By measuring the signal from the physically detectable label in the zone that the immobilized analyte or binding partner specific to a defined epitope of the analyte than the capture agent contains, and the signal from the physically detectable property of the label in the detection zone, and by determining the ratio of these signals, the accuracy of the test can be increased for the analyte concentration.galijaselword.ml/space-time-processing-for-wireless-communications.php
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Independence from the selection of the format for the assay, can the accuracy of the final result be corrupted by changes of the urea concentration in the urine test sample, which is caused by normal variations in the urea concentration of the urine, and it is the object of the present invention to reduce this deviation or eliminate. This is accomplished in that the concentration of the urea is held in the urine test sample above a threshold value, which is represented by that of urea concentration at which increases in its concentration do not further affect the binding between the analyte and the labeled antibody.
This led to the hypothesis that the difference could be the result of interference by urea with the labeled antibody-antigen binding. The three content levels of DPD were 25, 75 and nM and the urea concentrations were 75, , , and nM.
The recovered DPD concentrations of these solutions were obtained from the standard curve that was created using calibrators containing nM urea. Die in In the 3 3 dargestellten Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die Interferenz durch Harnstoff ein Plateau bei Harnstoff-Konzentrationen von mehr als mM erreicht. Results presented indicated that the interference reaches a plateau at urea by urea concentrations greater than mM.
Thus, the urea concentration is maintained at a level of at least mM, the deviation caused by urea continuous and can be repeated with calibrators that contain similar concentrations of urea, offset remains, by providing an assay for DPD. Accordingly, on the basis of this finding, which is the essence of the present invention, it is possible to eliminate the assay result error caused by the interference of urea with the antigen-labeled antibody binding in immunologic urine analyzes. This is accomplished by at least the threshold amount of urea content is brought together with the urine test sample before it comes into contact with the labeled antibody.
In an assay in the liquid state, the necessary amount of urea can be brought together with the urine sample or to the microtitre plate is added, wherein the labeled antibodies are presented. In the case of an immunochromatographic strip format, the urea for wicking pad of the strip or to a separate buffer pad can be given, which are included as integral portions of the strip.
This is accomplished by impregnation of the tape substrate with an aqueous solution of urea followed by drying, so that the urea will be made available by rehydration upon contacting the strip with the urine sample. Mit jedem dieser Verfahren wird die notwendige Harnstoff-Konzentration bereitgestellt. With each of these methods the necessary urea concentration is provided. It is preferred, however, to match the urea with the buffer pad, to give a unit device in which the desired concentration of urea is introduced automatically in the urine sample upon their contact with the strip.
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It is preferred to incorporate the urea into the buffer pad because the urine test sample first reaches this surface area in contact with the test device and contacting the buffer with urea is the most effective method for introducing the additional urea to the urine sample. Viele klinisch signifikante Analyte sind in Urin vorhanden, welche mit der vorliegenden Erfindung bestimmbar sind. Many clinically significant analytes are present in urine which are determinable with the present invention. Among these analytes are deoxypyridinoline DPD , human serum albumin, drugs of abuse, cancer markers and human chronic gonadotropin hCG.
The detectable label for the analyte may be a residue, which is detectable by reproducible means and measures. Thus, the label may be a chemiluminescent material or a visible particulate label such as gold sol or latex particles, an enzyme, a radioisotope. The present invention is further illustrated by the following example. Beispiel I example I. Three formulations of buffer-urea documents, 4 '' The third was used as a comparison and contained only 1 M glycine at pH 8. The pad was then cut into strips of 0. The detection reagent was goat anti-mouse IgG at a concentration of 0.
The application of the capture and detection reagents was done with an IVEK linear-stripper on Millipore nitrocellulose, 1 " 2.
The gold sol-anti-DPD pad was prepared by impregnation of a strip of 4 '' OD is optical density which is a measure of concentration of gold sol-anti-DPD in the suspension. The pad was then 0. The strips are then developed by immersion in aqueous solutions containing 0, 20, 40, 80, and millimolar concentrations of DPD and either 75 mM or mM urea. Die Ergebnisse dieses Versuchs sind grafisch in The results of this experiment are graphically 4 4 dargestellt. Im Gegensatz dazu, unterscheiden sich die Ergebnisse, die mit dem Streifen mit keinem Harnstoff in der Puffer-Unterlage erhalten wurden, signifikant von den anderen.
In contrast, the results differ obtained with the strip with no urea in the buffer pad significantly from the others. These results show that for the four conditions where the total concentrations of urea are higher than mM, the dose-response curves are very similar. These data demonstrate the favorable effect that the addition of urea exerted to the test sample to abolish the result variance caused by fluctuations of urea in the urine.
The method of claim 1, wherein the analyte is deoxypyridinoline and sufficient urea is combined with the urine test sample to provide a urea concentration therein of at least mM.
