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The 17th century Convent and Church of the Capuchins is also worthy of note. The local festivals feature first and second courses like steaks and sausages, ghighe, truffles and prosciutto which are served with the fine Costa Etrusco Romana IGT wines. Archaeological finds brought to light in the surrounding areas show that the town has ancient origins and dates back to the Bronze Age. The Farnese Castle and Rocca Farnese fortress were built by Pier Luigi Farnese around a 13th century manor on the highest point of the town.

Splendid views can be enjoyed from the terraces and Lake Mezzano, which can be reached only by walking along dirt roads in an area of great natural beauty. A little more than a kilometer from the lake we come to a huge year-old oak tree classified as one of the oldest in Lazio and declared a Natural Monument by the WWF. Other fantastic features are the panoramic Porta Terrazza di San Martino terrace and the palaces in the historic centre.

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Main courses include the excellent lamb bujone, and other typical products are the tuna biche and the PAT pecorino and ricotta. If you have a sweet tooth you will enjoy the biscotto di Ferragosto and the biscuits with walnuts and hazelnuts accompanied by the excellent Tuscia DOC wine. The Tuscia DOC extra virgin olive oil is particularly fine. Its origins are very old, the first traces of a settlement dating back to the Bronze Age, as evidenced by the many artefacts found in Poggio Castello. With many forests, vineyards, chestnut and hazel groves the town is in a very lush setting.

The Church of the Crocifisso, another architectural gem just outside Vallerano, has an ancient crucifix and, every year is the venue for an important pilgrimage. The local hazelnuts are extremely tasty as is the roast pork to which to town dedicates a festival in July. The earliest mention of the town dates back to the 10th century, when it was called Bassanello and was granted as a fiefdom by the Pope to the Abbey of San Silvestro in Rome.

The Medieval town is dominated by the imposing Orsini Castle with crenellated walls and angular towers. It is possible to visit the castle and also the Medieval garden which was a vegetable garden in the s and used by the inhabitants of the castle and the townspeople. In April for the Porticella in Fiori flower festival the historic center of Vasanello is transformed into a huge flower garden, enhancing the beauty of the Viterbo area.

The Colli Cimini IGT and Vignanello DOC white and red wines are an excellent accompaniment for local dishes like the flour and egg dumplings which have a typical dome shape. Oil Festival, December Camper sites. Its historic Medieval centre includes an impressive city wall and the Castle. The numerous graves brought to light outside the town suggest that ancient Vetralla was originally a Villanovian Pagus. Walking through the old town you come to the Romanesque Church of San Francesco built on the remains of a previous building, and the Cathedral in classical style.

It is worth visiting Norchia and its prehistoric, Etruscan, Roman and Medieval archaeological site. Also noteworthy is the Regina Pacis Monastery and the Norchia rock necropolis. The local ricotta cheese is excellent. In the days of the Falisci and the Etruscans it was an active urban center as witnessed by the necropolis in the Valle della Cupa. The village became a real town in the 9th century B.

Strolling through its narrow streets and charming squares you come upon the most important buildings, including the Collegiate Church of Santa Maria dating back to and the Castello Ruspoli built in The fabulous Ottavia Orsini gardens in the castle make this architectural complex one of the most beautiful monuments in the Lazio region. Matteotti, 12 Tel. The great Tuscia DOP extra virgin olive oil and the hazelnuts which are used in desserts such as the tozzetti and crucchi.

Another popular sweetmeat is the pamparito which is eaten with cured meats, boiled eggs and caciotta. Oil and New Wine Festival, November. Built around the 12th century when Sopra Castello Rocca and Rocca di Sotto merged, Cantalice extends vertically along a steep rocky promontory and has a characteristic staircase cutting through it. The houses overlap up to the 18th century church dedicated to San Felice inside which there is an altarpiece of the Baby Jesus with some angels. The parish church, dedicated to Santa Maria del Popolo, has a 17th century painting of the Last Supper, while in the lower part of the village the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie has a beautiful wooden statue of the Madonna.

He was beatified in and canonised in The Sanctuary of San Felice da Cantalice is now a pilgrimage site. In the name of casa perotae first appeared presumably from the ancient name of the town which was owned by Ildebrando the Duke of Spoleto. Of particular note in the center are the Renaissance entrance gate with the stone holders for the hinges of the door and the inner barrel vault, the old Filippi mansion in the highest part of Casaprota, with the adjoining circular tower and the Church of San Domenico which was restored and extended by Cardinal Ippolito Vincenti Mareri in the early 19th century.

The hamlet of Collelungo has the characteristic Medieval urban structure with narrow and winding streets and towers on the old walls that have been converted into homes. Local products include the Cicolano PAT red chestnut, cheese and mushrooms. The crepes with truffles, bruschetta with lard, lamb hunter-style, and wild boar with chestnuts are also excellent. Also enjoy the truffles, bruschette and sausages and among the local specialties we find the fregnacce alla Sabinese, spelt soup and fettuccine with porcini mushrooms. The Capodacqua Sanctuary also dates back to the Middle Ages.

The same miracle occurred with the earthquake of when the miraculous relic was stolen and taken to Leonessa, and only with much effort did Cittareale get it returned to the church. In the s the hydroelectric dam was built, forming lakes Turano and Salto and turning Colle di Tora into a charming town on the water, as fascinating by day as it is by night when the lights reflect in the still waters. It is so in tune with the surrounding forests and mountains that it got the name of Little Switzerland.

It winter it is like a fairy tale and in summer is lively and is perfect for all kinds of excursions and sports like diving and fishing. On a stroll through the old town, past the Castle and the Church of San Lorenzo, you come across beautiful views. Golden eagles and sparrow hawks nest in this picturesque scenery of forests, gorges and streams. And among the local products we find sheep and goat cheese, fresh ricotta, truffles, polenta, chestnut honey, Cicolano PAT red chestnuts and spelt. The local truffles, chestnuts, beans, sausages and polenta are also excellent.

The first mention of Castrum Quintilianum dates back to and today we can still admire the well preserved Medieval walls, urban layout with the two city gates, Santi and Codarda, houses and lanes and the stairways and arches that lead to the summit of the hill, dominated by the 17th century Collegiate Church of San Michele with frescoed chapels. The Cistercian Abbey of San Pastore outside the town, which has undergone major restoration and known different uses, retains its monastic charm.

It was divided into agricultural land with simple houses and important villas which were brought to the light in the s.

