Tertiaries and " Oblates regular " are laypersons who live according to the third rule of orders such as those of the Secular Franciscan Order or Lay Carmelites , either within a religious community or outside. They must not be confused with "Oblates secular ", who are not members of the consecrated life but are laypersons married or single or secular priests that have individually affiliated themselves in prayer with a House of their choice without making public vows.
They make a formal private promise annually renewable or for life, depending on the house with which they are affiliated to follow the rule of prayer in their private life as closely as their individual circumstances and prior commitments permit. The Church recognizes several other forms of consecrated life, including secular institutes, societies of apostolic life and consecrated widows and widowers. Baptism of an infant by affusion. Membership of the Catholic Church is attained through baptism.
Those never baptized may be admitted to Baptism by participating in a formation program such as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults. This ordinarily occurs at the Easter Vigil on Holy Saturday. Members of the Church can incur excommunication for serious violations of ecclesiastical law. Excommunication does not remove a member from the Church but severely limits the member's ability to participate in it. For very serious offenses, the excommunication can be incurred automatically.
Such offences can only be forgiven by the Pope, the bishop of the diocese where the person resides, or a priest authorized by the bishop to do so. Excommunication, which is a "medicinal" measure meant to lead to repentance, does not make the person to whom it is applied cease to be a member of the Church. To terminate one's membership, a person must present to the competent Church authority a formal act of defection.
If that person later wishes to rejoin the Church, the procedure is the same as for any baptized non-Catholic, namely by a profession of faith, again before the competent Church authority. Church membership in was 1. Some parts of Europe and the Americas have experienced a shortage of priests in recent years as the number of priests has not increased in proportion to the number of Catholics. With a high number of adult baptisms, the Church is growing faster in Africa than anywhere else.
In Oceania, the Church faces challenges in reaching indigenous populations where over different languages are spoken. The influence of the Catholic Church on world culture and society has been vast, first and foremost in the development of European civilization from Greco-Roman times to the modern era.
In addition, the Church played a significant role in moderating some of the excesses of the colonial era. The Jesuits produced the large majority of priest-scientists, who contributed to worldwide cultural exchange by spreading their developments in knowledge to Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
According to historian Thomas Noble, the effect of the Galileo affair was to restrict scientific development in some European countries. The Catholic Church was the dominant influence on the development of Western art, at least up to the Protestant Reformation. Important contributions include its consistent opposition to Byzantine iconoclasm , its cultivation and patronage of individual artists, as well as development of the Romanesque , Gothic and Renaissance styles of art and architecture.
This led directly to the emergence and development of European classical music , and its many derivatives. The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.
The Catholic Church considers Pentecost to be the beginning of its own history. The New Testament gospels indicate that the earliest Christians continued to observe traditional Jewish pieties such as fasting , reverence for the Torah and observance of Jewish holy days. As Christianity spread to non-Jews, disputes over observance of the Mosaic law generated intense controversy. A pivotal moment in this dispute occurred in the mid-1st century, when the circumcision controversy arose and was ultimately addressed at the Council of Jerusalem.
At this council, Paul made an argument that circumcision was no longer necessary, vocally supported by Peter, as documented in Acts This position received widespread support and was summarized in a letter circulated in Antioch. In the second century, writings by teachers such as Ignatius of Antioch and Irenaeus defined Catholic teaching in stark opposition to Gnosticism.
These writers are collectively known as Church Fathers. Early Christians were slaughtered as entertainment in the Colosseum in Rome. Early Christians refused to offer sacrifices to the Roman gods or to worship Roman rulers as gods and were thus subject to persecution. During this era of persecution, the early Church evolved both in doctrinal and structural ways. The apostles had convened the first Church council, the Council of Jerusalem , to resolve issues concerning evangelization of Gentiles.
By 58 AD, a large Christian community existed in Rome. The concept of the primacy of the Roman bishop over other churches was increasingly recognized by the church at large from at least the second century although disputes over the implications of that primacy would ultimately lead to schisms. Despite persecution, Christianity spread and was eventually legalized in under Constantine's Edict of Milan. Emperor Constantine I commissioned the first Basilica of St. Peter and several other sites of lasting importance to Christianity. After the legalization of Christianity, a number of doctrinal disputes led to the calling of ecumenical councils.
The doctrinal formulations resulting from these ecumenical councils were pivotal in the history of Christianity. The first seven Ecumenical Councils , from the First Council of Nicaea to the Second Council of Nicaea , sought to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christendom. In , the First Council of Nicaea convened in response to the threat of Arianism ; in order to encapsulate the basic tenets of the Christian belief, it promulgated a creed which became the basis of what is now known as the Nicene Creed.
Constantine moved the imperial capital to Constantinople, and the Council of Chalcedon AD elevated the See of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome". Rome had particular prominence over the other dioceses; it was considered the see of Peter and Paul, it was located in the capital of the empire, it was wealthy and known for supporting other churches, and church scholars wanted the Roman bishop's support in doctrinal disputes.
Following the collapse of Roman power in Western Europe, the Catholic faith competed with Arianism for the conversion of the barbarian tribes. They also functioned as agricultural, economic and production centers, particularly in remote regions, becoming major conduits of civilization. Pope Gregory the Great reformed church practice and administration around and launched renewed missionary efforts  which were complemented by other missionary movements such as the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
From the 8th century, Iconoclasm , the destruction of religious images, became a major source of conflict in the eastern church. In , the Second Council of Nicaea ruled in favor of the iconodules but the dispute continued into the early 9th century. This ultimately created a new problem as successive Western emperors sought to impose an increasingly tight control over the popes. Eastern and Western Christendom grew farther apart in the 9th century. Conflicts arose over ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Byzantine-controlled south of Italy, missionaries to Bulgaria and a brief schism revolving around Photios of Constantinople.
The Cluniac reform of monasteries that had begun in sparked widespread monastic growth and renewal. Monasteries, convents and cathedrals still operated virtually all schools and libraries. The college of cardinals in was created to free papal elections from interference by Emperor and nobility. Lay investiture of bishops, a source of rulers' dominance over the Church, was attacked by reformers and under Pope Gregory VII , erupted into the Investiture Controversy between Pope and Emperor. The matter was eventually settled with the Concordat of Worms in where it was agreed that bishops would be selected in accordance with Church law.
The crusades also saw the formation of military orders which included the Hospitallers , Templars and later, the Teutonic Knights all of whom provided social services as well as guardianship of pilgrim routes. Twelfth century France witnessed the emergence of Catharism , a dualist heresy that had spread from Eastern Europe through Germany. When this turned into an "appalling massacre",  he instituted the first papal inquisition to prevent further massacres and to root out the remaining Cathars.
Over time, other inquisitions were launched by secular rulers to prosecute heretics, often with the approval of Church hierarchy, to respond to the threat of Muslim invasion or for political purposes. After a falsified papal bull was circulated by Philip in a "smear campaign" against the pope, Boniface promulgated Unam Sanctam. In , the scholar Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly , a work which captured a widely held unease about corruption in the Church.
These challenges developed into a large and all encompassing European movement called the Protestant Reformation. In a far graver conflict, the Thirty Years' War , followed. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre marked the turning point in this war. Whitby Abbey , England , one of hundreds of monasteries destroyed during the Reformation. When the annulment of his marriage was denied by the pope, Henry had Parliament pass the Acts of Supremacy , , which made him, and not the pope, head of the English Church. The Catholic Church responded to doctrinal challenges and abuses highlighted by the Reformation at the Council of Trent — , which became the driving force of the Counter-Reformation.
Doctrinally, it reaffirmed central Catholic teachings such as transubstantiation , and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. These included the Theatines , Barnabites and Jesuits , some of which became the great missionary orders of later years. Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI reformed abuses that were occurring in the Church's hierarchy, including simony , nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a large papal debt.
Just before the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire in ,  in an effort to combat the spread of Islam, Pope Nicholas V granted Portugal the right to subdue and even enslave Muslims, pagans and other unbelievers in the papal bull Dum Diversas Several decades later European explorers and missionaries spread Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania. Pope Alexander VI had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal  and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies.