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A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the matrix of the absorbent material is nitrocellulose, a polysulfone, a polycarboxylic acid or filter paper covers. Process according to one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the results of the assay are obtained by comparing the magnitude of the response from the detectable property with reactions that are obtained from calibrators containing similar amounts of additional urea.
The test strip of claim 7, wherein the analyte is deoxypyridinoline and the the concentration of urea in the urine test sample is greater than mM. Formulation for reducing urea effect for immunochromatography assays using urine samples. Test methods and patrol for considerable decrease of the urea influence in immunochromatographic measurements using urines. USB1 en. EPB1 en.
JPHA en. AUB2 en. CAA1 en. DET2 en. USB2 en. This means that there the antimicrobial ions are enriched, and their concentration at the surface is much larger than in the interior of the glass or the glass ceramic. This is feasible for the skilled artisan by variation of temperature and time control while firing at each glass or glass ceramic substrate based on a few exploratory experiments. A third aspect of the invention relates to the use of an antimicrobial composition for imparting antimicrobial properties to at least a glass or glass ceramic surface, obtainable by the process described above.
In order to impart the desired antimicrobial effect of a basic glass or a glass-ceramic according to the invention is preferably provided by manufacturing the base glass or glass-ceramic, this antimicrobial equipped with antimicrobial ions in a preferably separate process.
By retrofitting with antimicrobial ions, the surface of the thus treated glass or glass ceramic to bacteria, fungi and viruses is a biocide, a biostatic effect in any case. Compared to higher organisms occur no harmful effects. The provided with an antimicrobial surface in accordance with the invention, glass or the glass ceramic are used in particular in the food industry, the medical field and industrial field.
By "antimicrobial equipment" should be understood according to the invention, that the treated article contains such a concentration of antimicrobial ions, which are liberated from the surface to such an extent that is sufficient to impart the surface antimicrobial properties, anti-microbial ions are released so slowly be, that the surface for an extended period remains antimicrobially, even when this surface cleaned in the usual manner or cleaned with a conventional detergent.
Demnach ist eine derartige Konzentration einer antimikrobiell wirksamen Komponente vorhanden, dass diese mit einer Geschwindigkeit und in einer Konzentration freigesetzt wird, die ausreicht, mikrobielles Wachstum bei Kontakt mit einem Mikroorganismus zu inhibieren bzw. Accordingly, such concentration of an antimicrobial component is present that this is released at a speed and in a concentration sufficient to inhibit microbial growth when contacted with a microorganism or kill them.
The concentration of existing antimicrobial metal ions in the treated glass or glass ceramic is, of course, the antimicrobial treatment is to be used not only by the type of glass used, or the glass ceramic, but also the coated layer thickness, the firing temperature and time, the intended use for the well of a number of other factors. Accordingly, no general concentration of the antimicrobial metal ions can be specified. Lediglich beispielhaft sei die Konzentration von Silberionen in einem Bereich von etwa 0,2 Gew.
For example only, the concentration of silver ions in a range of about 0. The antimicrobial finishes glasses and glass-ceramics are not particularly limited in the present invention. It can be used all known to those skilled glasses or glass ceramics. In principle, all known technical and optical glasses are usable. Examples include flat glass, glass tubes, glass lenses, ampoules, carpoules, bottles, cans, glass or any shape of glass and ceramic parts, especially hobs.
Of course, a desired surface treated object such as a surface-treated glass can be used. The object is provided at least on part of its surface according to the present invention with antimicrobial properties. Of course, the entire surface or more parts of one or more surfaces may be antimicrobial finish. A substrate can be for example one or both sides may also be treated more sides according to the shape and antimicrobial finish.
There is also the possibility of a glass or a glass-ceramic having one or more additional layers to be provided and this structure by embossing a pattern or in any other way, and simultaneously or preferably subsequently to carry out the anti-microbial treatment of the invention. The method of the invention can also be carried out if desired decorative pattern, for example decorations with ceramic colors, images and structures in the object to be treated or substrate of glass or glass-ceramic are already available.
The applications of antimicrobial finishes glasses and glass ceramics are extraordinarily diverse. Another use is also in equipment for hospitals. Here, the known high requirements have to be fulfilled in practice.
Accordingly, a fifth aspect of the present invention are also glass ceramic hobs with antimicrobial activity, in particular in the cold zone and in the transition zones to the hot zone, which are available with the inventive method. Surprisingly, it allows process of the invention with the antimicrobial mixture to give a glass or a glass-ceramic in a simple manner antimicrobial properties without discoloration of the glass or the glass ceramic takes place while at the glass largest possible transmittance, is preferably ensured in the visible wavelength range.