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The earliest records date back to , but during the rule of the Orsini nobility in the 13th century it took on the appearance of a town with three surrounding walls. The Porta del Regno gate, rebuilt in , still welcomes those who enter into the stronghold. Tradition has it that St. Francis once stayed here. Black pigs are raised in the Monti Sabini mountains and exclusive products are the cured meats, the San Filippo PAT butter, which is still produced using wooden churns, and the corno di toro PAT tomato.

After being donated to the Abbey of Farfa the town became property of the Brancaleoni family and later the Sforza Cesarinis, which led to the construction of the castle dominating the town. The historic centre has a main street with several buildings leading up to the Fortress, and on the other side is the Belvedere Square, overlooking the Valley of Farfa. The Roman tomb called the Grotta dei Massicci is very beautiful and in was declared a monument of national interest. Surrounded by beautiful oak woods the town has wonderful views.

The parish church of San Michele Arcangelo, next to the tower, was once part of the castle, and has valuable 15th and 16th century works of art. Greccio is synonymous with St. Francis and it was here that the saint of Assisi retired to pray in a hut, protected by two hornbeam trees. And here in by popular request they built La Cappelletta, a chapel dedicated to the saint. It is 1, meters high with beautiful panoramic views over the Holy Valley of Rieti, and on a clear day you can even see the dome of St.

Francis, and known throughout the world as the Franciscan Bethlehem.


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For nature lovers there are the springs known as the Fonte Lupetto. The most popular local dishes include the fregnacce sabinese, soups with cereals, devilled chicken and lamb stew. The spelt with truffles, strengozzi alla reatina and the cherry tarts are also excellent. Desserts include the pasticciata alle noci, mostaccioli, gingerbread and homemade chocolate. Try the bruschetta with the local extra virgin olive oil and the soup of dried beans and chickpeas. Built on the ruins of Trebula Mutuesca this was one of the most important Sabine cities, then a flourishing Roman town, it was owned by various families, then passing, to the Apostolic Chamber at the beginning of the 17th century.

The characteristic alleys, streets and buildings are decorated with Roman finds from the excavations in Trebula. The most important area of Monteleone, which is reached by a short walk, is the Church of Santa Vittoria, a Romanesque gem which has been preserved intact thanks to its position in the green countryside.

The Roman amphitheater near the church has been completely excavated. The fettuccine alla trebulana with bacon and mushrooms are a typical local dish as are the montuni fritters cooked in the pan, and the aniseed donuts. The historic center includes the majestic 17th century Palazzo Barberini built over the Orsini castle, and the Parish Church of San Nicola di Bari built in and renovated in , which houses the paintings of Madonna and Child Enthroned and Santi Domenico e Caterina painted in the s.

The site was identified as belonging to the ancient city of Eretum and tombs, discovered in , are of the underground chamber type with an access corridor. On the local menus we find fettuccine with offal sauce, egg macaroni with asparagus tips, cicerchiole chickpeas, fettuccine aju, oju persia e pummidoro, noodles in broth with beans. Also worth tasting are the pizzafritte, the sausages and liver sausages, and the panontella roast bacon.

This town is a rare example of the two ancient powers - spiritual and temporal - which confronted and kept an eye one on the other, and not only metaphorically speaking. It is in a spectacular position, like a boat floating on green mountains and it has a perfect herringbone layout. Montenero, which is meters long and 40 wide, is a sparsely populated area and so remote and distant and lost in woodlands that it is worth a visit because it is not often you find yourself in such a masterpiece.

The Church of San Cataldo Vescovo, renovated in , has stucco work and Baroque frescoes and a wooden statue of the Madonna dating back to the s, to which the inhabitants of Montenero gave the name of Our Lady of Maternity for the sweet expression on her face. Today the Medieval center, dating back to the 12th century, preserves the castle gate and the remains of the walls and towers. Its existence is testified to by Roman settlements, and the town unfolds in concentric circles around the castle.

The parish church, dedicated to the patron saint San Lorenzo, with the funerary urn which was re-used as a baptismal font, is of particular interest. The townspeople organize hiking trails to the historical Hermitage of San Michele Arcangelo in Lignano Coste which is set among chestnuts, oaks and turkey oaks. In the past it also had a beautiful 15th century gilded silver cross which is now in Rieti.

According to some scholars Nerola took the place of Regillus, a famous town as it was the birthplace of Atta Clausus, founder of the Claudia gens. The people of Regillo worshipped Nereine, the goddess of strength to whom they also dedicated a shrine. And Nerola got its name from this goddess. The Castle, overlooking the town from the top of the hill, is a 12th century fortress which was transformed into a noble residence in the s by the Orsini family. Inside there are beautiful frescoes.

In August it celebrates the Pizzola Festival of fried bread dough sprinkled with salt or sugar. Other local specialties are the pasta alla garibaldina, polenta with chestnut sauce and roveia. Among the main dishes we find wild boar with wild berries and lamb both braised and with olives. The old town is well preserved with winding streets, beautiful houses, 14th and 15th century portals and windows. It was built in the 11th century on a spur and therefore could be defended from invasions, and was typical of the encastellation fortified towns in the area. Filippa was born into the Mareri family, the feudal lords of Petrella.

Her encounter with San Francesco strengthened her religious vocation and Santa Filippa founded the first monastery of the Poor Clares in the Kingdom of Naples, transforming the family castle and the Church of San Pietro. Over time devotion to the saint, to whom many miracles are attributed, spread widely. Joseph, dating back to the late 16th century. There is also excellent grilled lamb, veal steaks or pork chops, fresh water fish like the eel on the spit or truffled trout.

Other typical dishes include cauliflower fritters, spearmint and apples. The zucchini flowers with anchovies are excellent as are the fried pizzas, gnocchi with wild boar sauce, fettuccine with porcini mushrooms and ravioli with truffles. Do not forget the extra virgin olive oil produced by the various mills in the area. A new town was then built along the Salaria where the Church of San Felice already existed and was a resting place for pilgrims who came to Rome for the first Jubilee in history, proclaimed by Boniface VIII in In , by decree of King Robert, Posta was allowed to use the attribute Positae Realis, which sanctioned its membership in the royal domaine, making it responsible, as had been the lords of Machilone, for collecting tolls and taxes.