In the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan made the first Catholic converts in the Philippines. When some Europeans questioned whether the Indians were truly human and worthy of baptism, Pope Paul III in the bull Sublimis Deus confirmed that "their souls were as immortal as those of Europeans" and they should neither be robbed nor turned into slaves. Church growth came to a halt in under the Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu who, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians or Kirishitan 's.
San Francisco was founded in and Los Angeles in In a challenge to Spanish and Portuguese policy, Pope Gregory XVI , began to appoint his own candidates as bishops in the colonies, condemned slavery and the slave trade in the papal bull In Supremo Apostolatus , and approved the ordination of native clergy in the face of government racism. In South America, Jesuit missionaries tried to protect native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called reductions. In China, despite Jesuit efforts to find compromise, the Chinese Rites controversy led the Kangxi Emperor to outlaw Christian missions in Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI reformed abuses by the Church, including simony , nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a large papal debt.
However the religious conflicts of the 16th and 17th centuries played a major role in provoking a backlash against Christianity in 18th century Europe. In a philosophical and cultural movement known as " the Enlightenment ", the power and influence of the Church over Western society declined as ideologies such as rationalism, secularism, nationalism, anti-clericalism, liberalism and freemasonry challenged it. These movements culminated in the violent anti-clericalism of the French Revolution. Direct attacks on the wealth of the Church and associated grievances led to the wholesale nationalisation of church property in France.
The pope was imprisoned by French troops, and died in after six weeks of captivity. Napoleon later re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of The expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the principal Catholic nations of Europe and their colonial empires is seen by some as the first major triumph of the secularist notions of the self-styled Age of Enlightenment. The suppression was also seen by many as an attempt by Catholic monarchs to gain control of revenues and trade that were previously dominated by the Society of Jesus, this included the takeover destruction of the Jesuit reductions and the enslavement of many of their previously-protected inhabitants.
With the reaction against the anti-clerical excesses of the Revolution, especially after , came Catholic revival, renewed enthusiasm, and new respect for the papacy. This set out Catholic social teaching in terms that rejected socialism but advocated the regulation of working conditions, the establishment of a living wage and the right of workers to form trade unions.
In , two American Catholics, Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin , founded a new Catholic peace group, the Catholic Worker that would embody their ideals of pacifism, commitment to the poor and to fundamental change in American society. Although the infallibility of the Church in doctrinal matters had always been a Church dogma, the First Vatican Council , which convened in , affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in certain specifically defined pronouncements. By the close of the 19th century, European powers controlled most of the African interior.
Catholic missionaries followed colonial governments into Africa and built schools, hospitals, monasteries and churches. In Latin America, beginning in the s, a succession of anti-clerical regimes came to power in countries such as Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Venezuela. Anti-clericalism also resulted in violence and expropriation of Church properties in Spain and the Soviet Union. On 20 July , the Vatican signed an agreement with Germany, the Reichskonkordat , which guaranteed the Church certain rights and freedoms.
Catholic Mortal Agony of Christ chapel at Dachau concentration camp. Of the ministers who were imprisoned there during World War II , over were Catholic priests, of whom ultimately did not survive. Following the Soviet doctrine regarding the exercise of religion , postwar Communist governments in Eastern Europe severely restricted religious freedoms. Even though some clerics collaborated with the Communist regimes,  the Church's resistance and the leadership of Pope John Paul II have been credited with hastening the downfall of communist governments across Europe in When Chinese churches eventually reopened they remained under the control of the Communist party's Patriotic Church, and many Catholic pastors and priests continued to be sent to prison for refusing to renounce allegiance to Rome.
This college does not exist without its head, the successor of St. Peter the Pope. It also permitted the Latin liturgical rites to use vernacular languages as well as Latin during Mass and other sacraments. Changes to old rites and ceremonies following Vatican II produced a variety of responses. Although most Catholics "accepted the changes more or less gracefully", some stopped going to church and others tried to preserve what they perceived to be the "true precepts of the Church". Liberal Catholics form another dissenting group, and feel that the Vatican II reforms did not go far enough.
A cornerstone of the Liberation Theology were ecclesial base communities , groups uniting clergy and laity in social and political action. At the Conference of Latin American Bishops in Puebla, Mexico, Pope John Paul II and conservative bishops attending the conference attempted to rein in the more radical elements of liberation theology; however, the conference did make a formal commitment to a "preferential option for the poor". The sexual revolution of the s precipitated Pope Paul VI 's encyclical Humanae Vitae On Human Life which rejected the use of contraception , including sterilization , claiming these work against the intimate relationship and moral order of husband and wife by directly opposing God's will.
The Church maintains that in countries like Kenya and Uganda, where behavioral changes are encouraged alongside condom use, greater progress in controlling the disease has been made than in those countries solely promoting condoms. The documents of the Second Vatican Council expressed a new attitude of openness in the Catholic Church toward non-Catholics including Protestant, and Orthodox Christians as well as non-Christians including members of the Jewish faith and Muslims.
In the years since, major ecumenical projects have been undertaken with these major religious groups to improve relationships and establish areas of theological agreement and practical cooperation. Since the end of the twentieth century, sex abuse by Catholic clergy has been the subject of media coverage, legal action, and public debate in Australia , Ireland and the United States. The Pope remains an international leader who regularly receives heads of state from around the world. As the head of the Holy See , he occasionally addresses the United Nations where the Holy See is the only non-member observer state with all the rights of full membership except voting.
His first encyclical Deus Caritas Est God is Love discussed the various forms of love and re-emphasized marriage and the centrality of charity to the Church's mission. Following outcry from Muslims over Pope Benedict's Regensburg address , in which he quoted a Byzantine emperor's remarks critical of Islam, a May summit between the pope and a delegation of Muslims came to an agreement that religion is essentially non-violent, and that violence can be justified neither by reason nor by faith.
The Church also sponsors the Pontifical Academy of Sciences , which provides the Pope with information on scientific matters  and whose international membership includes British physicist Stephen Hawking and Nobel laureates such as U. In politics, the Church actively encourages support for candidates who would "protect human life, promote family life, pursue social justice, and practice solidarity" which translate into support for traditional views of marriage, welcoming and support for the poor and immigrants, and those who would work against abortion. Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ].
See also: History of the Catholic Church. Main article: Catholic theology. See also: Original sin. See also: Catholic social teaching. See also: Liturgy of the Hours. See also: Catholic spirituality. See also: Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church. Further information: Catholicism by country. Main article: History of early Christianity. Further information: High Middle Ages. Further information: Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery.
The Church is referred to and refers to itself in various ways, in part depending upon circumstance. It appears in the title of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Hence this has been the title used in some documents involving ecumenical relations. However, the name "Roman Catholic Church" is disliked by many Catholics, as a label applied to them by others to suggest that theirs is only one of several catholic churches, and to imply that Catholic allegiance to the Pope renders them in some way untrustworthy.
Paul, who wrote of the advantages celibacy allowed a man in serving the Lord,  celibacy was "held in high esteem" from the Church's beginnings. It is considered a kind of spiritual marriage with Christ, a concept further popularized by the early Christian theologian Origen. Clerical celibacy began to be demanded in the 4th century, including papal decretals beginning with Pope Siricius. During the early medieval period, this attitude changed to one which opposed enslavement of Christians but still tolerated enslavement of non-Christians.
Between the 6th and 12th century there was a growing sentiment that slavery was not compatible with Christian conceptions of charity and justice; some Catholics such as Saint Bathilde, Saint Anskar, Saint Wulfstan and Saint Anselm campaigned against slavery and the slave trade. The Middle Ages witnessed the emergence of orders of monks such as the Mercedarians who were founded for the purpose of freeing Christians who had been enslaved by Muslims. By the end of the Medieval period, enslavement of Christians had been converted to serfdom throughout most of Europe.
Catholic teaching began to turn towards the abolition of slavery beginning in and culminating in three major pronouncements against slavery by Pope Paul III in The papacy endorsed Portuguese and Spanish taking of Muslim slaves; however, a number of Popes issued papal bulls condemning enslavement and mistreatment of Native Americans by Spanish and Portuguese colonials. These bulls were largely ignored despite the threat of excommunication. Nonetheless, Catholic missionaries such as the Jesuits worked to alleviate the suffering of Native American slaves in the New World. In spite of a resounding condemnation of slavery by Pope Gregory XVI in his bull In Supremo Apostolatus issued in , some American bishops continued to support slaveholding interests until the abolition of slavery.
