oxygen at higher altitudes. The arctic and Antarctic regions have the highest oxygen ratios. Oxygen saturation is inversely proportional to the temperature of the water and phytoplankton life is abundant in cold waters. The amount of oxygen produced by single cell organisms is way more than that produced by multicellular plants. Earth's atmosphere currently constituting about 0.