Later it was marked by the struggles between the Guelfs and Ghibellines and the imposition of the government of the Papal States by Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi who destroyed part of the town in It took about a century to rebuild it and today we can admire the Church of San Michele Arcangelo and the Sanctuary of the Madonna della Valle, which dates back to the 18th century and has a rock painting of the Virgin. In the town center we find the Arco Alchemico arch, a portal with beautiful bas-reliefs sculpted in limestone with ornaments, symbols and alchemical, mythological and sacred inscriptions.

In the Grotte di San Nicola grottos there are the remains of the Roman villa of Senator Quinto Assio which is now an archeological site. Three bells ring on the belltower: the largest and oldest weighing 1, kgs and with a diameter of cms. Then walk up to the Faggio di San Francesco beech tree. And anyone with a sweet tooth should not miss the biscuits with walnuts.

In February the town celebrates the festival of extra virgin olive oil, and in August it organizes the festival of organic trout and shrimp with a triumph of dishes based on fish such as carpa al sesamo. This is the area of the production of the Amatriciano IGP ham. Mentioned for the first time in a document in linked to the longobard Sinibaldo, the town later became part of the Imperial Abbey of Farfa possessions and then of various Roman families.

In it was donated by the Pope to Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini,who around turned the castle, designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi, into a fortress. Austere outside and shaped like an eagle with two defensive towers, the projecting stronghold and sloping walls, inside it is an elegant Renaissance residence with apartments and salons. It is mentioned in as a Fundus with the adjectve Antiquum for a donation of a portion of the Church of San Valentino destined for Farfa Abbey.

If you walk through the old town you can see the tower, defensive structures and lookouts, and a square section with a triple ring of walls. The Eremo di San Leonardo Hermitage, with surrounding walls and the remains of an altar with traces of ancient frescoes, is a place of natural beauty. Around it you can see the remains of a water mill with the pipelines, and the stone of the grinding wheel. It was then that the Pope, remembering the valour of the townspeople, gave them a feud with the papal bull of April 18th The area produces some great white Trebbiano, and red and rosato Sangiovese wines.

Among the desserts we find aniseed donuts and mostaccioli. Festa di Santa Barbara, December. The Medieval plan can be seen in the center and in the fortress and there are also the remains of ancient Roman villas, the Roman bridge and milestones in the archaeological excavations in Madonna dei Colori and in the imperial villa of Nerva. Currently Scandriglia occupies a large area of over six thousand hectares, made up largely of hills but also of forest-covered mountains. Not far from the town stands the Church of Santa Barbara where, according to tradition, St.

Barbara was martyred by her father. The church has a wonderful Madonna delle Grazie in the apse. In the hamlet of Ponticelli you can admire the 13th century Church of Santa Maria del Colle, the interior of which is decorated with votive frescoes dating from the 13th to the 16th centuries.

Toffia was known as Tophiae, and some finds from the 60s have shown that the area was already inhabited a thousand or two thousand years before Christ, and later in Roman times. Over the centuries two important families fought over the town dividing it into independent parts: the lower part belonging to the Orsini, who built Palazzo Orsini and the upper part to the Colonnas, where the Romanesque Church of Santa Maria Nova, which was built on a rocky spur, has frescoes and a painting by Carlo Maratta.

Walking through the old centre you come to the Porta Maggiore castle gate, the Montecavallo district which has ancient palaces with rich travertine portals, the Fortress built on some Roman ruins and the Collitrone, the passegeway under the Castle which comes to an open area where you can enjoy the breathtaking view. Among the religious buildings we find the Church della Madonna di Loreto and the Church of San Lorenzo, with the remarkable bas-relief depicting the figure of a seated Roman emperor dating to the First Empire. For dessert we recommend the ciambelle di magro donuts, the retagliati biscuits with hazelnuts and the murzillitti with honey and walnuts.

The area also produces the Sabina DOP extra virgin olive oil. Among the desserts try the ciambelle al magro donuts. After being owned by the Holy See, in Pope Urban V gave it as a fief to the Orsini family who built a palace in which they often resided. Santa Maria in Vescovio, not far from the town on a picturesque plateau, is a Medieval gem. While it is bare on the outside it has a beautiful bell tower with five rows of windows and inside is richly decorated with a cycle of 14th century frescoes, of the Cavallini circle, with stories of the Old and New Testament on the side walls and a Universal Judgment on the counterfacade.

Another important church is the San Giovanni Battista which has a 6th century artifact re-used as a baptismal font, the Madonna del Rifugio, a beautiful work by Camuccini 19th century and important paintings of the Umbrian school. The handsome twin fortified settlements of Rocchette and Rocchettine, the first inhabited and the second recently abandoned, date back to the Middle Ages. The famous Sabina DOP extra virgin olive oil is produced in the area and used to flavor the excellent local grilled meats and delicious first courses like the gnocchi with lamb sauce, pappardelle with mushrooms or wild boar and the bruschetta with local cheese.

The area belonged to the Equi and then the Romans. Outside the town we can see the remains of a 2nd century B. This area is ideal for lovers of nature, hiking and scenery and it is also lovely to stroll through the atmospheric old Medieval town centre. There is much to discover inside like the rooms that were frescoed in the late s by the Zuccari family and in the s by the Benefials, a collection of weapons, the throne room, the Chapel of San Filippo Neri with part of the Cosmati facade, a handsome Italian hanging garden and a lush forest.

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The basement is also interesting with the ovens, the food and oil pantries and the prison. It also houses the Museum of Musical Traditions and documents from the Arsoli Musical Band which was known as early as the s. The old centre has many traces of the original Medieval nucleus, known as early as , and of the 17th century enlargement: the Roman gate, the Medieval towers, the Collegiate church, the bell tower, the Church of San Giovanni which was built on a pre-existing paleo-Christian church, of which some decorative elements can still be admired. The Fontana dei Delfini, attributed to Vignola, and the Fontana Secca with the coats of arms of Campagnano and the Orsini family are also very beautiful.

The Sanctuary of Santa Maria del Sorbo, which is not far from the town, has a beautiful wooden Madonna with Child. The fasoli col le coteche bean stew and the broccoli o cicci soffocati are also excellent. Along the sweets we find tisichelle, ciammellette de magru and ciammelle della fratellanza. The month of September is dedicated to honey and the famous Campagnano IGP Romanesque artichoke which has only one artichoke for each plant.