Although early in the history of the Church bishops of Rome had assistants to help them in the exercise of their ministry, it was not until that formal organization of the Roman Curia was accomplished by Pope Sixtus V. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 April The Creed. Twenty-Third Publications. Retrieved 9 May The Church. Harper Collins. Online version available here. In the latter case, those in communion with the Bishop of Rome retained the adjective "Catholic", while the churches that broke with the Papacy were called Protestant. Documents of the II Vatican Council.
Retrieved on: Note: The Pope's signature appears in the Latin version. Retrieved on 9 May Roman Catholicism. New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law. Paulist Press. Retrieved 13 May The Roman Church can be used to refer, not to the Church universal insofar as it possesses a primate who is bishop of Rome, but to the local Church of Rome, which has the privilege of its bishop being also the primate of the whole Church. Zenit News Agency. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 23 September Retrieved Retrieved 9 March Gaillardetz, p. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 16 May The New York Times.
Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 12 May Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 11 June In fact, the main elements of St. Justin's description of the Mass are almost identical to the form Catholics now employ. Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 5 June The Catholic Liturgical Library.
Sancta Missa. USA Today. Retrieved 3 March BBC News. Catholic News Service. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 5 May Yet Luke makes clear—and the other Gospels also show this in all sorts of ways—that 'many' women belonged to the more intimate community of believers and that their faith-filled following of Jesus was an essential element of that community, as would be vividly illustrated at the foot of the Cross and the Resurrection.
Retrieved 17 March Times Newspapers Ltd. Catholic World News. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 24 March CBS News. Christianity Today. Discover Magazine. Retrieved 24 September Pg Pp At the end of the first century there was St. Clement of Rome, third successor to St. Peter in the see; in the second century there was St.
Ignatius of Antioch, St. Irenaeus of Lyons and St. The Arnaouts, who as in , and The last revo- were sent against him, joined hirm, and lie lution broke out in March, As soon became master of Little Walachia, early as , a society had been formed at the head of men. The Greeks in at Paris for the liberation of Greece. In M'Ioldavia likewise rose, under prince Al, the fletaireia q. This insurrection early for their plans. Coray q. Besides, the Greeks always reen their nation, and to prepare it, by a lied much on the so called Greek project better education, for a struggle for liberty.
MIarch 7, Feb. In Greece itself, sev- off the Turkish yoke; that he would Ilput eral attempts were made to revive the himself at their head with his countrystudy of the ancient language, and with men; that prince Suzzo wished the hapit a taste for letters, civilization and liberty. Several vwith France, and even with the U. States, officers and memlers of the Hetaircia had cont:ributed to hasten the revival of a thirst accompanied Ypsilanti from lSessarabia Lor liberty.
The works of Fen6lon, Bee and Jassv. Some Turks were murdered earia. MIontesquieu, and those of solne but Ypsilanti did all in his power to pre. He wrote to the emperor of Russia, brought to a close through the treachery, Alexander, who was then at Laybach discord and cowardice of the pandoors and q.
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See Ypsilanti. In Greecoe rection to be nothing but a political fever, Proper, no cruelty could quench the fire caught from Spain and Italy, which could of liberty; the beys of the Morea invited not be checked too soon besides, Ypsilanti all bishops and the noblest Greeks proedroi was'actually in the service of Russia, and to Tripolizza, ulnder pretence of' consulttherefore had undertaken this step against ing with them on the deliverance of the the rules of military discipline. Alexan- people from their cruel oppression. Sevder publicly disavowed the measure, Yp- eral fell into the snare: when they arrived, silanti's name.
Germanos, rolls, and he was declared to be no longer archbishop of Patras, alone penetrated the a subject of Russia. The Russian minis- intended treachery, and took measures ter, and the Austrian ilternuncio at Con- with the others for frustrating the designs stantillople, also declared that their cabinets of their oppressors. The beys of the would not take advantage of the internal MIerca then endeavored to disarm the septroubles of Turkey in any shape what- arate tribes; but it was too late; the ldaiever, but would remain strictly neutral.
It therefore ordered IMarch 23, , at Calavrita, a small the Russian vessels to be searched, con- place in Achaia, where 80 Turks were traryto treaty. The commerce of Odessa made prisoners. On the same day, the sulffred from this measure, which occa- Turkish garrison of Patras fell upon the sioned a serious correspondence between Greek inhabitants; but they were soon rebaron Stroganoff, the Russian ambassador, lieved. In the ancient Laconia, Colocotroni and the reis effendi. The most rigorous and Peter Mavromichalis roused the peomeasures were taken against all Greeks: plce to arms.
The archbishop Gelnanos their schools were suppressed; their arms collectedtle peasants ofAchaia. In Patras seized; suslicion was a sentence of death; and the other places, the Turks retreated the flight of some rendered all guilty; it into the fortresses. As early as April 6, a was prohibited under penalty of cieath; in MIessenian senate assembled in Calamata, the divan, the total extinction of the Greek and the bey of Maina, Peter Mavrominame was proposed; Turkish troops chalis, as commander-in-chief, proclaimmarched into the principalities; the hos- ed that the Morea had shaken off the podar Suzzo was outlawed; the patri- yoke of Turkey to save the Christian archs of Constantinople and Jerusalem faith, and to restore the ancient character excommunicated all insurgents March of their country.
States, who sympastreets of Constantinople; women antl thized with them, and did all in their children were thrown into the sea; the power to assist them in theiI struggle noblest females openly violated and mur- The cabinets of Europe, on the contrary, dered or sold; the populace broke into threw every impediment in the way of the house of Fonton, the Russian coun- the HIellenists, until they were finally sellor of legation; and prince Murusi was obliged, against their inclination, to interbeheaded in the seraglio. After the arri- fere in their favor.
Jussuf Selim, paclha val of the new grand-vizier, Benderli Ali of Lepanto, having received information Pacha appointed April 10 , who conduct- of these events from the diplomatic agent ed a disorderly army from Asia to the of a European power. In Walachia and changed into a heap of ruins. The a succession of atrocities. It iwas not a rage of the Mussulmans was particularly war prosecuted on any fixed plan, but directed agiinast the Greek clergy. April merely a series of devastations and tmur- 22, Gregory q. The law of nations could not exist Constantinople, was murdered, wkith hlis between the Turks and Greeks, as they bishops, in the metropolis.
In Adrianowere then situated. The monk Gregoras, pie, May 3, the venerable patriarch Cysoon after, occupied Corinth, at the head rillus, who had retired to solitude, and of a body of Greeks. The revolution Prmsos, archbishop of Adrianople, and spread over Attica, Boeotia, Pliocis, iEto- others, met the same fate. Several linlia and Acarnania. The ancient namles dretl Greek churches were torn down, were revived. At the same time, the without the divan paying any attention to islandcs declared themselves firee. In the the remonstrances of the Christian ambeginning of'April, the wealthy merchants bassadors.
The savage grand-vizier, inalnd ship-owners, the bold mariners of Hy- deed, lost his place, M11ay 1, and soonl after dra, Spe'zzia and Ipsara see Htydriots , long his life; bult MIahmlud q. The courageous independent govenrment in Hydra. They Stroganoff q. VWhile the con- ambassador was not answered. Baron tduct of the 3Moreots has but too often StroCranoff, therefore, broke off all diiplodrawn on them the just reproach of their matic relations with the reis effendi, July comnpatriots, the former hlave gained a 18, a nd, July 31, embarked for Odessa.
Even wromen, Greeks refilge, protection and assistance. The HIydri- Petersburg; but it was only after the most ots cruised in the Turkish waters, and atrocious excesses committed by the janiblockaded the ports. In some islands, zaries and the troops from Asia for inthe Turks were massacred in revenge for stance, in Constantinople, June 27 and the murder of the Greeks at Patras, and, July 2 , that the foreigin ministers, particu in retaliation, the Greeks were put to larly the British minister, lord Stmrangford, death at Smyrna, in Asia Minor, and in succeeded in inducing the grand seignior those islands which had not yet shaken to recall the command for the arnnling off the Turkish yoke.
