Guide Carmen and Wagner Make Friends

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She sang Arabella by Richard Strauss at the Minnesota Opera in , and we look forward to any upcoming announcements that would allow more old friends and colleagues to enjoy her artistry. Maybe next season? Meanwhile toi, toi, toi at La Scala. Read more about Jacquelyn Wagner on her website. After starting his collaboration with Alice Cooper, Wagner played the song for him. Alice had a title for a song he had been wanting to write. While keeping the main riff and vocal melodies, Cooper and Wagner penned new lyrics and recorded it for Cooper's album Welcome to My Nightmare.

The song delivered a message against domestic abuse. Other songs co-written by Wagner brought him public recognition as a songwriting talent. At the behest of producer Bob Ezrin, Wagner flew to Toronto and recorded guitar on seven tracks of the Air Supply album that included this song. One of the songs Wagner was most proud of is "Remember The Child", written to address the issue of child abuse. Written from the point of view of a child, the lyrics and song melody deliver a powerful and poignant message to adults that a child will forever remember the love or abuse of their childhood.

Bradshaw invited Wagner to join him on his nationwide tour to perform the song as a cathartic and healing piece of music to the thousands who attended Bradshaw's lectures and seminars. Embraced by psychiatrists and psychologists in their practices, the song has been used as a tool to evoke emotion from patients who are unable to express feelings. In , Wagner was invited by Leo Najar, conductor of the Saginaw Bay Symphony Orchestra to perform a two and a half hour concert of his songs with the symphony.

In he wrote songs for the artist Wednesday for her debut album Torch Rock , released on his independent record label Desert Dreams Records. In filmed interviews, Alice Cooper talks about hiring Dick Wagner, writing with him and hiring the greatest guitar players to be in his band.

Fred Mandel, keyboardist with the Alice Cooper Band was also interviewed. The film was never completed, but the clips are on YouTube. In , Wagner cooperated with the Italian rock singer Chris Catena in recording a cover version of "Theme for an Imaginary Western," the famous rock song by Jack Bruce and Pete Brown , which will be released in the third album of the Italian singer around In , Wagner suffered a massive heart attack and stroke. After arriving DOA at a Scottsdale hospital, he spent two weeks in a coma, awakening with a paralyzed left arm.

While recovering from his heart attack, Wagner continued to write songs and began writing his memoirs, which ultimately became his book, Not Only Women Bleed. As he slowly recovered from his heart attack and stroke, Wagner manifested unusual symptoms, including difficulty walking and concentrating, loss of balance, and symptoms of dementia, threatening his music career and his life. In , Wagner was diagnosed with normal pressure hydrocephalus NPH , a type of dementia which affects, among other things, fine motor skills and gait.

In late , after successful surgery at Barrow Neurological Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, Wagner was able to make a significant recovery, regaining almost all of the dexterity which had been lost over the course of the disorder's progression. It features 15 lost and newly discovered songs recorded by Wagner between and He also produced the band Warsaw Pact and the independent artist Brandon Bullard with releases from both in early It represents instrumental versions of several songs from each album. In , Gibson. Wagner won a number of BMI Songwriter awards and other international music awards and his work has been featured on albums earning more than 35 gold and platinum records.

Susan Michelson is featured as associated producer, British ladies Never The Bride provided backing vocals, American actress Suzi Lorraine is featured on the cover. The Mugshots - "a majestic Euro-American combination of classic rock and dark stories" [12] in the musician's words - are known to be the only band to have recorded a cover version of "Pass The Gun Around", written by Dick Wagner back in for Alice Cooper's DaDa.

In and , after suffering more than six years of extreme health adversities: two heart attacks, a stroke, a paralyzed left arm, a diagnosis of hydrocephalus NPH two brain surgeries, a pacemaker and more, Wagner's guitar playing facilities had returned, and he fully resumed performing, touring with the Dick Wagner Band, writing songs and producing music.

There is no fixed point in the line of evolution at which it could be said that the one standard ceases to apply and the other begins. Still greater becomes the confusion when, in arriving at a valuation of man, his general intellectual qualities are no longer taken into consideration and regard is had only to the extent of his subjection to the traditional restrictions of action called morality. Whenever that is so, the chain be tween the two standards which may be said to exist in the former case has disappeared completely.