Ancient Capena, dating back to the 11th century B. It had walls, gates, buildings, hydraulic systems and a road connecting the Via Flaminia and the Via Tiberina passing through the Santuary of Lucus Feroniae which is now an interesting archaeological site with an Antiquarium and the Villa dei Volusii. It has only two aisles, an intact iconostasis and frescoes, the oldest dating back to the 9th century. The Medieval Palazzo dei Monaci, which was refurbished in the Renaissance and which, among other things, has a graded ramp dug into the rock, is also interesting.

Since the 2nd century B. Ciciliano has been a little ancient gem, perched on the mountainside and sometimes hidden in the fog, with alleyways, stairs, squares, stone houses and portals leading to the Castello Theodoli at the highest part of the town. This is a majestic Medieval building, repeatedly upgraded to what we can see today by the Theodolis, and with two unusual different towers, two splendid hanging gardens, the patrol round and the interior chapel.

Among the most interesting buildings we find The Church of Santa Maria Assunta in Cielo, dating back to the 16th century, which overlooks Piazza Maestro and the beautiful Church of Santa Liberata which, in the apse, has a beautiful cycle of frescoes by the Antoniazzo Romano school. Among the typical pastries we find pangiallo and the Capena serpentone. The Capena DOC white wine is excellent. The area, as all of northern and central Italy, saw the establishment of the Etruscan civilization between the 8th and 6th centuries B.

The castle of the Orsini dukes, in the old centre, has an imposing metre crenellated tower. The Church of Santo Stefano Nuovo, on a basilica plan with three aisles surmounted by arches resting on travertine pillars, is also interesting. The Church of Santo Stefano Vecchio, just outside the city and now a private property, has bronze candlebras on each side of the entrance portal and the Greek marble altar in the apse is now in place of the old ciborium. The name appears to derive from Faliscanum or Faliscianum, the Falisci population that settled in the area. Set on a hill overlooking the Tiber Valley it was part of a signalling system with Farfa Abbey and also protected men and animals coming from the Sabina region across the river.

Built along a single roadway, the Via Filocastello, from the gate below Palazzo del Dago to that towards the Tiber it has remained unchanged and still has all the charm of yesteryear. In the 17th century the town stretched westwards, even then along a single axis, and the Palazzo with its graded ramp became the link between the new and the old. This little church has painted walls and the apse has a beautiful cycle of well preserved 13th century frescoes with the Madonna on the Throne, Saints and a Blessing Christ.

The Palazzo del Drago castle is also the entrance to the town and has an ancient tower. Historians have shown that there were homes here in the prehistoric era that then became the Etruscan town of Veio, which stood in the present municipal area. In the historical Medieval centre we find Palazzo Chigi, the residence of the Orsini family, and the 13th century Church of San Lorenzo which contains two valuable frescoes by the Formello painter Donato Palmieri.

Also worth mentioning is the Villa Chigi-Versaglia which has a three-storey tower called the Torre Colombaia. In the area there are many hollows dug into the tufa rock including a huge tank with arch vaults which is divided into two sections, and a circular stall fifty meters below ground level. The first historical mention of Jenne is found in a parchment with which Pope Saint Leo IX gave Subiaco Abbey the Gushenna fundus with its mountains, hills, and countryside. In the upper part of the town we find the remains of the castle built by the abbot Giovanni V after , and in this Medieval building we can see remains of the Chapel of Santa Maria in Arce with 13th century frescoes.

Jenne is the headquarters of the Monti Simbruini Nature Park which has a large variety of flora and fauna. The Morra Cavorso grotto in the Aniene Valley is very beautiful and contains the remains of at least 23 Neolithic human burials as well as prehistoric archaeological artefacts. The Mola Vecchia and the Municipal Mill are also interesting.

Among the desserts we suggest the ricotta tart with alchermes and the tarts with the bitter-sweet porsarago, a type of local medlar fruit. Among the desserts we find the ciambelle al vino wine donuts, amaretti and the typical blackberry tart. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Conference proceedings. Papers Table of contents 17 papers About About these proceedings Table of contents Search within book.

Front Matter Pages i-vi. How can we then circumvent the limitations to translation that such a double disjuncture imposes? Of course a careful, detailed investigation into the empirical elements offered by the letters and the issues broached therein must always be conducted, but this is not enough: it can only be through a critical awareness of these tensions and resistances that translators may decentre themselves and avoid the pitfalls of identification and idealisation.

It is this decentring at the core of translation that ends up being in itself a form of travelling. It is rather the translator and his reader who are invited to venture across a frontier -- the frontier that sets the limits to their identities, values and representations, and that is both spatial and temporal. In fact, the main challenges to the translation of these letters were posed by the problem of temporality, that is, by the difficulties of bridging the time gap.

The first issue to be tackled was the stylistics of the Portuguese target text. It was not just a matter of finding the best equivalents and transferring contents from the source text into the target language without major semantic losses. It was also a matter of finding a style and a register that could somehow match the original ones. In order to do that, I compared the letters to similar archival and bibliographical sources in Portuguese. The analysis of the examples of letters allowed me to determine the way in which the target text was to be drafted.

In Portuguese, this is not so linear. In the early nineteenth century, modes of address would have varied according not only to social class, age or degree of familiarity, but also to written language conventions. The solution to the difficulty in ascertaining whether we were dealing with informality or politeness was partly given by the manual. This was the form I resorted to throughout.

Another difficulty had to do with wording. The manuals proved useful in guiding my lexical choices. I wanted to give the translation a distinctive period flavour to represent the historical dimension of the original letters. Another challenge was related to the commercial jargon both in English and in Portuguese. Nowadays commercial terminology in both languages is much more complex, but most of the neologisms that currently exist in Portuguese are English words.

Back then, that influence was more tenuous. In any case, the search for the right equivalent would have always been time-consuming. If we multiply this by the wide spectrum of nomenclatures related to those areas of economic activity Hutchinson was directly or indirectly involved in, we have an idea of the complexity of the task. To start with, there were the inner workings of the wool trade business.

I had to unwind the ball of yarn of the English wool and worsted industry, including all the details concerning the different stages of the manufacturing process: recognising the provenance and differences in quality of the raw wool available in both the Portuguese and Spanish markets, the various patterns of the warp and weft, the way the cloth should be cut or dressed, specific types of woollen cloths, their designs and colours, and so on.