The exasperation of all MIussulmans, and to restore order was raised to its highest pitch by the cru. Individual executions still get possession of their property, the di- continued. Prince Calimachi, hospodar of Walachia, was sent, with his family, to 1 Nheophtos Rambas teacher of natural phi- Asia Minor, where he suddenly died on losophy and mathematics in the school of Sco, hearin of the eection of his brother published, in , in Venice, a manual of moral uhilosophy, -which is one of the most valuable The old families of the Fanariots q. He has no longer existed in Constantinople, and, since been professor in the Ionian university, ill after all the cruelties they had sufIered, Col fu, established by the influenlce of lord Guilford.
They remembered, too marine of the Greek islands consisted of ves- of the su]tan They remembered, too se!. When, therefore, the first Turkwith Catlharine II. Their hopes were al- ish squadron left the Dardanelles, Mlay so strengthened by the war which broke 19, tile Greeks constantly pursued it with out between Turkey and Persia, and they their fire-ships, avoiding, at the same never gave up the confidence that the time, a general engagement; anll, June "Bloscoviti" would at last arm for their 8, they attacked a vessel of the line, protectiol, wvlich Russia had taken upon which had got ashore at Teneclos, burned herself in the three last treaties wvith the it, and cornmelled the rest of the sqlltadPorte.
MAeanwhile the Turkish general ron to put back to the Dardanelles. June in Epirus, Khurshid Pacha, who was be- 15, the Ipsariots landeld on the coast of siegiug the rebel All q. But the Aivali; but, after they had retired, the Etolians uinder Rhangos, and the Acar- Turlks binned the city, and 35, inhab inanlins undler the brothers Ily3scus, tants either perished or were driveni fioml obliged the Tlurks to shut themselves up their homes. Ulysses put himself at the tile Turks. The Greeks in tile islalnd of head of somre Armatolics q. In Eubca their archbishop and several clergymen Negropont , all the peasants took up arlms, executed.
But the peasants in the slounand oblied tlhe Turks to shut themselves trains, and the inhabitants of the srmall up in the fbrtified cities; but these mnove- island Sphakia, called the Sltiots of ments were not decisive, because they Caldtia, refused to give up their anllls, took place without cooperation; and, in collected, and drove the Turks back again fact, nothing was effected, but the driving into the towvns. From that tinme, the the Turks fi'om tile country into the cit- struggle continued, and the Turks, tllou gh ies. The pacha of Salonilki delivered the supported by several thousand nenl fiorrl pacha who was besieged in Larissa.
Egypt, were neveragain able to make thelmOmer Vrione, the lieutenant of Klhurshid selves masters of the highlands. Thlev Pacha, entered Livadia; the inhabitants however, maintained themselves in the of Athens fled to the islands; the Acrop- cities. IMadden, in his Travels in E rypt olis was garrisoned by Turks. On the tempted to reduce the Acropolis by fain- island of Cyprus, where also there had ine; but it was relieved by Omer Vrione, been no appearances of an insurrection, July 30, , and the inhabitants of the Greeks were disarmed in November, Athens again fled to Salamis.
On the , and almost all the inhabitants of Achaian sea, Greek and other pirates Larnica, with the archbishop and other frustrated the plans of the navarchs ad- prelates, murdered. The peasants united mirals in Hydra, and the European pow- for mutual protection; as a punishment ers were obliged to protect their vessels for which 62 villages were btlned in Auby cruisers. In the general confusion, gust, Since that time, the stillness the islanders distinguished themselves of the grave has brooded over Cyprus. In Smyrna, also, new bered, that the convulsed state of things cruelties were committed; and the Eurooffered great temptations to piracy; that pean consuls did not succeed until Nothe government was too weak to re- vember, , in inducing the pacha to press it; and that, privateering being law- put a stop to the enormities of the ful against the Turks, it was not strange Turks.
Since that time, the public sethat a people, so much removed from the curity has rarely been interrupted in that influence of European civilization, ex- place. In fiact, we sels, and the European consuls, among whom the he. In fact, w. Whilst Mavrocordato and others , calling upon all lMussulmans to were making these preparations, Demo take arims against the Giaours.
This trius Ypsilanti was closely besieging Triorder was not published in Constanti- polizza, the chief fortress of the Turks, nople, for which the populace, in that situated in the plain of MIantinea, in the place, revenged themselves by setting centre of Greece.
The garrison was on the fire to the city, whenever news of ill point of surrendering, when the appearsuccess exasperated them against the ance of the Tulrkish fleet, in the waters of Greeks. But in order to induce the Turkish udtJau1- pacl ha, Kara Ali, strengthened by troops to mlake an obstinate resistance, Eglptian, Tunisian and Algerine vessels, fron fear of the vengeance of the Chrislina, indeed, driven away the Greek flotil- tians, the Turkish commanders, at Tnipolas, sulz plied1 the Turkish garrisons in the lizza, ordered 80 priests and noble Greeks, Aoiorea wiih troops, arms and provisions, who had been brought there, in part, by burnled the small village of Galaxidi, in the the treacherous invitations of the beys, to gullf of Lepanto, October 2, , and be all murdered, excepting two.
October 5, takenl soine small Greek fishing craft in after Albanians had received permisthe harbor of this place. Yet the fleet sion to depart, and the negotiations with had effected nothing decisive. Hardly the Turks were broken off, Tripolizza was had it returned to the Dardanelles, Octo- taken by storn-m. The last post was surher 22, , when the Greek fleets re- rendered, on ternms of capitulation, by the newed their systern of blockade, and be- gallant Kiaja Bey; but the Moreots came, as formerly, masters of the iEgean could not be restrained, and Turks sea and the gulf of Saloniki.
Even the Albanians were at while, Demetrius Ypsilanti had arrived at tacked, and some of them plundered. Iln Hydra, with prince Alexander Cantacu- Tripolizza, the 5Ioreots gained their first zeno, with authority from his brother; heavy cannon, and the place became the Alexander Ypsilanti. In Hydra, the un- seat of the soi-disant Greek government, fortunate result of the struggle in W;ala- until it was transferred to Argos.
Demetrius Ulysses was equally successful in Thespromised the aid of Russia, and announc- sally. Ile and some other guerilla leaded the restoration of the Greek empire.
January of the' Peloponnesus, the Archipelago, 26, , the Acrocorinthus q. The monks dered to prince Cantacuzeno, and Nava- and hermits on mount Athos Monte Sanrino to Demetrius Ypsilanti; but the ra to , alone saved themselves by a heavy pacious Mforeots did not observe the arti- ransom, and remained undisturbed, becles of capitulation.
Some details of cause the Turks consider these rocky herwhat happened after the capitulation of mitages sacred. The Greeks, toa stop to this licentiousness, which he re- wards the end of November, having occuceived at least nominally. At the same pied Arta, without obtaining possession of time, the senate of Calamata united with the citadel, were obliged to leave the city r ersons, who would otherwise have become the in the middle of December, when Omer victims of Tiwksli or Greek fanaticism.
Vrione returned froml Livadia, and dis. Dur- election of all chief magistrates of the ing this irregular war, the government be- provinces, districts and communities; gan to acquire some form, as the separate laws were to be made by the concurrent senates established connexions with each vote of the deliberative and executive other. They invested Demetrius Ypsilanti councils; tlle execution of laws was to with the chief command in the Morea, rest with the executive council, which Ulysses with the same office in Thessaly, appointed the eight ministers; the indeand somewhat later also in Attica.
Prince pendence of' the judiciary was to be proMIavrocordato received the chief command vided for; this branch of government Awas in the Albanian provinces. They final- to be exercised by the district, provincial ly sent prince Cantacuzeno to the empe- and supreme courts. The congress. Petersburg, because the system ofthe executive council. Mlavrocordato iwas holy alliance was neutrality as they called elected proedaros, or president; Theod. Neit , and discouragement of the Greek gris, secretary of state of the executive insurrection.