In the first case the " higher " being among a species is that which leaves the stronger and more numerous progeny, in the latter case the " higher " being is that which does a larger number of such acts as are believed to serve certain ends particu larly esteemed by a certain portion of the community to which it belongs.

In the first case the superiority of the individual is tested in its progeny ; in the second case the superiority of the individual is tested by the quality of its own acts for the assumed welfare of a small community. In the first case the superiority is physiological and refers to the growth of the qualities of the species ; in the second case the superiority exists merely in the imagination of the fellow beings and refers to their alleged or real happiness.

It is only in the nineties of the present century that English philosophy has become aware of this duplicity of standard. While Professor Samuel Alexander in still inter preted the process of ethical evolution as the continuation of evolution in nature in his Essay on " Natural Selection in Morals " two independent thinkers, the Right Hon.

But both solve the discrepancy in the same way. Regarding the intellec tual-moral or simply moral standard as unquestionably superior to the physiological they gladly sacrifice the latter to it, thus arriving at that unity of thought requisite in every true philosophy. Balfour in his "Fragment on Progress came to the conclusion that "we can hardly refuse our support to the view that the general improvement of the race may in some respects lead to a deterioration in the natural constitution of the individual.

Humanity, civilisation, progress itself, must have a tendency to mitigate the harsh methods by which Nature has wrought out the variety and the per fection of organic life. And however much man as he is ultimately moulded by the social forces surrounding him may gain, man as he is born into the world must somewhat lose. He not only silently accepts the unfortunate physiological consequences of the social forces in modern life, but goes so far as to wish to increase them immeasurably. Huxley said in his Romanes Lecture on Evolution and Ethics , "Let us under stand, once for all, that the ethical progress of society de pends, not on imitating the cosmic process, still less in running away from it, but in combating it.

Huxley similarly circumscribes it in scienti fic terms borrowed from Darwin s " Origin of Species " as " the fitting of as many as possible to survive. Thus he arrives at the proposition that the ethical process is to extinguish the cosmic process, it is to replace it. This is the point at which English philosophy now stands confronted like the age itself by a startling interrogation mark : Our morality, which we know to be the result of a social development limited to man and extending over a few thousand years under all kinds of climatic, economical and literary influences, is asked to pronounce judgment upon the whole of the cosmic process.

The moral ideals, which exist merely in men s minds and are known to have been constantly changing all through the period of historical record, are they to create a new world, an ethical world in every particular opposed to the world of reality? It was once generally believed that the world at large was governed by the same moral laws which were supposed to govern human society, that human justice ruled the whole realm of nature, that there sins were punished, good actions rewarded, and judgment passed.

It is now generally admitted that a severe struggle for existence rages everywhere, and that all higher development is due to the effects of that struggle. The moral realm has thus been limited infinitely. If, in spite of that, man now dares to think of forcing his own moral standard upon nature why should not we measure man by the standard which Darwin has enabled us to apply to nature?


Why should we not look at him as a being above all physiological, and measure first of all the value of his art, civilisation, and religion by their effect upon his species, by the standard of physiology? It is not easy to say beforehand to what results such a valuation would lead, and it is worthy of a great thinker to undertake thus the task of transvaluing the intellectual currency of our time.

Whatever be the result, one thing at any rate will be gained, viz. Although the period of his greatest creative power was so late as the eighth decade of the century, he has already become an European event like Hegel, and given rise to an independent school of thought on the continent.

Be the ultimate judgment of modern thought upon him what it may, certain it is that philosophy can no longer neglect his works. To a large extent because of his highly condensed, epigrammatic and elliptic style, which makes sometimes the full meaning diffi cult even for a German to attain, he has been almost un known in this country until a few years ago. The present volume, which initiates the series, contains the last four of Nietzsche s writings, composed between May and December The first two deal with music, the third with some problems of civilisation and culture, and the fourth with Christianity.

But one drift of thought per vades them all: Physiology as the criterion of value of whatever is human, whether called art, culture, or religion! Physiology as the sole arbiter on what is great and what is small, what is good und what is bad! Physiology as the sole standard by which the facts of history and the pheno mena of our time can be tried, and by which they have to be tried and to receive the verdict on the great issue : decline, or ascent? The circumstances of the origin of the parts of this volume are simple though sad enough. The two " Postscripts " and the "Epilogue" were added during July.

The pamphlet appeared in September Immediately thereafter another small book "Idlings of a Psvchologist " was begun which was finished by the beginning of September.

