While these so-called pillars lost their impact by the late s with the secularization of Dutch society, the model continued to be applied to ethnic minorities. Within this framework, Dutch Turks were able to build strong organizations along the lines of Turkish political cleavages but the strength of these organizations was unique to the Turkish community. Perhaps the most influential of these organizations, the Dutch operation of the Diyanet — the Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs — was established in the late s. While the Diyanet has become a crucial part of the recent Dutch integration debate, it was established to meet the needs of the growing Turkish population in the Netherlands, with the Turkish state providing staff and funding.
The Dutch understanding of integration shifted in the s and early s.
Disproportionate levels of unemployment and dependency on the welfare state within minorities led to a new view that the multicultural approach that had been the core of Dutch integration policy was the cause of these issues. Consequently, Dutch integration policy began to focus on participation in society through the job market and education. In this phase, Turks were still regarded as a relatively successful minority, with their dense social network contributing to success in the Dutch job market.
Particularly, the murder of van Gogh — who was killed by a Dutch Moroccan born in Amsterdam — intensified the debate on identity and raised questions around the tensions caused by dual nationality, multiculturalism, and integration. Integration demands turned to active citizenship, requiring minorities to relate to Dutch society on more individual levels. Integration came to mean accepting shared Dutch norms and values and knowledge of Dutch language and culture.
Policymakers, who felt they could no longer rely on the self-internalization of Dutch values, stiffened the integration regulations that had been in place since the s. Long-term immigrants were required to pass a civic integration test proving basic knowledge of Dutch society and culture. Recent data shows that 54 percent of Dutch Turks primarily identify as Turkish rather than Dutch, though 49 percent of Dutch Turks still said they feel a strong connection with the Netherlands.
Ultimately, prior to the Dutch general election in , 40 percent of Dutch Turks, alongside Dutch Moroccans, said they did not feel welcome in the Netherlands. Beyond these more discursive interventions, the AKP has also taken an unprecedented active approach to influencing the diaspora. It established the Presidency of Foreign Turks and Relative Communities YTB under the prime ministry in to support projects seeking to combat discrimination and preserve Turkish family values and culture within the diaspora. The right of Turkish citizens abroad to vote in elections, which has been in place since the presidential elections in , has provided the AKP with an additional avenue to build and maintain its connection to the community.
Badawia, , p. Hence, identity is constituted on the basis of difference. The interplay of self-image and the perception of others creates the synthesis of personal identity, which then forms the fundament for collective identity cf. Voigt, , p. It is not only a normative orientation for every individual, but more likely gives a positive feeling of belonging thanks to a group membership and solidarity cf.
Furthermore, collective identity is bound to time and space. Time can be considered as remembered past, experienced and heard history and desired future. Space can be viewed as spatial time cf. Therefore, these ideas are going to be considered when the issue of citizenship is discussed in chapter 3. Moreover Barth distinguishes five characteristics of identity:. Complexity: multi-layering of identity 2. Relationality: definition of identity in contrast to others 3. Graduality: stronger or weaker shaping of identity 4.
Interchange: formation by interplay of self-image and the perception of others 5. Dynamic: possibility of its transformation thanks to interchange. Despite the complexity and dynamic of this phenomenon, identity is defined by sameness. Mulgan describes ten key points of feedback, from which individuals obtain response about their belonging, hence about their identity:. In the first place, ties of family and friendship give us response about our social status.
Hence, people rather feel affiliation to their place of residence, if there are caring people around them. This explains the clustering of first-generation migrants. Additionally, these ties can help to overcome a hard start-off in a new country with a foreign language or even troubles to find a job by using nepotism. Secondly, the participation in associations like churches, clubs, or voluntary organizations helps to connect people and make them feel to be part of the society.
Economy forms the third key point of feedback for belonging.
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A person feels integrated, if he or she has the same job opportunities as the majority of the host society, as well as promotion prospects. Discrimination is present as soon as the local economy does not have any interest in a particular part of the population. Political participation and power can also reinforce the feeling of belonging. The fifth key point describes cultural belonging: The strengthening of culture can either raise a feeling of belonging or alienation.
Shared symbols and traditions can unify people, but they might also alienate migrants from the rest of the nation. Rituals like citizenship ceremonies can encourage the feeling of belonging. Safety is another key point of feedback. The possibility of physical threat has a big impact on the feeling of affiliation, regardless of the general or discrimination-motivated crime.
Dutch-Turkish Identity: A Very Dutch Affair
The physical environment, like pleasing buildings and green spaces, can make people feel comfortable or depreciated. Everyday public services create patterns of community in cities.
This may also include the teaching of the Koran for Muslim children. Your home is your castle. Therefore, it is important to feel welcome by your landlord and tenants. The last key point of feedback is a matter of law. On the other hand there is a need for new laws, e.
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Nevertheless, law can also encourage belonging by issuing special rights for particular groups cf. Mulgan, Summing up, not all of these factors have to be fulfilled for a person to feel affiliated to a nation or community. Nevertheless, each of these features should be taken into account. Moreover, Mulgan considers groups, who turn from a very week belonging to very strong affiliation, to be the most dangerous ones. He states, that isolated people more likely turn into targets of extremist political leaders. In this way misrecognition can cause serious damage cf. The term social integration describes the inclusion of an individual into an established system.
Hence, it can be considered as the basis of development for hybrid identities. Esser specifies four dimensions of social integration, quasi host culture adoption: Acculturation as the acquisition of knowledge and skills especially language forms the precondition for the second step - emplacement. This means the taking over of social positions and the concession of rights.
Both features build the fundament for the next two dimensions. It was not until the year of that the first national integration law was enacted. Even though Germany has been an immigration country since the s, the necessity of a specific law framework has been neglected blindly for decades. The media still talk about "the migrant". But it finally has to reach people's minds that there is no clear distinction between "the German" and "the foreigner". In fact, the matter of identity has to be reconsidered.