Equally unsuccessfill were council; Ypsilanti, who had expected this the navarchs, in Hydra, in their attempts place, Iwas appointed president of the to secure the neutrality of the viceroy of legislative council, but never dischllarged Egypt by sea, as he now hoped for an op- the duties of his office. Finally, thle conportunity of uniting Crete with Egypt. Wi;th the greatest difficulty, layv- had been expected. A people so loln, enrocordato and some prelates had suc- slaved, and so deficient in civilization, ceeded in giving somIewhat of a federa- could not at once establish a wise all d tive constitution and a central government firm government.
The central governto a country which was by no means yet ment fixed its seat at Coriith1, andt, at a entirely freed from the Turks, and was oc- later period, again at Argos. The Porte v;lra cupied by parties often hostile to each now obliged to divide its forces. O1ne other. The western part of Greece- army was unsuccessfully employed in ArAcarnania, zEtolia and Epirus, sent thirty menia on thle Euphrates, against thle'erdeputies to Missolonghi, who, under the sians; another was stationed on the presidency of Alexander Mavrlocordato, Danube, to observe the Russian armly ill formed a government or gerousia, Nov.
But Ali's fall encoiltragel 4, , consisting of ten members; thle the Porte, and it was with difficulty that eastern part of the main-land, comprising the Austrian and English miniisters could Attica, Boeotia, Euboea, Phocis, Locris, convince the divan of the peaceablle inD]oris, Ozolm, Thessaly and Macedonia, tentions of Alexander. But, in , at sent thirty-three deputies to Salona, whllo, the request of Russia, the sultan ordered uInder the presidency of Theodore Negris, the restoration of some Greek churchltes, formed, on the 16th of November, the and the election of a new pIatriarch in areopagus of fourteen members.
The MIo- the usual way. The choice fell uoll Alnrea, or the Peloponnesus, with the islands thymeios, bishop of Chalcedon. The Asiatic hordes, in Mlay, , and established the Peloponnesian gerou- evacuated the principalities of WValachia sia of twenty members. These three gov- and Moldavia, after committing evelry kiidl ernments were to prepare a permanent of excess; in July, new hospodars v,-ere constitution, which was to receive, in fit- appointed — Ghika for Walac!
For this purpose, 67 and Greeks were excluded fiomn all offices deputies from all the provinces of Greece in the prilncipalities. The new bospodars formned the first national assembly in Epi- were under the superintendence of Turkisli daturus, Jan. Its they burned and pillalged, Augtst 10, , p rinciplecs were the following: the annual enraged at the orders of the divain. MIeanrwhile, the year had produced pillaging did not cease.
According to important results in Greece, because both the Turkish lists, down to the 25th of parties had followed, in some solt. After Ali's children, were sold into slavery. A sillfall, Khurshid Pacha in Thessaly deter- ilar fate was prepared for Ipsara, Tine and mined to collect reinforcements from Ru- Samos.
Fortyon the isthmus and his invasion of the Mo- three Ipsariots and Hydriots devoted rea. But the attempt of the Turkish fleet themselves to death, rowed with their to reduce the Morea by fresh troops, to- scampavias a kind of gunboats into the tally fhailcd, and the opposition of the midst of the fleet of the enemy, which Suliots kept back the seraskierin Epirus.
At the same time, new insur- line. The former blew up, with rections broke out in severalplaces, which men; the latter was saved. The capulagain divided the power of the Turks. The nmain-land. The numerous Greek popu- Turks were at first stupified; but their lation of the flourishing and defenceless rage soon broke out, and the last traces of island of Scio see Scio had declined cultivation, the mastic villages, so lucraevely invitation to engage in the revolu- tive to the Porte, were destroyed.
In tion; but, March 23, , a Greek fleet Constantinople, Turiks bought Sciots from Samos, under Logotheti, having ap- merely for the purpose of puttinlg tlem peared on the coasts, the peasants, who to death at pleasure. The merchants of labored under the greatest oppressions, Scio, resident at Constant'nople, and the took up arms. Great disorders occurred, hostages which were carried thither, Nwere and the Turks, after liaving taken 80 hos- exectuted in secret or in public, without tages fiom among the richest inhabitants any kind of legal process.
Thus the of the city, retired into the citadel. The appearance. In order to punish Scio, the Porte, however, began to perceive that it captudan Ipacha abandoned his plan of was destroying its own resources by tle operations against the Morea, and landed system of devastation. The pacha of April 11th 15, of the most barbarous Smyrna, therefore, received strict iljlinCof the Asiatic troops, after the Sciots had tions from the sultan to maintain order rejected the offer of amnesty. The island- and to protect the Greeks.
VIAF ID: 41969579 (Personal)
In Scio, the ers were beaten, and in a few days the new governor, Jussuf Bey, gave back the paradise of Scio was changedinto a scene lands to those Greeks who returned. In of fire and blood. It was with great dif- Cyprus, where the murder of the Chrisficulty, and at the risk of their own lives, tians had been continued until the end of that the European consuls among whom , Salih Bey, a hunmane officer of the the courageous French consul Digeon pacha of Egypt, finally protected the diswas distinguished , and the captains of trict under his command from utter devassomne European vessels, were able to save tation; and, in , the new governor, a fewv hudred Greeks.
Part of the peo- Seid Mehemet, endeavored to restore orpie escaped to their vessels; others con- der in the whole, island. Thle insur'gents tinlte l the struggle of despair in the also occupied tle Turkish troops in Macemountains. The Eturopean consuls, by donia. Thlle enormities of the Asiatic mealns of a pastoral letter of the arcll- troops, who traversed this province, to hlishop, and by the written assurance of join Khurslhid's army, excited an instrtlle surviving hostages, that the Sciots rection amonll g the mountaineers, who had mnilit trust the offered amlnesty, if they previously remained quiet.
UTnder the woulld leliver up their leaders and their capitani Diainantis, Tassos and others, ruVI s, finally effected the submission of they occulpied the lpasses of the Olymplus, thse pesanits. Sfidl, m. But the pacha of Saloniki, Ab- the capitani fiom Maina and Suli, but bolubut, finally defeated them with his these had been, mostly, clephtes or robcavalry at Niausta; the peasants dispersed, bers, totally independent, and wished to and L aout villages experienced the continue the war independently, for their fate of Scio.
Of this class is Colocotroni. Submurdered in one day women and mission to any sort of national organizachildren. Even the Porte disapproved tion was foreign to their habits. The these measures, and the pacha was con- inhabitants of the lIorena were mostly denejed to be strangled; but, surrounded wretched peasants, who had always lived. At the same timle, they tllought under,iMavrocordato, president of the liberty delivered thelm from all taxes; an ', executive council, was engaged, in con- indeed, what had they to pay?
Wai, putnexion with the provincial governments, ting a stop to production, left the governin organizing the administration of the mlent without resources, and without the country, provisionally, by the law of April means of exercising authority. Add ti 30, the first year of independence , this, that the Greeks were continually introducing order into the army, raising a quarrelling amuong tllemselves.
The edloan, promising the soldiers land by the itor was plresent at a fight between the iaw of' Ml'ay 7, , May 19, new style , capitano Niketas and some AMoreorss, for and, as there existed no taxes except cus- the possession of some cattle. Unlder tolms, in laying a tax on the productions these circumstances, the words laz and of' the soil; but they met with resistance governmrent must be un lerstood in a very in allnost all their attempts, particularly restricted sense.
The editor's Journal, fiorn the old capitani, who had been en- above referred to, relates particularly to tirely independent during the governlent the state of Greece at this period. All of the Turks. Each desired to command that enabled the Greeks to continue theirand to fight on his own account, and for struggle was the wretchedly undisciplinced his own profit. Thus the avaricious and character of their Turkish enlemies. The deficiency Yet, by the influence of Negris, he receivof human language, which obliges us to ed the comnmand of the expedition to use the same word for things which are Western Hellas Epirus , with full civil very different, constantly creates nmisun- and military power.
If a Botzaris, for the purpose of covering Misnation, which has been for centuries in a solon0ghi, the strong-hold of lWestern Helstate of oppression and lawlessness, rises, las, of relieving Suli, and capturing Arta. Suli, in Nt. Albania, was relieved; but, after the the capitani. Nicholas Niketas, who was bloody battle of Peta July 16, , on the point of taking Napoli di Romania where the capitano Gozo treacherously by capitulation, MIavrolmichalis and Ypsifled, and the Philhellenists, who made the lanti retreated to the heights of Argos, longest stand against the enemy, lost laying waste the open country; psilanti, men, with their artillery and baggage, in the ruins of the castle of Argos, held Botzaris and Normann were obliged to the enerny in check; the Greek fleet prethrow themselves into the mountains.