History of 'Lohengrin' - Richard Wagner

During the printing the title was changed into a parody of Wagner s "Twilight of the Gods," and the book named "Twilight of the Idols. On Sep. The plan on which he now worked was the following : The title of the whole work, which was to consist of four books, was to be " The Will to Power. An Essay towards a Transvaluation of all Values. An Essay towards a Criticism of Christianity. A Criticism of Philosophy as a Nihilistic Movement. Philosophy of Eternal Recurrence. Part I. Aphorism After the satirical pleasantries of the first pamphlet he wished, besides, to point to the graver side of the case of Wagner.

An Intermezzo he had put in between the second and third passage he later withdrew. But he was not fated to see the publication of his last three writings or even to finish his " Transvaluation of all Values. Since the summer of he has lived under the care of his relatives at Naumburg. He has never, however, again been " Wagner as a Danger.

Part II. Part i. The first impression of " Nietzsche contra Wagner" of was never published, and the little pam phlet was only issued with "The Antichrist," in Vol. For most of the facts and dates regarding the com position of the four works of the present volume, which has been translated by Mr. Thomas Common, the Editor is obliged to Dr.

Fritz Koegel s Nachbericht in Vol. VIII of the German edition. It is not solely out of sheer wickedness that I praise Bizet at the expense of Wagner in this work. In the midst of much pleasantry, I bring forward a case which is serious enough. It was my fate to turn the back on Wagner ; to be fond of aught afterwards was a triumph. No one, perhaps, had been more dangerously entangled in Wagnerism, no one has defended himself harder against it, no one has been more glad to get rid of it.

A long history! Is there a word wanted for it? If I were a moralist, who knows how I should designate it! Perhaps self- overcoming. But the philosopher never loves mora lists. What does a philosopher firstly and lastly require of himself? To overcome his age in himself, to become "timeless. With the characteristics in which he is just the child of his age. My philosophic spirit defended itself against it.

The problem of decadence is, in fact, that which has occupied me most profoundly ; I have had reasons for it. When one has learned to discern the symptoms of decline, one also understands morality, one understands what conceals itselt under its holiest names and valuation-formube ; namely, impoverished life, desire for the end, great lassitude.

Morality nega tives life. For such a task I required some self- discipline : I had to engage in combat against whatever was morbid in me, including Wagner, including Schopen hauer, including all modern " humanity. To attain such an object what sacrifice would not be appropriate? What " self-overcoming!

Not that I would wish to be ungrateful to this malady. In other departments people may perhaps get along without Wagner ; the philosopher, however, is not free to dispense with him. The philosopher has to be the bad conscience of his time ; for that purpose he must possess its best know ledge. But where would he find a better initiated guide for the labyrinth of modern soul, a more elo quent psychological expert than Wagner?

Modernism speaks its most familiar language in Wagner : it con ceals neither its good nor its evil, it has lost all its sense of shame. And reversely : when one has formed a clear notion about what is good and evil in Wagner, one has almost determined the value of modernism.

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I understand perfectly, when a musician says now, " I hate Wagner, but I no longer stand any other music. There is no help for it ; we must first be Wagnerians " I heard yesterday will you believe it? I again held out with meek devotion, I again succeeded in not running away. This victory over my impatience surprises me. How such a work -perfects one! One becomes a " masterpiece " one s self by its influence. And really, I have appeared to myself, every time I have heard Carmen, to be more of a philosopher, a better philosopher than at other times : I have become so patient, so happy, so Indian, so sedate Five hours sitting : the first stage of holiness!

May I ven ture to say that Bizet s orchestra music is almost the sole orchestration I yet endure? I call it the Sirocco. My good time is at an end. This music seems to me to be perfect. It ap proaches lightly, nimbly, and with courtesy. It is ami able, it does not produce sweat. This music is wicked, subtle, and fatalistic ; it remains popular at the same time, it has the subtlety of a race, not of an indi vidual.

It is rich. It is precise. It builds, it organises, it completes ; it is thus the antithesis to the polypus in music, " infinite melody. And how are they obtained? Without grimace! Without counterfeit coinage! Without the imposture of the grand style! Finally, this music takes the auditor for an intelligent being, even for a musician ; here also Bizet is the contrast to Wagner, who, whatever else he was, was certainly the most un courteous genius in the world.