It took me a while before I learnt from a magazine published in London in Tilloch that the initials did not stand for any English or Portuguese words, but for Spanish ones. They referred to the way Spanish wool which also included Portuguese wool was classified: Primera or Refina R. Moreover, since conducting business ventures overseas back then was not without its risks, I had to acquaint myself with the idiom used in cargo and shipping insurance, learn about risk-assessment, shipping deadlines, storage conditions, bills of lading, types of merchant ships crossing the Atlantic, and so on.

But then there are also taxes and duties, customs procedures and the requirements of port authorities, the valuation of the bales in the Cocket, [5] goods lodged at the Custom House not yet dispatched -- all of this wrapped up in a language of its own, which has to be patiently disassembled, explored, digested, and then reassembled and fine-tuned in the translation process. In order to penetrate that language I had to resort to historical research once more.

However, since the Revista de Estudos Anglo-Portugueses is aimed at a scholarly readership, it proved unnecessary to insist on the explanation of cultural or linguistic aspects that they are supposed to be already acquainted with. Differences in style between early nineteenth-century and early twenty-first-century Portuguese are noticeable, but they do not make the text less intelligible.

In any case, stylistic conventions should not pose a problem for all the scholars who are used to working with documents of that period. So I kept the footnotes to a minimum. The future publication of a book containing the complete correspondence of the Farrer family, this time aiming at a more general readership, will entail a different explanatory methodology, but not a different stylistic treatment.

Writing narratives of displacement and travel is in itself a translational act, where the author is always seeking to translate into his mother tongue the manifestations of the culture of the other. In the process, the translator is forced to question his identity, values and the representations of his own nation and people, especially if the original text is non-fictional and therefore stakes a claim to the immediacy and truthfulness of the experience. The translator thus has to achieve a tour-de-force in bridging all three gaps and rendering the text accessible to the contemporary reader.

However, the meanings in the target text will always have but a spectral relation with the ones in the source text: they are constructed at the same time as a re-apparition of a former presence that does not present itself as full presence and as the apparition of a new presence —a new text in its own right. Brewster, London, New Left Books. London, R. Covering dates: Paris, ; Joaquim Ferreira de Freitas. London, Richard and Arthur Taylor, He is also the director of studies of postgraduate programmes in ELT and translation.

He has also participated in several European-funded projects related to teacher training and computer-assisted language learning. Marxist discourse and its leading propagandist in Iran, the Tudeh Mass Party, played such a leading role in the Pre-Revolutionary Iran that any account of the reception of other discourses in that period should include an analysis of its relation to it.

Existentialism was the most important rival intellectual movement for Marxist discourse in Pre-Revolutionary Iran, both challenging Marxist discourse and being overwhelmed by it. The present paper aims to investigate, through related translations and indigenous writings, the early reception of existentialist discourse in Iran from to from the fall of Reza Shah to the Coup , a period which coincides with the establishment of the Tudeh party, the zenith of its power and prestige and then its drastic repression.

Translating Echoes

To this end, the article offers an account of the socio-political context of Iran from the s the beginning of the introduction of Existentialism in Iran to the early s with a focus on the role of the Tudeh party. Keywords: Sartrean Existentialism, marxist discourse, Tudeh party, Iran, history. Knowledge, discourses and theories are produced in different ways: whether they are constructed within the borders of a culture, or imported from a different culture through the channel of translation or other forms of rewriting e.

When discourses are imported, the process is generally thought to be easy and unobstructed. However, as Edward Said states, the transfer of knowledge and theory to the new environment is by no means easy and discourses undergo many transformations during the process.

Said observes a recognizable and universal pattern in the transfer of theories and claims that each idea or theory goes through three or four stages in the process of its importation. First of all, there is a starting point, or what seems to be a starting point, a set of initial conditions in which an idea is born or enters into a discourse. The second stage is the distance which the theory or idea travels to find a new significance in its new environment. In the third stage, there are sets of conditions that are called reception or resistance conditions encountered by the immigrant idea or theory.

In the fourth stage, an idea that is now completely or incompletely assimilated undergoes many transformations and finds new applications Said, Venuti also refers to the neglect of translation in philosophical research and states:. According to Venuti , philosophical thinking has long created concepts based on the native versions of foreign texts, but these native versions are generally considered to be transparent, and the influence of native culture and language on the created concepts has been ignored. Despite the general neglect of translation in many fields of study, over the past few decades, migration of theories and discourses through translation has attracted many researchers from the field of Translation Studies.

Some of these scholars have sought to propose new approaches to address the migration of discourses, while others have foreshadowed the pattern of transmission and reception of these discourses.


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  • Some others, like Susam-Sarajeva have tried to account for the migration of theories through conducting multiple- case studies within the framework of Descriptive Translation Studies. Since it is not possible to address all these studies in present paper, two examples will be provided. Robbins puts forward a model for the transmission and reception of discourses through translation, and believes that the target culture may adopt a different stance towards the discursive elements of the alien. In his view, if when confronting with a new discourse, the otherness is ignored, the target culture has an imperialist position.

    If otherness is acknowledged but transformed, the target culture or discourse has a defensive stance. If the target culture or discourse does not prevent the entrance of foreign discourses, the target culture is said to have a trans-discursive stand. And finally, if the target culture encourages the introduction of new discourses, it has a defective stance and is in the position of weakness.

    Dangchao proposes an approach for studying the migration of theories, which he believes is new from three perspectives: first, unlike many studies on the transfer of theories which mainly focus on the moving theories, in this approach the reception of the theories in different times and places is emphasized. Second, in this new approach, in addition to discursive issues emphasized by the previous approaches, the relation between discursive conditions and material conditions is also explored, so that in addition to the study of translated texts, the interaction between discourse and practice is also studied.

    Finally, in this new approach, the complexities of power relations affecting the transfer or non-transfer of theories are also examined. According to Dangchao , there are powers at work that facilitate the transfer of certain theories and prevent the transfer of some other theories. Despite recent international focus on the role of translation in the migration of theories, in Iran modern discourses and theories are often discussed without any reference to the role of translation and translators in constructing them. In Iran, many modern discourses and theories are products of translation.

    This does not mean that some elements of these discourses have not been previously present in Persian literary and philosophical works, but it means that such discourses and theories as coherent sets of knowledge, philosophy and theory and with a specific purpose and worldview are products of translation and importation from different cultures.