The castle of Suli ing, to the scene of danger, called the was surrendered to the Turks on Sept. Part of the Suliots men, with sumied the chief conmmand, and, in the their wives and children took refuge un- latter part of June, occupied the defiles er the protection of the British in Ceph- between Patras, Argos and Corinth, by alonia; the rest fled to the mountains. The Botzaris, with 22 Saliots, finally threw skirmishing began on all sides, and conthemselves November 5 into Missolon- tinnued day and night, from August 1 to rhi.
On the latter day, the Turkish fall with GreCce. The pacha then determinced to against Corinth, and KIhurshid, who, in break through to the isthmus of Corinth; Laissa, hbad received reinforcements from but Niketas fell upon the separate corps Rumnelia and Bulgaria, determined to ad- of the Turks, on the night of Aug-ust vance firom Thessaly, through Livadia 9, in the defile of Tretes; so that where the Greeks, June 19, , had hardly , without artillery or baggage, reduced the Acropolis by famine, after a reached the isthmus, where Ypsilanti ensiege of four months , against the isthmus; tirely destroyed them.
His main body, routed by the Mainots, August 26, near Na25, strong, composed principally of poli. Thus more than 20, Turks disapcavalry, had already passed Thernmopylke, peared, in four weeks, fromll the Greek soil. On the Acrocorinthus, butwere soon obliged to his march through Livadia, he laid every evacuate the isthmus, alnd were destroyed thing waste, proclaimed an amnesty, and by Niketas, in the defiles, in an attempt to occupied Corinth, which a priest of the break through to Patras. The conquerors and the 19; but when Khurshid attempted tG Moreots now perceived, that they iuest penetrate the passes in person, he was not seek safety behind the isthmus, blut three times repelled by Ulysses, near La- must push the war under Olympus.
The rissa, where he died, November 26, just Turkish fleet, which had lailn at anchor before the arrival of the capidgi bachi, for four weeks in the gulf of Lepanto, and who brought his death warrant. That had attacked Missolonghi witllout suCbody of cavalry, however, which had so cess, set sail, September 1, witih the plague rashly pushed forward withlout ilnfantry, olZ board.
After an unsuccessfil attellpt and was unable to obtain food or proven- to break throulgl the line of 57 Greek ler, perished in the defiles of the'Morea. On other to the ship of the capitana-b-y. Andrew, the patron of the Baoth were soon in flames; the former Morea November 30, old style, Decemnarrowly escapedl; the latter blew up ber 12, new style , a band of volunteers writh men; the capudan pacha, Cara took the fort Palamuidi by assault.
Three frigates Greeks, who observed the terms of the wer wr crdC on the coast of Asia Minor; capitulaltion, and transported the Turkish one vessel of 36 guns was captured; garrison to Scala Nuova. The Lseat of storms and terror destroyed a part of the government was to have been estalblished i:oolmanl fieet, and of 35 vessels only 18 in this bulhvark of Peloponnesian indereturned, much injured, into the Darda- pendence, when the old discord among lnel s.
Virtual International Authority File
The Greeks were once mrore mTasters of 3Meanwhile, Constantinople was disthel sea, iand renewed the blockade of the tauibed by the riots of the jlanizaries. The Turklish ports, which Great Britain now unsuccessfiul campaign in the Morean, the formally acknowletdg Ld. The British d'sasters in Asia, te sca city in the capigovernilmeent seelned to have changed their tal caused by the interruption of imporioliey towarrds the Greeks, fi'om the time tations by the Greeks , the severe sumnptuof Canninog's entrance into the ministry, ary orders of the sultan, and the command andi Maitland, lord high commissioner of to deliver iup the gold and silver to the the Ionian isles, Cisplayed less hostility mint, the debasing of the coin, and the agaainst themn.
Even Austria and France, obstruction of commerce, caused generd:l Nwloo had previoulsly protected neutral ves- dissatisfiaction amlong the Aiuissauhm s. The Suliots maintained themselves by means of Asiatic troops and European in the defiles of the Chimtera, and the discipline, and oil account of his ilifilremains of the army of Maavrocordato on ence, wvlhich excluded thle granldees of the thle coast of the gulf of Lepanto. The empire from the confidence of the sultan, a1mnesty, proclaimed by Omer Vrione, met fell a victim to the hate of the soldiely.
Wherever mufti, and other high officers. He hope l his troops appeared, the peasants burned to save his friend by an honorable 1 a ntheir villa-es, collected in bands in the ishment to Asia Nov. Near Talissolonghi, finally, which, him, and Halet's head, with those of his fioln Nov. The centra. Ii is sort of ivar, Iy their uncomimon activit. Fully sensible of guilty. The dissensions in Greece, it the truth of the words of a Greek author, canllot be denied, were a strong objection "as all the states of Greece wished to to the acknowledgmllent of Greek inderule, all have lost the sovereignty," they pendence.
Colocotroni refused the cenendeavored to establish union at homne; tral government admission into Napeli di on which, at the same time, they founded Romania, and deliberated, with other am1their hope that Europe would, at lelgth, bitious capitani in Tripolizza, on a Tlivislook with approbation and confidence on ion of the Morea into hereditary prineithe restoration of an independent Greek palities.
In this view, the Greek govern- ever, succeeded in preventing the daongers ment at Corinth issued a proclamation to of a civil war, and called a second national the Christian powers April 15, ; assembly at Astro, in January, In but the negotiations on the Greek affairs, regard to the election of deputies, the laws at Vienna, and afterwards at Verona, took of Nov. The"holyalliance" then thought the restoration of concord, at the time that the continuance of the Porte as a when the declaration of the congress of legitimate power, and the acknowledg- Verona was communicated by the British mnent of Greek independence, were incomle- embassy at Constantinople to this eflkct: patible; yet the powers thought themn- "The Greeks must submit to their lawtfil selves obliged to interpose with the sultan sovereign the sultan.
Count Metaxa was sent ish expedition, destined to attack the aorea as envoy of the Greek governnment to the by land and sea. The number of deputies congress of Verona see Congress ; but was now increasing at Astro; even Ulytshe was only permitted to go to Roveredo. Mavrormichalis was at the same time, that the Greeks were elected president; Theodore Negris, secwilling to submit their rights to the exam- retary.
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Even Colocotroni submlitted to ination of the congress, and to be ruled by the assembly. The members of the legisa Christian sovereign, under wise and lative and executive councils were tlhen filrml laws, but would never again consent elected. Condurioti of Hydra was ehoto any sort of connexion with the Turks. The other leading men, educated abroad, unanime re'probation. The abortive trials to establish a form of governman. The ill success of these trials, monarchs, decided to suppress the princi- however, has been, in no small degree, owing to a ple of revolt, in whatever place or under want of sound political elements in the people.
The same cause has given rise to the difficulties wtever form it might apea hastened which have so often obstructed the establishment to condemn it with equal and unanimous of wise and settled forms of government in France disapprobation. But, open at the same and South America. On the other andcl, the time to thle voice of thleir conscience anid orderly character of the people in the North Amerof a sacred duty, they hare pleaded n the ican colonies, and their long exercise, ill fact, of ofa humanidty, iy favo thevim tme rights of freemen, gave success to their exc ause of' humanity in favor ofthe victims perimcit when they instituted a-n iundependelnt tf an undertaking as inconsiderate tas government.
The French military three frigates. Order was, however, 1Ccode was adopted, with some changes, stored by severe measures; more farorand the preparation of a new crilninal able news arrived fiomn Asia; and the code decreed. The assembly then pro- sultan resolved on a general war of exterclailnme the new constitution of Astro mination against thl Greeks, on account April 23, , and dissolved, after the of which he called all Mussulmans, from national government established by it had 15 to 60 years, to arms.