Wagner takes us just as if , he says a thing again and again until one despairs, until one believes it. And once more, I become a better man when this Bizet exhorts me. Also a better musician, a better auditor. Is it at all possible to listen better? I bury my ears under this music, I hear the very reason of it. And, curiously enough, I don t think of it after all, or I don t know how much I think of it. For quite other thoughts run through my mind at the time. Has it been noticed that music makes the spirit free f that it gives wings to thought? The grey heaven of abstraction thrilled, as it were, by lightnings ; the light strong enough for all the filigree of things ; the great problems ready to be grasped ; the universe surveyed as from a mountain summit.

I have just defined philosophical pathos. And answers fall into my lap unexpectedly ; a little hail-shower of ice and wisdom, of solved problems. Where am I? Bizet makes me productive. All that is good makes me productive. I have no other grati tude, nor have I any other proof of what is good.

This work saves also ; Wagner is not the only " Saviour. Even the dramatic action saves us there from. It has borrowed from Merimee the logic in passion, the shortest route, stern necessity. Here, in all respects, the climate is altered. Here a dif ferent sensuality expresses itself, a different sensi bility, a different gaiety. This music is gay ; but it has not a French or a German gaiety. Its gaiety is African ; destiny hangs over it, its happiness is short, sudden, and without forgiveness. I envy Bizet for having had the courage for this sensibility, which did not hitherto find expression in the cultured music of Europe this more southern, more tawny, more scorched sensibility.

How the yellow afternoons of its happiness benefit us! We contemplate the out look : did we ever see the sea smoother? And how tranquilisingly the Moorish dance appeals to us! How even our insatiability learns for once to be satiated with its lascivious melancholy! Love, which in its expedients is the war of the sexes, and in its basis their mortal hatred. I know of no case where tragic humour, which forms the essence of love, has expressed itself so strenuously, has formulated itself so terribly, as in the last cry of Don Jose, with which the work con cludes : yes!

For, on an average, artists do like all the world, or worse even they misunderstand love. Wagner also has mis understood it. People imagine they are unselfish in love because they seek the advantage of another being, often in opposition to their own advantage. But for so doing they want to possess the other being. Even God himself is no exception to this rule. He is far from thinking, " What need you trouble about it, if I love you?

L Amour with this word one gains one s case with gods and men est de toits les sentiments le plus egoiste, et, par con sequent, lorsqu il cst bless e, le moins genereux B. You already see how much this music improves me? The return to nature, to health, to gaiety, to youth, and to virtue! And yet I was one of the most corrupt of the Wagnerians I was capable of taking Wagner seriously. Ah, this old magician! The first thing his art furnishes is a magnifying -glass. What a wise rattlesnake! All his life he has rattled before us about "devotion," about "loyalty," about "purity;" with a panegyric on chastity, he withdrew from the corrupt world!

And we have believed him. But you do not listen to me? You prefer even the problem of Wagner to that of Bizet? I don t undervalue it myself, it has its charm. The problem of salvation is even a venerable problem. There is nothing which Wagner has meditated on more pro foundly than salvation ; his opera is the opera of sal vation.

Someone always wants to be saved in Wagner s works ; at one time it is some little man, at another time it is some little woman that is his problem. And with what opulence he varies his leading motive! What rare, what profound sallies! Who was it but Wagner taught us that innocence has a preference for saving interesting sinners the case in Tann- hduser]?

Alumna Jacquelyn Wagner to sing at La Scala

Or that even the Wandering Jew will be saved, will become settled, if he marries the case in the Flying Dutchman]? Or that corrupt old women prefer to be saved by chaste youths the case of Kundry in Parsifal]? Or that young hysterics like best to be saved by their doctor the case in Lohengrin]? Or that handsome girls like best to be saved by a cavalier who is a Wagnerian the case in the Master-singers]?

Or that "the old God," after he has compromised himself morally in every respect, is finally saved by a freethinker and immoralist the case in the Nibelung s Ring]? Admire especially this last profundity! Do you understand it? I take good care not to understand it That other lessons also may be derived from these w r orks, I would rather prove than deny.

That one should never know too exactly whom one marries for the third time the case of Lohengrin], Tristan and Isolde extols the perfect husband, who on a certain occasion has only one question in his mouth : " But why have you not told me that sooner? Nothing was simpler than that! Wagner, accordingly, ad vocates the Christian doctrine, "Thou shalt believe, and must believe.

