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Beginning in the later 19th century, oil grew in importance to feed the demand for kerosene lighting, and then industrial production and automobiles. Initially Canada produced very little oil from only a few small fields in the Turner Valley of southern Alberta and near Sarnia, Ontario. However, a major strike at Leduc, Alberta in ushered in a new era. Oil production increased from practically nothing in the lates to more than half a million barrels a day 20 years later, and more than two million barrels a day by the turn of the 21st century.
Coal and natural gas also grew in these years, but especially important was hydroelectric power. Hydroelectric power also quickly became another export industry, which continues to the present day. However, as important as hydroelectricity is, oil is the most important energy product of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Prices are notoriously volatile, but the commodity is always a vital part of a modern industrial society. As with other key industries, oil has a series of important linkages that increase its importance. Pipelines criss-cross Canada and the United States, transporting products to market.
Refineries, which transform oil into gasoline, were originally clustered near Edmonton and in southwestern Ontario for the most part. At the same time, the exploration for new sources of energy became a significant employer in its own right. Most recently, the oil sands around Fort McMurray have added a layer of intensive investment and controversy to the industry. Energy overall, and oil in particular, remains a major engine of economic growth, creating a westward tilt in Canadian politics, regional population movements, and income.
Due to a strong commodity base and small population, Canada is dependent on international trade for much of its prosperity. This hit home in an unfortunate way when the world sank into the Depression of the s.
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International trade collapsed as corporations ceased to purchase materials and equipment, while nations increasingly retreated behind tariff barriers. Indeed only two nations, the United States and Germany, had a greater decline in overall economic activity in that decade.
Long after the depression ended, however, Canada remained a trading nation, dependent on international markets. Access to electricity provided Americans with the power required to run new labor saving appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines, electric razors, vacuum cleaners, electric irons, radios and gramophones. Roaring Twenties Fact Entertainment : Pleasure and entertainment in the Roaring Twenties offered an exciting variety of leisure pursuits. People went to the movies, the theatre, clubs, and the massive sports stadiums, The radio provided entertainment at home bringing music, news broadcasts, drama and comedy to American houses on a daily basis.
People were fascinated by airplanes and flight and 'barnstormers' toured the nation offered flights and displays which included the daredevil 'wing-walkers of the Roaring Twenties. There were some technical advances which helped to increase production but demand remained static and prices of farm produce fell and wages dropped. Roaring Twenties Fact Fashion and clothing : Men wore well-tailored pinstriped suits, silk shirts and handkerchiefs, trilby hats, suspenders, bow ties, black patent leather shoes and spats.
The fashion and clothing for men also included short suit jackets, cuffed trousers or wide-leg "Oxford Bags", vests waistcoats and sports influenced attire like sweaters and knickerbockers. Women's fashion included Fringed Beaded Flapper dresses with pleats and gathers, short skirts with a hemline above the knee, cloche hats and they wore their hair cut short in a bob. Their silk, woolen or rayon stockings were held up by garters.
New fashion and clothing was influenced by the Art Deco designs of the era and popularized by the media and the famous movie stars. Refer to 's Fashion for Women.
11 Nonfiction Books About The 1920s
Roaring Twenties Fact Flappers : Flappers were light-hearted, female nonconformists who were eager to try new styles of dress and challenged the traditional ideas of behavior by wearing make-up, drinking and smoking in public and acting in an unladylike fashion.
Flappers wore short bobbed hair, make-up such as lipstick and rouge, short fringed skirts, bright-colored sweaters and scarves illustrated in the picture of Clara Bow - The "It Girl". Scott Fitzgerald. Roaring Twenties Fact Fundamentalism : Many Protestant Americans feared the country was losing its traditional religious values and morals which gave rise to the Fundamentalist movement and passionate evangelists such a Aimee Semple McPherson and Billy Sunday.
The views of John T.
Scopes on evolution enraged Fundamentalists and led to his arrest and trial. Roaring Twenties Fact Gangsters : The Prohibition Gangsters were violent mobsters who extended their illegal activities in the 's through the sale of intoxicating liquor which led to the rise of organized crime.
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Scott Fitzgerald published The Great Gatsby in which told the story of the fictional character Jay Gatsby and exposed the excesses of consumerism during the s. The most popular Roaring Twenties hairstyles for women were the straight, short style, cut in a bob. Roaring Twenties Fact Harlem Renaissance : Harlem Renaissance was the African-American artistic and literary culture that was developed in the 's.
The New York city neighborhood of Harlem was the home of the Harlem Renaissance and influenced African American authors, artists and musicians. The Cotton Club was the most famous Harlem night spot and musicians such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington played the Dixieland music, the blues and the improvisational style of music called Jazz. The painting is by F. At the end of the era Hollywood were producing over movies each year. The Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of limited immigration by restricting the number of immigrants from a given country.
Roaring Twenties Fact Inventions : New Roaring Twenties inventions included washing machines, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, radios, automobiles. Roaring Twenties Fact Isolationism : Following European entanglement during WW1 Americans favored the policy of Isolationism and wanted to be left alone to enjoy the post-war prosperity of the nation. At its peak in the s, Ku Klux Klan membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide. Roaring Twenties Fact Lifestyle : F. Established traditions were challenged. Some chose extreme unconventional, Bohemian lifestyles and congregated in places such as Greenwich Village and Chicago's south side.
Lifestyle was significantly effected by the availability of labor saving products, luxury items and the emergence of mass advertising campaigns and Consumerism. Roaring Twenties Fact Literature : American authors, playwrights and poets challenged traditional ideas and reflected modern life and the impact of modernism in the literature of the Roaring Twenties.
Literature reflected realistic characters and themes and many authors disillusioned by the Great War concentrated on the negative effects of modernism. The famous authors of the period included F. Eliot and Zora Neale Hurston. Roaring Twenties Fact Make-up : Prior to the Roaring Twenties era make-up and cosmetics were not accepted in American society as it was associated with loose living and prostitution. In the Roaring Twenties women often copied the make-up used by movie stars such as Joan Crawford and Clara Bow and the celebrity flappers whose photo's were featured in newspapers.
They plucked their eyebrow, used eye pencil and applied kohl to their eyelashes, used lipstick and applied face powder and rouge they also applied rouge to the knees! Roaring Twenties Fact Mass Production : Mass Production techniques in industries and factories enabled massive quantities of products to be produced quickly and efficiently by an automated, mechanical process and reduced consumer costs. Roaring Twenties Fact Modernity : The spirit of the era embraced Modernity in which new inventions and the latest technology developed in the Roaring Twenties increased the impulse to break with tradition and try anything that was modern.
Roaring Twenties Fact Morals : Many Americans believed that the morals of the nation were in sharp decline in the Roaring Twenties. People smoked cigarettes, drank prohibited liquor, used slang, enjoyed wild dances and women dressed in attire considered by many as too revealing. Birth-control devices became available introducing an element of sexual freedom. Roaring Twenties Fact Movies : Cinema started with silent, black and white movies of the early 's that were accompanied by music played on a piano or organ.
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In the first all-color movie called 'Toll of the Sea' was released. The first movie with sound effects and music, called Don Juan, was made by Warner Bros. The Roaring Twenties movies were a cheap form of entertainment and by an average of million Americans went to the cinema on a weekly basis. By the end of the Roaring Twenties there were 25, cinemas. Roaring Twenties Fact Music : Jazz, ragtime and the music from Broadway musicals dominated the era also refer to Jazz. Louis Armstrong was one of the most popular Jazz musicians of the era and played his famous solo's in the nightclubs of Chicago.