    However, few studies have been carried out in this regard and even in those few studies the role of translation in introducing and constructing new discourses has been totally ignored. For example, in a book called Existentialism and Modern Persian literature , which explores the introduction of existential discourse into modern Persian literature, there is no mention of translators and translations as a channel through which this discourse has been introduced and represented. To overcome this shortcoming, the present paper aims to study the early reception of Sartrean Existentialism in Iran with a focus on the role of translation.

    Invito alla presentazione delle domande

    Thus, as Rundle suggests the results may interest a wider range of audience, historians as well as Translation Studies scholars. Existentialism is one of the major foreign discourses that dominated the intellectual life of Iran for decades. As the title suggests, Sartre was introduced to Iranian readers as the founder of this philosophy.

    Although in the years after the Existentialist boom in Iran, Iranian philosophers and theologians took an interest in other branches of this philosophic movement including Heideggerian and religious Existentialism, what dominated the minds of many Iranian writers and intellectuals was French and, in particular, Sartrean Existentialism. The purpose of this article is to explore the reception of this branch of Existentialism which proved to be an important intellectual movement in Iran for more than three decades.

    In order to understand Existentialism in Iran, we must first understand the important role that Marxist discourse and its leading propagandist, the Tudeh party, played in pre-revolutionary Iran. This article aims to investigate the early reception of Existentialist discourse in Iran from to from the fall of Reza Shah to the Coup , a period which coincides with the establishment of the Tudeh party, its rise to popularity with intellectuals and, finally, its severe repression.

    During these 12 years, the country experienced many social changes and political crises. As a result of the relative freedom of the period , various parties were established and various periodicals emerged. Among the many parties that had been active in these years, only six continued to operate in the following years as national organizations. At the beginning, the Tudeh party was a democratic and popular front. Until , the Party leadership was a combination of Marxist and Social-Democrat elements, with its Marxist members exerting much more influence.

    Since the party supported democratic and popular aspirations and since the popularity of the Soviet Union was increasing at that time, the party managed to recruit many young and educated people. But perhaps the most important attraction of the party for the young and educated was its capability for publishing new European ideas. The party was the focal point for those who were interested in these ideas Katouzian The party recruited not only a relatively broad spectrum of white collar workers and craftsmen, but also many prominent intellectuals who enjoyed a high status in Iranian society Abrahamian Ehsan Tabari a: 3 , a founding member and theoretician of the Tudeh party, said at the time:.

    Although, from the very beginning, Socialist Realism, the official literary and artistic school of the Soviet Union, attracted the Tudeh party members, it was not until that it dominated most of its literary productions. In fact, it can be claimed that the Tudeh party, while using intellectual writers and translators to promote its ideology, also provided them with an opportunity to publish their own ideas. After the defeat of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party in , a split occurred in the Tudeh party and a group of intellectuals led by Khalil Maleki left the party in and some of the party leaders had to move abroad Behrooz ; Katouzian The crisis that followed the suppression of the soviet-supported revolt in Azerbaijan and the reorganization of the party in , which led to its severe ideologization, along with the greater restrictions imposed by the Soviet Communist Party on writers and artists from to undermined literary and artistic pluralism in the Tudeh party and strengthened socialist realism.

    Gradually the principles, criteria and foundations of socialist realism were accepted by a large number of party members, and eventually socialist realism not only became the artistic and literary ideology of the Tudeh party of Iran but, with some adjustments, it became the theoretical basis of literature and revolutionary and popular art in Iran for four decades Khosropanah The political and cultural ideology of the Tudeh party and the Soviet literature it advocated, affected the literary production of many Iranian writers and poets such as Abdul-Hossein Noushin, Mahmoud Etemadzadeh Behazin , and Siavash Kasrai.

    However, this impact was ambivalent; on the one hand, it supported and promoted a new type of literature, but, on the other, it prevented the development of a free literature due to its ideological nature Akbariani In , the Tudeh party faced another crisis, which led to the dissolution of the party by the government. The Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was the victim of an assassination attempt during a ceremony at the University of Tehran that year. The government blamed the Tudeh party, which was dissolved and forced to go underground. Since many of its leaders were arrested and the party had little experience in underground activities, the crisis posed a serious threat to its survival.

    However, since the government was not strong enough at the time to impose a brutal repression, the party soon managed to reorganize by creating a number of front organizations and publications in order to compensate for its inability to function openly. After that, the Tudeh party became a full member of the International Communist Front. Behrooz ; Katouzian With the start of the Oil Nationalization Movement led by Mosaddegh, a prominent parliamentarian and prime minister from , the Tudeh party became one of the main actors in the political scene in Iran.

    After public protests that led to the re-election of the prime minister Mosaddegh, who had resigned because the Shah had refused to give him the control of the Ministry of Defence, the party changed its course and supported Mosaddegh. The Tudeh party failed to take effective action against the coup. Consequently, many party leaders were forced to leave Iran.

    They fled to the Eastern bloc, many of them staying there until the Islamic Revolution in Behrooz ; Katouzian As observed by Baqer Momeni , a historian and former member of the Tudeh party, the impact of the Tudeh party on the political and cultural atmosphere of Iran was so great that even after seventy years, it is acknowledged by writers and scholars from various, even opposing, intellectual and social fronts.

    Momeni states:. In this period, Sartre and Existentialism were introduced to Iranians both through translations and indigenous writing. During these 12 years, five fictional works by Sartre were translated and published in Iran and a book entitled Makateb-e Falsafi: Existancializm [Philosophical Schools: Existentialism] was written in by Hossein Kasmaie. The number of articles published on Sartre and Existentialism was small.

    However, a closer look at the list of translators and publishers suggests that Sartre was imported with specific political and cultural agendas. It also responds to the recent calls in Translation Studies to focus on translators, e. Pym The socio-political situation in which this translation was carried out as well as the professional profile of Hedayat and his association with the Tudeh party, leads us to attribute some other motives to him. There are various accounts of the relationship between Hedayat and the Tudeh party, but in almost all of these, there is agreement that despite his initial sympathy with the Tudeh party, Hedayat was never a member of the party, regularly criticizing its leaders and policies.

    At a time when the hegemony of the Tudeh party attracted intellectuals from a variety of spheres, Hedayat was often considered to belong to an intellectual current that, although very small at that time, had a more philosophical and profound approach to social affairs, a current which was perhaps initiated by Hedayat himself through his translations of works by Kafka and Sartre. So, it is not unlikely that one of his intentions in introducing Sartre was to introduce ideas which could challenge the ruling ideology of the Tudeh party.