On the oliher gone into operation at Tripolizza April hand, Greece endeavored to organize an Thus order was, in some degree, army and a financial system. The disrestored, but not concord among the capi- solved battalion of Philhellenists became taini. This produced several chainges of the the nucleus of the first Greek regiment. MLavrocordato was made presi- the land forces. The minister of the ma-,dent, and Colocotroni vice-president, and rine Orlandi, a Hydriot organized the Denmetrius Ypsilanti was removed, as un- navy, which consisted, in , of qualified for public affairs.
The secre- sail, with cannon. The largest the Hertary Negris, also, received his discharge. A Greek order of meclllt The British policy now permitted atlleast a light blue cross was established. The an indirect support of the cause of Greece, financial department met with great diflifiom fMIalta and the Jonian Islands. The culties every where, particularly on the Frellch cabinet no longer attempted to islands. The disputes of the governlent prevent Frenchmen firom participating in with the Hydriot navarchs, on the subthlle cause of the Greeks.
But no power ject of arrears of pay and the booty ofINawas w illing to declare itself openly in their poli, which the capitani were unwilling to fivor, before Russia had manifested her divide with the islanders, had a bad efife-t sentiments. The emperor Alexander had on the navaloperations. The Greek fleet,.
He insisted upon the en- over an Egyptian flotilla destined for Callntire evacuation of Moldavia and Wala- dia; but it was unable to prevent the landchia. Whilst, in Thessaly and important results. When the fleet of the Epirus, there wan a suspension of arms; capudan pacha finally appeared, in June, and the Greek flag "ight blue and white the Greek ships retired, and supplied Cahorizontal stripes commanded the sea, risto and Negropont in Euboea, Patras, the populace in Constantinople manifested Coron and Modon in the MIorea, and Letheir rage by setting fire to different parts panto, with fresh troops and provisions.
March 1, systematically distributed. Mavrocordato , an attempt was made to pillage and was at the head of the whole. Hie had burn the Greek suburbs; but the wind prevented the trial of Colocotroni, who was drove the flames against the Turkish accused of treachery, and won over that quarters. Four times the sea of fire rolled capitano by promoting his election to the a ainst the Greek quarters, and four times vice-presidency and to the post ofsecond in a fresh north wind rolled it back against command. Of the forces, the command the Turkish houses. Pera was saved; in chief in W'estern Hellas was given to but Turkish houses, part of the can- the Suliot Marco Botzaris:;n Eastern non fundlery Tophana , and part of the H-lellas Ulysses commanded.
The Suliots naval arsenal, were redu. The were faithful and trusty allies. Th-e Alba5usstllmuans finally cried ollt, " God is nian tribes, who had caused the defeat of witil tile Giaours. These tribes himself penetrated, with Suliots, to sold themselves to the highest bidder; the tent of the pacha; but, at the uolmnent some bands accepted the offers of the of making the pacha of Delvino prisoner, pacha of Scutari, who marched against he received a mortal wound, and his the Greeks in The insurrection of brother Constantine completed the victory.
At the same time, the Turkish mantis, wvho had taken possession of the fleet, again having the plague on board, perinsula of Cassandra Feb. The army under the seras- Greek islalds, delivered Saloniki friom its kier of Rumlelia 25, strong , after five blockade, and returned, in October, to the months' preparation, finally opened the Dardanelles, after a few indecisive encampaign, in June, from Larissa. It ad- gagemenlts with the Greeks. But bloody vanced with caution, in two masses, to- quarrels soon broke out between the Ilyrarlds Livadia. But the Greeks, under d riots and Spezziots, relative to the divisIbaai-roiniclhalis and MIavrocordato, instead ion of the booty taken from somne vessels.
From this place they advanced deliberative council, were also at Salamlis, agailnst the enenly, towards the end of firom whence they returned to Argos idn June. After some fighting in detail, Ulys- November, JIavrocordato conductses defeated one of the main bodies of the ed a division of the Hydriot fleet to the Turks, under Mehemet Pacha, at Ther- gulf of Lepanto, in Novenber, and coinmnopyle.
H-e then joined the armuy under pelled the Barbary fleet, which wxas blo kColocotroni, who attacked July 7 the ading iMissolonglhi, to withdraxw. Thle Turkish canlp near the monastery of St. Acrocorinthus was taken, in Novernhe of Luke between the cities of Thebes and the same year, by the Greeks, and the last Livadia , vwhich was captured by Ulysses attack of Jussuf Pacha, supp orted by 11MuXsand Niketas, after a bloody fight.
The taplha Pacha, on Anatolico and iissolonlhi, Turks retreated with great loss. Ulysses where Andreas Metaxa conaliandcl, i novertook themn July 17 , and routed them tirely failed, in consequence of the dc-fiat in the plains of Cheronea. But the seras- of Mustapha in November, The carnpaign again, wvhilst, at the same time, Jussuf and wasfinished; butthe partisan war contilll ed Omier Vrione, supported by the fleet of the in Thessaly and Epirus, and Greek vescapludan pacha, off Patras, were destined sels advanced as far as the gulf of Smyrto advance on lMJissolonghi, and the pacha ila.
The Porte, though much exhausted, of Scutari was to enter the Morea through still had greater resources for the next Western Greece, by Vrachori, Vonitza and campaign than the Greeks. TIle Salona. But the attack of the seraskier peace with Persia concluded July 28, on Volos and the peninsula of' Tricori , and the voluntary submlission of the failed; Jussuf's march was delayed by the rebellious paclha of St.
Jean d'Acre, esndesertion of Albanians, and the van- abled the Porte to send inito Greece the guard of tile pacha of Scutari who, with troops fi'm Asia, and those previously 20, men, partly Albanians, had occu- stationed in Moldavia andWalachia, which pied the heights of Agrapha, and threat- were now evacuated. In Constantinople, ened EAtolia was surprised at midnight the influence of the janizaries on the de Aug.
Wthilst the mlounby Marco Botzaris. Whilst the moo1unS - Marco Botzaris, a Suliot, served ini the tackeers, frcap oTh fssay and Epirus, at- French army, returined in to Vtpirus, where tacked ti e camp on four sides, oni a signal Al Pacha restored Suli to him, that he migiht given by Botzaris, the brave conmmander assist un against the Porte.
On thle other hand, the dissen- reia, was composed of Hydriot merchtants. It endeavored to establish an oirder ly tinople, 1Mir. Petersburg and the Porte, dent of the legislative body; but, retiringwhich had been broken off since The headns of cipalities of Walachia and MIoldavia by that militalry prty, the capitani, appeared the Turkish troops, in conformity with to wish to take the places of the former the treaties of Kainardgi, Jassy and Bu- Turkish pachas, and oppressors of the charest.
The British ambassador, lord country. One of the most eminent of this Strangford, and the Austrian internuncio, party was Colocotroni, who, through the the baron von Ottenfels, supported the faime of his victories in , was the demands of Russia. Lord Strangford was most powerful in the executive council. Panos, his son, commanded at treaty of peace with the court of Persia Nauplia Napoli di Romania , the seat of Jan.
But the support which government. The garrison of the Acrococertain societies in England, and indi- rinthus consisted of the adherents of that viduals, like lord Byron, had given the bold, proud and rich general. After CoGreeks, by means of loans, by send- locotroni, came MXavromichalis, formerly ing arms, and by assistance in person, bey of the Mainots, and now the nomimade the Porte indignant; and it re- nal president of the executive council. In tained himself in Athens and Eastern the mlean while, the British officers who Greece, almnost independently of the cenhad fought under the Greek standard, had tral government.
Thegood un- without regard to rules and orders, all derstanding with Russia appeared still that they wanted for themselves and their more complete, when a great number of soldiers; so that only in the marine at neutral transport ships, Russian, Austrian Hydra, and in Western Greece, where and others, were hired by the capudan Mavrocordato commanded, a well ordered pacha, who sailed, April 28, out of the government was maintained. In MissoDardanelles to destroy Ipsara and Samos.
He and colonel Stanhope organWidden, as commander-in-chief of the ized the artillery. Byron himself estabOttoman troops, received an order to en- lished schools and printing-offices. In the ter the Morea, whilst the pacha of Negro- mean time, the legislative senate at Kranidi pont, on the coast of Attica, and Omer on the eastern shore of the gulf of ArgoVrione who was afterwards pacha of lis endeavored to check the arbitrary Saloniki , were to open the campaign on proceedings of the executive council. The Porte had The report of the causes of complaint succeeded, too, in inducing MIohammed against the president, Mavromichalis, and Ali, the viceroy of Egypt, to send from other counsellors Dec.
