Indeed, this first fortuitous contact with childhood literature offered him a new testing ground both for his narrative and linguistic research and for his moralising impulse. The literary system is not a closed, autonomous nucleus. On the contrary, it tends to be deeply influenced by cultural, ideological and economic factors.
When the sender author and the addressee reader of the text do not belong to the same historical and socio-cultural context, the text can be subject to different decodings and interpretations. Barthes went as far as conceiving reading as a re-writing of the text, and the reader as a producer more than its consumer. The meaning carried by words—and thus the sense of texts—is connected to extra-linguistic factors, and influenced by the geographical, chronological and cultural environment where they arise. Nevertheless, his viewpoint and the peculiar concept of chronotope seem very productive in translation studies as well.
The same is true for the above mentioned semiological studies schools of Prague and Tartu, and Italian school concerning the social and cultural aspects of literature and the intriguing relation between the author and the reader, or—more precisely—between the text and the reader. Indeed, every translation is first of all a critical reading, an interpretation of the text. Moreover, the distance from the chronotope of the authors and the one of their reader-translator is an intrinsic feature of the translational transposition of the text.
The concept of chronotope effectively leads to consider the cultural aspects of the translational—and more generally communicative—mediation. Translation can thus be considered as the path between the chronotope of the original text and the one of the translated text. This distance can be covered in two directions depending on the translating strategy: the translator could either bring readers towards the original text, or move the text closer to them.
This domestication is primarily obtained through the language, the spoken Tuscan-Florentine language shared by the writer and his readers. On the one hand, Collodi attempts to adopt a language that could be familiar and comprehensible to a large public; on the other hand, he is conscious that Italian narrative is lacking in this language and he wishes to create it for his public.
Parafrasarli a mano libera mi sarebbe parso un mezzo sacrilegio. It is through these variations—which the writer identifies exactly—that the language of the fables is altered in a more lively and colloquial way. Through this Avvertenza , Collodi shows his carelessness towards the strict norms of grammar and dictionaries, claiming the need for a spontaneous and natural language, both in original works and in translations.
Indeed, Collodi overtly chooses an idiomatic expression, which is probably the most emblematic feature of his writing style and, at the same time, the formal counterpart of his cheerful and mocking temperament. Therefore, these few lines seem to encapsulate the authentic nature of the translated texts that followed, proving the well-awareness of the re-writing choices he had taken. Nevertheless, even the morals undergo a deep alteration in their form, character and significance.
The expedient Collodi employs to transmit the moral message of the fables to his readers is essential. It is not the narrator who enunciates the morals. It is the characters who tell the readers what they have learnt from their experience. Otherwise, morals are given as proverbial sentences, in the form of emanation of popular wisdom, and collective values. In this way, the narrator is unburdened by the unpleasant role of moralising teacher, very common in the rest of childhood literature of the time.
Indeed, the reference to the characters of the Cat and the marquis of Carabas appears a cheerful prank shared with the reader. Even more so for Pinocchio , which certainly has to be considered more than a simple tale for children, since it is surely a real masterpiece of Italian literature.
Fairy tales allowed Collodi to distance himself from the socio-politic situation that disappointed him so much, and to contribute to the edification of new Italian citizens. The figure of the ogre is clearly noticeable in Mangiafuoco in Pinocchio , and then in Golasecca in Storie allegre. From this translation experience Collodi gains many narrative situations, fabulous characters, and specific narrative structures and forms which were almost absent from Italian childhood literature.
Incorporating them into his writing, Collodi imported them into the whole Italian tradition as well. To offer his public a lively means of communication and to support the diffusion of Italian language is the first aim of the writer and his editor. In any event, differences between the perraultian text and the Hachette edition seem to be as irrelevant as they could be disregarded here, since the original language and style are not altered in depth.
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For this reason, the vocabulary is simple, common, almost poor in some loci , as well as the syntax, similarly, is linear and paratactic. As mentioned above, Collodi was conscious of the scholastic destination of his work and therefore careful not to break grammatical norms. Consequently, the author reached that spoken reinvention of the language he was aiming at by working on less codified areas of language, namely lexicon and syntax. The first one is from Il Gatto con gli stivali :. In 3 , che is situated at the beginning of the sentence with the noun phrase braccia grandi , and it has the function of introducing an exclamatory clause.