    As Ehsan Tabari [2] n. The story of Le Mur is full of existential themes such as despair, death and emptiness. Existentialist ideas such as the random nature of life and the absence of causal relationships in the world, as are evident in this story, are strongly opposed to the Marxist- Leninist ideas prevalent at that time. The party member speaking in the article then invites the disillusioned intellectual to abandon Existentialism and convert to Marxist-Leninist philosophy, and says:. The publication of the translation of Le Mur in the journal Sokhan confirms the hypothesis that Existentialism was introduced as part of an effort to challenge the ideology propagated by the Tudeh party.

    The aim of the journal was to help promote the development of Persian literature, literary criticism, literary research, and to introduce foreign writers and poets through translation Sadeqzadeh-Ardobadi Specifically, the journal Sokhan , which was published for 27 years, showed an increasing interest in Existentialist philosophers and thinkers as the modern writers of the era.

    Khanlari, a professor of Persian literature at the University of Tehran, established the journal in Khanlari seems to have been attracted to the Tudeh party until the events of Azerbaijan in , but he was never a member of the party. An examination of the content of this journal with its emphasis on French literature in a period in which Russian literature and the Soviet communist system were praised and promoted by many Iranian intellectuals reinforces the previously mentioned hypothesis that the introduction of existentialist writers in this period was also initiated in order to pose a challenge against the dominant ideology of the Tudeh party.

    Written by Fereydoun Hoveyda, the article was probably the first article on Sartre and Existentialism in Iran. Although the article is apparently not written to contest leftist discourse, it does challenge it. The article begins as follows:. From the very beginning, the author suggests that France has a great potential for the development of great intellectual schools when compared to other countries, and perhaps creates an opposition in the mind of the reader between France as a Western European country and the Soviet Union, which was a promised land to many intellectuals of that time.

    The emphasis on the emergence of these great schools after the great revolutions and transformations is also a reminder of the socio-political conditions in Iran at that time. It can be argued that this article tends to promote rather than just introduce Sartre and his philosophy at a time when the Marxist-Leninist discourse was the dominant intellectual discourse in Iran. La putain respectueuse was the second work by Sartre which was translated into Persian in The play was translated by Abdul-Hossein Noushin, a playwright, theater director and a leading member of the Tudeh party.

    He was one of the first to import Western theatrical works into Iran, and his translation of Sartre was part of this initiative. However, considering the association of Noushin with the Tudeh party and the attitude of Party officials towards Existentialism and Sartre, the publication of this play in the official journal of the party may seem strange at first.

    It seems that, in the early years of its activity, the party would resort to any conceivable means to promote its cause. Although the Tudeh party advocated socialist realism in literature and art from the outset, it did not boycott the poets and writers who followed other artistic currents, even writers such as Sartre and Kafka, who, at that time, were banned and considered decadent in the Soviet Union Khosropanah After the split in the Tudeh party in , this literary pluralism was gradually abandoned, so much so that in Ehsan Tabari and his followers denounced the artistic and philosophical schools which they saw as capitalist and decadent.

    In these essays, Sartre and his philosophy of Existentialism, which were previously introduced and advocated in the Tudeh party periodicals, were harshly criticized. By doing this, the Party pursued two goals: to attract a variety of intellectuals from different fronts, and to co-opt other influential discourses to advance its goals.

    So, not only did the content of the play not challenge the anti-imperialist ideology of the Tudeh party, but it also helped to promote its cause. Amir-Nasser Khodayar , a translator, writer and journalist, translated it into Persian in Like many intellectuals of the time, Khodayar was initially interested in the Tudeh party, and worked closely with people like Abdul Hossein Noushin and Khalil Maleki.

    The selection of a short story from the Le Mur collection previously introduced by Hedayat signals the significance of Hedayat as an initiator of a discourse on Sartre and Existentialism, a discourse which was gradually developed by other intellectuals of the time to both challenge and help define the dominant discourse of the Tudeh party. Unlike the other translators of Sartre, the translator of this work, Mustafa Farzaneh, was a young and novice translator who had the opportunity to meet and co-operate with Sadeq Hedayat.

    Being a disciple of someone who introduced Sartre into Iran encouraged Farzaneh, who translated short texts for different periodicals at the time, to translate a play by Sartre. This attack clearly shows that at that time the Tudeh party identified Hedayat with the Existentialist movement, a movement which his student and close friend, Mustafa Farzaneh, also aligned himself with by translating Huis clos.

    Like Hoveyda, Farzaneh identifies Existentialist philosophy with Sartre in his introduction, and from the very beginning tries to emphasize its novelty, which he sees as a privilege. Farzaneh then introduces and interprets the play, raising a series of points that are clearly in opposition to the dominant Marxist-Leninist discourse. Historical materialism has a different approach to the relationship between individual and society and sees mankind as an inherently social being. For Marxists, the individual is a kind of abstraction, and all human achievements are the result of collective action, and as a result of this collective effort society can reach its final stage after going through different temporary phases Novack The fifth and the last work by Sartre to be translated into Persian before the coup was Les mains sales.

    This play was translated by Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, a writer, intellectual and a former member of the Tudeh party. Following the events of Azerbaijan and the split in the Tudeh party, Al-e-Ahmad also separated from the party in along with Maleki and became one of its severest critics.

    Despite what Amenkhani claims, after leaving the Tudeh party Al-e-Ahmad did not completely dismiss politics and collective activities, but he first joined Hezb-e Zahmatkeshan the Party of the Hardworking and then Hezb-e Zahmatkeshan-e Melat-e Iran the Party of the Hardworking People of Iran. It was after leaving this last party in that he withdrew from all political activity. So, in , when he translated Les mains sales , he had not yet abandoned political activities and was active in a party opposed to the Tudeh party.

    Considering the political orientations of Al-Ahamad at the time it is reasonable to suppose that his decision to translate an anti-communist work by Sartre was at least in part motivated by a desire to challenge the dominant ideology of the Tudeh party. As we have seen, the importation of Sartrean Existentialism into Iran can be interpreted in three ways: First, it can be considered part of the uninterrupted effort by Iranian intellectuals since the Constitutional Revolution to import the knowledge, philosophy and literature of the West into Iran as it is true of almost all other Western writers.

    Second, it can be regarded as an attempt by non-leftist intellectuals to confront the dominant Tudeh discourse by introducing an assumed non-left-wing Western discourse as in the case of Hedayat, Farzaneh, Khanlari and Al-e-Ahmad. Third, it can also be seen as an attempt by intellectuals and advocates of leftist discourse to advance their goals by appropriating another emerging discourse as in the case of Noushin, and other Tudeh intellectuals.