An addition of special ingredients, or a lowering of the antimicrobial metal concentration below a limit, which hardly shows antibacterial action, in order to suppress discoloration of glasses or glass ceramics by the metal according to the invention is not necessary. It can significantly higher concentrations of metal ions into the substrates to be treated are diffused than in the prior art ever previously possible, while discoloration can be avoided entirely.
This results in a high antimicrobial effect and at the same time a long-lasting effect can be achieved. It is known that polymers are generally hydrophobic. Um derartige Polymere mit antimikrobiellen Eigenschaften zu versehen, werden Metallsalze, wie Silbersalze, in die Polymere eingebracht. In order to provide such polymers with antimicrobial properties, are metal salts such as silver salts, incorporated into the polymers. However, since these silver salts are hydrophilic, it is due to the electrical repulsion to a low solubility in the polymer and therefore to an insufficient, non-homogeneous dispersion of the silver particles.
Accordingly, polymers as a matrix of great disadvantage because already the matrix antimicrobial activity from the outset clearly deteriorated in itself.
To circumvent this problem, a pre-dispersion of the antimicrobially active compound was made in a silicone oil, which is then processed along with the polymer synthesis. This approach is not only limited to silicone-containing polymers, but the pre-dispersed solution is also deep black, which leads to a marked discoloration of the final product.
Thus, an improved antimicrobial effect was achieved, but at the same time taken a severe discoloration of the items into account. In turning away from the state of the art, therefore, a possibility has been created in the present invention to provide the appropriate antimicrobial effects for glasses or glass ceramics, but not to cause discoloration of the antimicrobial finishes objects.
Furthermore, the method according to the invention is suitable for mass production, since the process can be carried out relatively time-saving. The process may be performed continuously or batchwise. The uses of the glasses or glass ceramics of the invention with antimicrobial activity are very diverse and can also be located in sensitive areas, such as in the food industry since the antimicrobial finish is not critical toxicological.
The teaching of the invention is universally applicable to any type of glass or glass ceramic substrate and is not limited to special glasses or glass ceramics. The antimicrobial effect of glasses or glass ceramics can be adjusted as desired, for example, by varying the temperature and time during baking. In addition to avoiding an undesirable discoloration of the treated surfaces antimicrobial no change or deterioration of the original characteristics of the glasses or glass ceramics is obtained.
The antimicrobial finish is obtained independent of the surface nature of the substrate, for example, also on an existing decor or one or more layers readily, wherein the antimicrobial blend or paste is applied directly to the glass or Glaskermik, ie directly untreated to or already treated surface or directly on a possibly existing decor can be applied.
Das Verfahren der Erfindung kann auch mit anderen Temperaturbehandlungen des antimikrobiell auszustattenden Glases oder der Glaskeramik kombiniert werden, beispielsweise mit erforderlichen Formgebungsverfahren, Behandlungen zur Verbesserung der mechanischen Festigkeit, Beschichtungs- oder Dekorationsverfahren.
The method of the invention can also be combined with other treatments of the temperature to be equipped antimicrobial glass or glass ceramic, for example, with the necessary molding process treatments to improve the mechanical strength, coating or decoration processes. In this way, additional process steps can be eliminated. The following examples serve to illustrate the teaching of the invention. They are intended solely as examples of possible procedures without restricting the invention to their content.
The invention will be described with reference to embodiments. Es wurde folgende Zusammensetzung der antimikrobiellen Mischung hergestellt: following composition of the antimicrobial mixture was prepared: Silberoxid silver 23,10 Gew. Other additives may be added, if desired.
The paste prepared or acquired can be diluted for the application method, such as for screen printing process, with diluents, such as a screen printing oil, on the one hand to avoid coloration of the glass or the glass ceramic and the other hand to adjust the necessary viscosity for screen printing process.
For the following embodiments the antimicrobial paste by the screen printing screen was applied T number of threads per cm on a glass ceramic or on the full surface decoration of a glass ceramic by screen printing. The following Table 1 shows embodiments in which an antimicrobial mixture or paste according to the inventive method on a glass ceramic surface is applied and a glass-ceramic is obtained having antimicrobial activity.
Tabelle 1 Table 1. The following Tables 2 and 3 show embodiments in which the anti-microbial effect is achieved in one design that was applied to a glass-ceramic pane. Tabelle 2 table 2. The use of a thixotropic oil screen printing has the advantage that the screen printability of the mixture to be maintained even at high dilution levels.
At too low viscosities is otherwise a risk that the mixture dropped through the screen and can no longer be printed defined. For the following examples the antimicrobial paste was applied to the glass ceramic by means of spraying. The following Table 4 shows exemplary Beipiele wherein the antimicrobial effect is obtained on a glass ceramic surface.