Here we take the liberty to ask a question. Granted that it is true, would it at the same time be desirable? What becomes of the " Wandering Jew, " adored and settled down by a woman? He simply ceases to be the eternal wanderer, he marries,, and is of no more interest to us. Trans lated into actuality : the danger of artists, of geniuses for these are the " Wandering Jews "lies in woman : adoring women are their ruin. Hardly anyone has sufficient character to resist being cor rupted being " saved " when he finds himself treated as a god : he forthwith condescends to woman. Man is cowardly before all that is eternally feminine : women know it.

In many cases of feminine love perhaps precisely in the most celebrated cases , love is only a more refined parasitism, a nestling in a strange soul, sometimes even in a strange body Ah! Goethe s fate in moralic-acid, old-maidenish Ger many is known. He was always a scandal to the Germans ; he has had honest admirers only among Jewesses.

Schiller, " noble " Schiller, who blustered round their ears w r ith high-flown phrases, he was according to their taste. Why did they reproach Goethe? For the " Mountain of Venus, " and because he had composed Venetian epigrams. Even Wilhelm Meister was only regarded as a symptom of decadence, of " going to the dogs " in morals. The cultured maiden was however especially roused : all the little courts every sort of " Wartburg " in Germany- crossed themselves before Goethe, before the " unclean spirit " in Goethe.

Wagner has set this history to music. He saves Goethe, that goes without saying, but he does it in such a way that he adroitly takes the part of the cultured maiden at the same time. Goethe is saved ; a prayer saves him, a cultured maiden draws him iipivard. What Goethe would have thought of Wagner? Goethe once proposed to himself the question, " What is the danger which hovers over all romanticists : the fate of the romanticist? For philosophers, however, it is like every other horizon, a mere misap prehension, a sort of door-closing of the region where their world only commences their danger, their ideal, their desirability.

Expressed more politely : la philosophic ne sujfit pas au grand nombre. II hii faut la saintete. I further recount the story of the Nibelung s Ring. It belongs to this place. It is also a story of salvation, only, this time, it is Wagner himself who is saved. For the half of his life, Wagner has believed in revolution, as none but a Frenchman has ever believed in it. He sought for it in the Runic cha racters of myths, he believed that he found in Sieg fried the typical revolutionist. From " old conventions" he answered, like every revolutionary ideologist.

That means from customs, laws, morals, and institutions, from all that the old world, old society rest on. How does one do away with old society? That is what Sieg fried does. It is not the legend, but Wagner who is the inventor of this radical trait ; on this point he has corrected the legend. Siegfried continues as he commenced : he follows only the first impulse, he casts aside all tradition, all reverence, all fear. Whatever displeases him, he stabs down. He runs irreverently to the attack on the old Deities. His principal undertaking, however, is for the purpose of emancipating woman " saving Brunnhilde " Sieg fried and Brunnhilde ; the sacrament of free love ; the dawn of the golden age ; the twilight of the Gods of old morality!

Wagner s vessel ran merrily on this course for a long time. Here, undoubtedly, Wagner sought his highest goal. What happened? A misfortune. The vessel went on a reef ; Wagner was run aground. The reef was Schopenhauer s philosophy ; Wagner was run aground on a contrary view of things. What had he set to music? Wagner was ashamed. In addition, it was an optimism for which Schopen hauer had formed a malicious epithet infamous optimism. He was once more ashamed.

He thought long over it ; his situation seemed desperate A way out of the difficulty finally dawned on his mind. The reef on which he was wrecked how would it be if he interpreted it as the goal, the ultimate purpose, the real meaning of his voyage? Bene navigavi cum naufragium fed. And he translated the Nibelung s Ring into Schopenhauerism.

Everything goes wrong, everything goes to ruin, the new world is as bad as the old. Nothingness, the Indian Circe, makes a sign. Brunnhilde, who according to the earlier design had to take leave with a song in honour of free love, solacing the world in anticipation of a Socialistic Utopia in which " all will be well, " has now something else to do. She has first to study Schopenhauer ; she has to put into verse the fourth book of the " World as Will and Representation.

In all seriousness, that was a o salvation. The service for which Wagner is indebted to Schopenhauer is immense. It was only the philo sopher of decadence who enabled the artist of deca dence to discover himself. The artist of decadence that is the word. And it is here that my seriousness commences.