Both were good patriots, and the Greeks to submission. A fire in Cairo most influential men of their islands, but delayed, for some months, the departure of without distinguished talents. Johlln Co, tlis expedition. In the mean time, after letti was the third, and Nicholas Londos. The fifth place, deposited for any tinme in Zante. The which Aiagnostis. Spiliotakis received af- Turkish commander also met with great terwards, had been destined for Coloco- obstacles: the pacha of Saloniki Arould tronli, who, notwithstanding lord Byron's not obey; the ptachas of Scodra a-ld Yanlimediation, persisted in refusing to recog- na, exhausted by their late losses, were nise the senate and the executive council.
Hle remained, therefore, for nia March 14, the capital of Greece, more than a month, inactive at Larissa. The capuldan pacha attempted a lancdin But Panos closed the gates. HIe was on the island of Skiathos, in which he therefore treated as a rebel, and Napoli failed; but lie threw sollme thousanld alliinvested by sea and land.
The garrison of zaries into the fortress of Negropont, whIere the Acrocorinthus and several capitan-i Ni- Ulysses and the distinguisihed Di'lmantis ketas and others surrendered to the gov- had defeated the Turks several times in erument. Colocotroni himlself evacuatedl the iwinter.
Dervish now first etl-terel d Tripolizza April Hereupon the sen- the field. Pacha Bekir, who comnlanded ate and May 22 the executive govern- under him, was beaten June 1 near Zeiment took Argos for their place of sessionu. But another At lentgrth, the accession of the garrison of corps joined the Turks in Negropont, and the chief fort of Napoli to the cat is of the took possession of the province of Attica. At the same tilme, Ishlof a geieral aimnesty. Panos now gave mael Git ralter, admiral of the Egyp-ltian up Napo! The govof' June , to which the senate and the gov- ernor, Tumlbasis, saved only a few o f thle eCrnment rmncediately transfeired tlem- old men, women and children, and scllt selves.
A general amnesty terminated the them to Hydra. Some bands of Cancivil war. During thistime, the Greeks diots scattered themselves among the in WTestern Greece were laboring to irm- mountaius. Ishmael Gibralter then unlprove the fortifications of Anatolico, and dertook the attack of the island of Kassos.
A conspiracy Nwas discovered in enelmy, June 8; but on the 10th thely were this town to deliver up tile pla ce to the attackedl by a greater force, at a dlifitrent pacha Jussuf: The Suliots boegan to point of the island, where they had not commit great excesses, being excessively expected it. Their obstinate resistance discontented Nith lord Byron's lnew regu- ended in their destruction. The enlemy lations, and with the influence of foreigln- carried away immense booty. Whilst this ers in general. A great numboer of thelli was happening, Khosru, the capudlan were sent out of the place.
Thcese, under pacha, was mnaking preparations, on the the guidance of a certain Karaiskaki, took island of Mitylene, for an attack on Ippossession April 12 of the fort Wassiklaci. The small but stronrone. Lord BIron's health suffered from her of its vessels and fircships, i'l whlichl these events, and he died after a sickness the most daring of the islandlers la-uersi,; of ten davs April 19, Easter, gen- terror and.
Khosru possessed exact inlei 't'a ized by a general 11moumi ng for 21 days. The campaign was him 14, choice troops, nlostly,:Siit. The Greeks were divided ans. Their connexion with island, he offered pardon anrd l;,i ,:i. In tihe meal themselves for the combat. Khosru left time, the authorities at Nauplia made loud the shores of Mitylene early on July 3d, complaints against the agents of somle with two ships of the line, six frigates, ten Christian powers in the Archipelago, who corvettes, several brigs and galliots, a great kindled the flame of discord, and checked number of newly-built gun-boats, and the improvemlent of the internal adminismore than 80 Europeall transport-ships.
Nevertheless, order was conHis fleet surrounded the island. The stantly increasing in the Grecian governmen-of-war began to fire upon the town iment. The taxes were raised according and the forts. Whilst the principal at- to a just distribution, and the public lands tack appeared to be made here, a landing regularly leased. The public credit -was was eflected on the opposite coast, upon a confirmed by a loan.
Trade again resandy point of land, whe're an Albanese'vived, and tile Greek flag was to be seen battalion, under the traitor Goda, deserted in Ancona, Leghorn, Marseilles, and even the battery, after a short resistance. The on the banks of the Thamles. The govTurks took by storm the heights back of ernment began again to organize an arnlly the city. They were not able to maintain according to the rules of European disci themselves there. The primtates and pline. The French military code was ephori had the old men, women and chil- introduced in Greece.
The administradren put on board the vessels in the lhar- tion of justice received a fixed character. Some vessels sunk, others were A lower court of justice and a court taken bv the Turks. Some fugitives were of appeals were held at MIissolonghi. Freedom of the press was every to HIydra. In the mean time, the city was where allowed. Four newspapers apattacked on all sides; the Greeks fought peared twice a week: —in Missolonghi, from street to street, fiom house to house; the Grecian Chronicle and the Telegraph; the work of destruction was kept up at Hydra, the Friend of Law the official through the whole night.
On the morn- paper ; and at Athens, the Ephemerides. In tie forts and the convent of St.
The Egyptian fleet set resolved to die all together in their last sail from Alexandria, July 19, cotmrprising fobrt, Tabia. XWhile tle Turks were storm- 9 frigates, 14 corvettes, 40 brigs and galliing the walls, they set fire to the mine, ots, and transports, with 18, land which lad been prepared; the earth shook, forces. Ibrahim Pacha was to brinlg reand Ipsara became the grave of its own inforcements to Candia, and then invade heroes and the conquerors. This blow the Morea. The Greek government had opened the eyes of the Greeks. The put themselves in a hostile position with people and the authorities rose up for regard to the European powers.
The unitedl resistance. Iydcra and Spezzia secretary of state, Rhodios, in a letter to manned their ships. Ipsara was retaken Canning, declined the proposal of a treaty by the brave Mliaulis July 15 , and the with the Porte. On the other hand, Engships there saved. The enemy was re- land, through their lord high conmmissioler pulsed by inferior forces at Samos, Cos of the Ionian Islands, sir Frederic Adam, and Chios; lie suffered some loss at Can- forced the Greek government to revoke dia, and the Greeks opposed him at St.
Ru- September 15 the proclamation issuled mili, Trypiti, Mirabello and Lassidi. Equal June 7, in whichl they treated the Eurosuccess attended the Greeks upon the pean transports employed by the enelmly, main land. Gouras conquered the barba- not as neutral, but hostile vessels. The mians at Marathon. The Turkish general- Greek government issued a manifesto, in in-chief, Dervish Pacha, beaten in July, which they complained greatly of the August and September, at Gravia, at Am- shameful avarice of the Christian merplani, in the province of Phocis, retreated, chants, who violated so openly the law of with the loss of his baggage, to Larissa.
The Hiis plan of joining Olner Vrione, at Salo- English government then acknowledged na, was thus wholly defeated. Il Western the right of blockade, properly exercised Greece, Mavrocordato's vigorous incas- by the Greek government, and the Ausures frustrated all the plans of the bold trian internuncio issued a command to the and artfitl Omer Vrione, who had invaded, consuls of his government to prevent all for the third time, Acarnania. Some Christian captains.
Their troops dispersed. T1eAy, sequently let their ships to the Egyp- with their followers, placed themselvses tians, and carried Christian captives from under the inlsurgent standlard at Tri oGreece as slaves to Africa-a proceeding lizza, where Panos Colocotroni tookl the which was denounced in the French conmand of them. Conduriotii tlhen chamber of peers , by Clateaubri- turned back to Napoli di I.
MIean- cember 9 , and summ-nloned Gouras, T'sseos while, the Egyptian and the Turkish fleet and other commanders, fioem Attica to united in the gulf of' Bodroun Septem- Corintlh. Coletti received the clhief colnber 4 , and some battles were now fought rmandd; Christos and Maturoge.