    Susam-Sarajeva argues and rightly so that the selection of texts not to be translated, the timing of the translations, and the professional profiles of the translators are among the factors influencing the reception of foreign discourses and writers. The translations of Sartre published in this period, the professional profile of the translators and the indigenous material written on Sartre and his philosophy in Iran show that his reception was more focused on the social and political application of his thinking than on its philosophical implications. It was in the late s that Sartre changed his mind and embraced Marxism, declaring that Existentialism had become a subordinate branch of Marxism with the aspiration of enriching and renewing it Novack From his early reception in Iran in the s to his later popularity in the s and s, this paradoxical development of Sartrean Existentialism allowed intellectuals from different political currents to focus on those aspects of his philosophy which best suited their purpose.

    In the period under study, Existentialism was mainly understood as an individualistic, nihilistic and pessimistic philosophy. This image was created by the working together of different factors, the most important among which were the efforts of the Tudeh party. In rejecting Existentialism, the Tudeh party was merely echoing soviet and Western criticisms of Existentialism.

    The anti-Existentialist ideas translated in this journal soon found their way into the indigenous material. The ideas propagated in the article were immediately picked up by Iranian intellectuals and writers leading to the publication of a series of indigenous articles in the subsequent issues of the journal. The selection of anti-Existentialist articles for translation played both an indicative role, showing the local concerns and the prevailing attitudes towards Existentialism, and a formative role, shaping and transforming the images of Sartre and Existentialism.

    Translations of anti-Existentialist writings mainly by the Tudeh party created a strong narrative which was both adopted and criticized, in the following years, by variously affiliated intellectuals and writers, ranging from Marxists to Islamists. The pattern of books not translated in this period was another factor influencing the reception of Existentialism as a nihilistic and pessimistic philosophy.

    By , Sartre had published almost 20 books 15 fictional, 4 philosophical and 1 critical book , 5 of which all fictions had been translated in Iran. To defend himself against the charge of pessimism in his fictional works, Sartre wrote:. The fact that the only works by Sartre translated in this period were his works of fiction can, to some extent, account for his reception as a pessimistic writer.

    This translation pattern, which created a pessimistic image of Existentialism strengthened the defensive attitude of its opponents, mostly Marxists, in Iran by supplying them with material which was clearly opposed to the socialist-realist ideas propagated by them. This book was first translated into Persian in with a time-lag of almost 19 years. It would seem, then, that discourses are not transferred and received as simply and as innocently as might appear. Discourses are not transferred to merely fill a gap in knowledge or produce something that the target language and culture lacks, but are often transferred to serve given purposes.

    By breaking off the prior intertextual relations and forming a network of new relations, discourses often find new meanings and intentions in their new destinations, which may contradict their original meanings and purposes. Translation, together with other forms of rewriting, plays a very important role in the transfer of discourses. As Susam-Sarajeva 1 points out, translation plays both an indicative and a formative role, that is, it both allows insights into the workings of a given system and influences the receiving system.

    The early reception of Sartrean Existentialism clearly shows this dual role of translation. During this period, many newspapers and periodicals were established and many parties and organizations were formed. The Marxist-Leninist discourse of the Tudeh party became the dominant intellectual discourse. It was during this period that Sartre and Existentialism were introduced for the first time. The confrontation between Russian Marxism and Sartrean Existentialism, which was evident in the position of the Soviet Communist Party towards Existentialism and in the early works of Sartre, was used both by the Tudeh Party members such as Noushin and Tabari to promote Marxism and by anti-Marxist intellectuals and translators such as Hedayat and Al-e-Ahmad to challenge it.

    The symbiotic working together of the different factors including the pattern of translations and the profile of the translators of Sartre and the attempts of the Tudeh Party to establish itself as an unrivaled discourse constructed an image of Sartre and Existentialism which continued into the following Decades.

    In this Period, Sartrean Existentialism was mainly received as a nihilistic and imperialistic philosophy which posed a threat to the then dominant Marxist Ideology and its revolutionary ends. The images of Sartre and Existentilism constructed in this period served as a foundation for later receptions of Sartre. Although Sartre had successfully defended his philosophy against the accusation of being nihilistic and had revealed his Marxist tendencies by the late s, in the s Iran, a nihilistic image of Existentialism and a narrative of the contrast between Marxism and Existentialism constructed in the s were still holding sway.

    The professional profile of the translators of Sartre and other agents in this period and the political ends they pursued prevents us from assigning the fragmented picture of Existentialism in s and the contradictory purposes it served to its poor application in Iran. In fact, Sartrean Existentialism was mainly discussed and translated for purposes other than its mere understanding and introduction.

    Fatahi, Tehran, Nashr-e Ney. Nourozi, Name-ye Mardom 5, no. Tadayion, Tehran, Rasa. Mohajer, Tehran: Sahba. Novack, George E. Poetics Today 15 , no. Said, Edward. Sartre, Jean-Paul , Existentialism and Humanism , trans. Mariet, London, Metheun. Amsterdam, Rodopi. Tabari, Ehsan n. Venuti, Lawrence The scandals of translation: towards an ethics of difference , London, Routledge. She is currently a Ph. Her academic interests include literary Translation, Translation History, and the modern history of Iran. Khazaee Farid has been the founder and editor of the quarterly Motarjem The Translator published since His major interests are the practice and theory of literary translation.

    English: This article aims to investigate how humour is translated in two theatrical plays by Eugene Ionesco La Cantatrice chauv e and Les Chaise s into Greek. The study explores three different Greek versions of the two theatrical plays. On the one hand, it seeks to consider humorous effects within the original plays, and on the other hand, it investigates the challenges involved in transposing verbal humour and the strategies used to translate or even reinforce humour in the translated texts.

    If incongruity is an indispensable humour - provoking parameter, translators should also seek to mobilize the same cognitive mechanism in the translated texts. It is argued that even if a more literal translation is not always privileged or even possible, what is of importance is the humorous effect, otherwise the perlocutionary force of the translated humour on the target audience.

    Nous sommes comiques. Toutes les personnes importantes? Les psychiatres et leurs psychopathes? Le Pap e, les pap illons et les pap iers. Ionesco , Les Chaises , traduit par Belies, p.