Tabelle 4 table 4. Thus with the inventive teaching, it is possible surfaces of glasses or glass-ceramics antimicrobial equip without their surface color to change in any way the first time. An antimicrobial mixture or paste of any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the component c is an organic oil or oil mixture. An antimicrobial mixture or paste claimed in at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a mixture of components a , b and c represents a paste whose viscosity can be varied by adding a defined quantity of a diluent. An antimicrobial mixture or paste according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the diluent has the same or a different composition as the component c.
An antimicrobial mixture or paste of any of claims 6 to 8, characterized in that the diluent is a thixotropic oil. An antimicrobial mixture or paste claimed in at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the antimicrobial s component s is contained in an amount sufficient are to a glass or glass ceramic an antimicrobially effective surface to give the sense of ASTM E An antimicrobial mixture or paste claimed in at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 10, characterized in that - the component a in an amount of 5 to 50 wt. An antimicrobial mixture or paste claimed in at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 11, characterized in that in the antimicrobial mixture or paste as component a silver oxide, as component b cupric sulfatehydrate and, as component c contain Retinol is.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass eine antimikrobielle Mischung oder Paste eingesetzt wird, die mindestens die drei folgenden Komponenten umfasst: — Komponente a : mindestens ein antimikrobiell wirksames Metallsalz in Form eines Oxids; A method according to claim 15, characterized in that an antimicrobial mixture or paste is used which comprises at least the following three components: - component a : at least one antimicrobially active metal salt in the form of an oxide; — Komponente b : mindestens eine Komponente in Form eines Sulfates und — Komponente c : mindestens eine organische Matrix, in der das oder die antimikrobiell wirksamen Salze eingebettet sind.
Method according to one of claims 16 to 18, characterized in that the component c is selected from an organic oil or oil mixture. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 16 to 20, characterized in that a mixture of components a , b and c represents a paste whose viscosity is varied by adding a defined quantity of a diluent. A method according to claim 22, characterized in that as the diluent the same or a different composition is used as for the component c. A method according to any one of claims 21 to 23, characterized in that a thixotropic oil is used as a diluent.
A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 16 to 24, characterized in that the antimicrobial is s component s in a sufficient amount used is are to give a glass or a glass ceramic an antimicrobially effective surface. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 25, characterized in that in the antimicrobial mixture - the component a in an amount of 5 to 50 wt.
A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 26, characterized in that in the antimicrobial mixture or paste as component a silver oxide, as component b cupric sulfatehydrate and are used as component c of resin oil. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 29, characterized in that the antimicrobial mixture or paste in step 1 is applied to the surface by screen printing, spraying or roll coating. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 30, characterized in that the antimicrobial mixture or paste is applied with a layer thickness in the range of microns.
A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 34, characterized in that the burn-in step 2 for time periods of min is carried out. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 35, characterized in that the burn-in step 2 for about 15 minutes is performed. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 36, characterized in that the mixture is applied directly to the glass or glass-ceramic.
A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 37, characterized in that the mixture is applied directly to a decoration. A method according to at least one of the preceding claims 15 to 40, characterized in that the antimicrobial metal ion in the near-surface areas of the glass or glass ceramic surface to be enriched. Use of an antimicrobial mixture or paste of any one of the preceding claims 1 to 14 for the antimicrobial treatment of at least a glass or glass ceramic surface, obtainable by a process according to any one of claims 15 to 42nd.
Verwendung nach Anspruch 43, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Glas oder die Glaskeramik ein Dekor aufweist. Use according to claim 43, characterized in that the glass or glass-ceramic has a decor. Use according to claim 43 or 44, characterized in that the glass is selected from the group soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, alkali-containing float glass, alkali-free glass, aluminosilicate glass, Erdalkaliglas, soda-lime float glass, display glass, Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -Floatglas and deinked float glass having an iron concentration below ppm, preferably below ppm.
Glass ceramic cooking surface with antimicrobial activity, in particular in the cold zone and in the transition zones to the hot region, obtainable by the process according to any one of claims 15 to 42nd. SiO 2 SiO 2. BaO BaO. CaO CaO. MgO MgO. ZnO ZnO. TiO 2 TiO 2. ZrO 2 ZrO 2. MnO 2 MnO 2. CoO CoO. NiO NiO. SrO SrO. SnO 2 SnO2. Silberoxid silver. Kupfer-II-Sulfathydrat Cupric sulfatehydrate. DE DEA1 en Mixture or paste for providing glass or vitreous ceramic with antimicrobial finish, e.
DEA1 en. USB2 en. Antimicrobial glass articles with improved strength and methods of making and using same. Room arrangement, preferably a patient or guest room arrangement for a health facility or a hotel. Antimicrobial article with functional coating and methods for making the antimicrobial article. Method for reducing sodium concentration in the vicinity of a surface of a glass sheet.
Glass with enhanced strength and antimicrobial properties, and method of making same.