I am not at all inclined to be a quiet spectator, when this decadent ruins our health and music along with it. Is Wagner a man at all? Is he not rather a disease? Everything he touches he makes morbid he has made music morbid. And nobody defends himself. Wagner s power of seduction becomes prodigious, the smoke of incense steams around him, the misunderstanding about him calls itself " Gospel " it is by no means the poor in spirit exclusively whom he has convinced. I should like to open the windows a little. More air! It does not surprise me that people deceive them selves about Wagner in Germany.

The contrary would surprise me. The Germans have created for themselves a Wagner whom they can worship; they were never psychologists, they are grateful by mis understanding.

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But that people also deceive them selves about Wagner in Paris! And in St. How intimately related to the entire European decadence must Wagner be, when he is not recognised by it as a decadent. He belongs to it : he is its Protagonist, its greatest name. People honour themselves by exalting him to the skies. For it is already a sign of decadence that no one defends himself against Wagner. Instinct is weakened. What should be shunned attracts people. What drives still faster into the abyss is put to the lips. You want an example? Definition of the vegetarian : a being who needs a strengthening diet.

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The exhausted is allured by what is hurtful ; the vegetarian by his pot-herbs. Disease itself may be a stimulus to life : only, a person must be sound enough for such a stimulus! Wagner increases exhaustion ; it is on that account that he allures the weak and exhausted. Oh, the rattlesnake joy of the old master, when he always saw just " the little children " come to him! I give prominence to this point of view : Wagner s art is morbid.

The problems which he brings upon the stage nothing but problems of hysterics , the convulsiveness of his emotion, his over-excited sensi bility, his taste, which always asked for stronger stimulants, his instability, which he disguised as prin ciples, and, not least, the choice of his heroes and heroines, regarded as physiological types a gallery of morbid individuals!

Wagner est unc nevrose. Nothing is perhaps better known at present, at any rate nothing is studied more than the Protean character of degeneracy, which here crystallises as art and artist. Just because nothing is more modern than this entire morbidness, this decrepitude and over-excitability of the nervous mechanism, Wagner is the modern artist par excellence, the Cagliostro of modernism. In his art there is mixed, in the most seductive manner, the things at present most necessary for everybody the three great stimulants of the exhausted, brutality, artifice, and innocence idiocy.

Wagner is a great ruin for music. He has divined in music the expedient for exciting fatigued nerves he has thus made music morbid. He pos sesses no small inventive ability in the art of pricking up once more the most exhausted, and calling back to life those who are half-dead. He is the master of hypnotic passes, he upsets, like the bulls, the very strongest.

The success of Wagner his success on the nerves, and consequently on women has made all the ambitious musical world disciples of his magical art. And not the ambitious only, the shrewd also. At present money is only made by morbid music, our great theatres live by Wagner. I again allow myself a little gaiety. How do you think it would express itself under the cir cumstances? My friends, it would say, let us have five words among ourselves. It is easier to make bad music than good music. What, if, apart from that, it were also more advantageous? Pulchruvi est paucorum hominuvi.

Bad enough! We understand Latin, we perhaps also understand our advantage. The beautiful has its thorns ; we are aware of that. What is the good, then, of beauty? Why not rather the grand, the sublime, the gigantic, that which moves the masses? And once more : it is easier to be gigantic than to be beautiful ; we are aware of that. We know the masses, we know the theatre.

The best that sit in it, German youths, horned Siegfrieds and other Wagnerians, require the sublime, the pro found, the overpowering. Thus much we can ac complish. And the others that sit in the theatre the culture - cretins, the little biases, the eternally feminine, the good digesters, in short the people similarly require the sublime, the profound, and the overpowering.

Those have all one kind of logic. Thus much we can accomplish. As regards the making imaginative, it is here that our conception of " style " has its starting point. Above all, there must be no thought! Nothing is more com promising than a thought! But the state of mind which precedes thought, the travail of yet unborn thoughts, the promise of future thoughts, the world as it w r as before God created it a recrudescence of chaos. In the language of the master : infinity, but without melody. In the second place, as concerns the upsetting, it already belongs in part to physiology.

Let us study first of all the instruments. The colour of sound is decisive here ; what resounds is almost indifferent. Let us refine on this point! What is the use of wasting ourselves on other matters? Let us be characteristic in sound, even to foolishness! It is attributed to our genius when we give much to con jecture in our sounds!