Here, the first che can be analysed as a relative subject pronoun employed in place of la quale. The second che , instead, can be referred to anno , having the role of indirect relative pronoun corresponding to in cui.
However, considering the paramount importance they have in the construction of the Italian language, which is a core topic of this paper, I will dedicate to them a specific paragraph section 3. Emphasis is obtained through many different ways as, for instance, superlative forms, duplications, idiomatic expressions, relative, comparative and especially consecutive clauses. Other examples of this method are, in the same fable:. Again, in Il gatto con gli stivali , it is important to also point out:.
As these examples clearly show, Collodi always converts the usual, denotative and repetitive vocabulary of Perrault into manifold and always varying expressions collected from spoken language. In Cappuccetto rosso we find:. Similarly, in Il gatto con gli stivali :.
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In both cases the prototext manifestly tends to employ a simple and elementary lexicon manger , aller , repetitive always identical to itself. Even though theatricality will fully be developed only in Pinocchio, it could be identified as a characteristic common to the whole of popular literature and to the fable as well. Therefore, while translating the French tales, Collodi constantly endeavours to make the narration as concrete as possible, factual and near his readers. In other words, Collodi writes as if his readers were spectators. This means that he employs a series of methods to engage his readers in his stories.
For instance, he adds spatial and temporal specifications, inserts deictic adverbs and pronouns, and substitutes indefinite articles with definitive ones or with demonstratives. In Cappuccetto rosso, for example:.
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In 15 and 16 , then, he inserts adverbs of place, utterly absent from the original text. This contributes to underline the protagonist role of the cat which is central in the tale. All the above-mentioned idiomatic expressions, taken from the spoken language, of course derive from the Tuscan-Florentine language. However, beyond these, there are many other Tuscan morphological, lexical and syntactic elements. In Cappuccetto rosso , for example:.
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Also in Il gatto con gli stivali :. Similarly, 19 , 20 and 22 are examples of verbs taken from Tuscan language, all recorded in Rigutini and Fanfani dictionaries. Even the dictionaries record this peculiar use of the personal pronoun, attributing it to Tuscan and especially Florentine usage and asserting that it gives elegance to the speech. Ornella Castellani Pollidori , p. Both these circumstances seem to prove that Collodi did not use dictionaries for his translation. His direct source was the spoken Florentine language. For instance, some forms with diphthong as figliuoli or giuochi, instead of figlioli and giochi , in Il gatto con gli stivali , or the pronoun egli instead of lui.
Collodi plays an active part in the formation and diffusion of the Italian national language, along with contemporary efforts by Manzoni and Verga. The book received the Strega Prize. Sessanta racconti was published by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore in It contains stories from the three previous collections The Seven Messengers , The Scala Scare and The Collapse of the Baliverna , as well as previously unpublished stories.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sessanta racconti First edition. Strega Prize. These Sunday gatherings of writers, artists and intellectuals grew to include many of the most notable figures of Italian cultural life. In the Belloncis, together with Guido Alberti, owner of the firm which produces the Strega liqueur, decided to inaugurate a prize for fiction, the winner being chosen by the Sunday friends. This article is a summary of the literary events and publications of January 13 — In One, Inc.
Olesen, the Supreme Court of the United States affirms that homosexual writing is not as such obscene. A small selection of photobooks by Gianni Berengo Gardin flanked by off-topic blue Pelican paperbacks The Italian photographer Gianni Berengo Gardin born has been the sole contributor or a major contributor to a remarkable number of photobooks from to the present. Polesine ; books about particular artists e. Giorgio Morandi ; books about architecture particularly that by Renzo Piano ; and other commissioned publications particularly for Istituto geografico De Agostini and Olivetti.
A large book published in , Gianni Berengo Gardin. Il libro dei libri Gianni Berengo Gardin: The book of books , introduces books with contributions by Berengo Gardin, presenting their covers and sample page spreads, and providing brief bibliographical information. Highlights In the citation.