Reduplication 6. Adjectivizers operating on different parts of speech 6. Wisdom was computerized by Brian Stross and I converted Stross's text file, kindly lent to me by Bob Wald, to the Shoebox format and placed the data in the database along with the contents of the PFLM dictionary keypunched by myself. The lexical information has subsequently been modified according to my own analyses, and the idea is to finally check all forms in the field.
Some of my differences with the different sources as well as the general nature of the data they represent are described in the annotations to the bibliographical entries below.
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Sometimes I translate the Spanish, though. Some day English should be carried through everywhere. For lexical data I usually don't give the source since 1 it is recoverable from the database and 2 the source will eventually be original field notes. For sentence examples I give the source in parenthesis following the English translation, and here the following conventions are used: Ch'orti' An example sentence from the PFLM dictionary; the word word indicates the heading under which the example is found.
So in this example the sentence comes from story 1, sentence 3. The following one or two digits is the story number as in the source and the following digits my own sentence numeration.
Dayley, Jon P. A hard Fought repartee. Fought, John G. Yale University Dissertation. A greater part deals with phonology and morphophonemics. Since Fought does not treated meanings and functions and of the various morphemes in depth, it is useful to supplement it with a study of the various morphemes in context. For this, his text collection and other sources mentioned below must be drawn upon. Edited by Sarah S. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Very precise phonetic recordings of highly interesting texts. The first 5 texts have phonemic renderings with morpheme breaks indicated. Most other sources operate with an intermediary phonological level. I cite the texts at this intermediary level, e. The grammatical introduction has many errors. Fought furthermore p. Lubeck, John E. As a descriptive source it provides a supplement to the other sources on a few points, e.
Monographs in Anthropology 9. There are a number of affixes listed which I have searched for but not been able to find in the language:!!! Oakley, Helen. In: Mayers, Marvin K. A 5 page morphological overview and a 1 page text. One error of interpretation is worth noting. Texts and free translations. Very useful. In story no. Test your knowledge of Ch'orti' by figuring out the joke!
Diccionary providing a brief grammarical introduction, close to 5. The grammatical introduction makes little mention of thematic suffixes and treats morphophonological products of thematic suffixes and Set B pronominal affixes as simple allomorphs of Set B, which is misleading. The dictionary focuses quite a lot on structure, giving different possible voices for verbs and indicating behavior under possession and counting for nouns, for instance. Nevertheless, the set of voice forms is not always complete. With respect to identifying the roots from which various items derive, the dictionary is very often not to be trusted.
With verbs the entry forms in bold are usually imperatives. Other forms also occur, however, apparently when the semantics of the verb is unwieldy of imperative formation. Mediopassives are sometimes treated as worthy of their own entry, but in many cases they are listed within the entry headed by the corresponding transitive. Quizar, Stephanie Robin O. Concerning the word order statements Quizar does not take cliticization into account as evidence, cf. Quizar, Robin.
Examples where there is no ambiguity, such as the one cited, is really left unanalyzed, since this can hardly be called an ergative construction. Wisdom, Charles. I have only had access to the dictionary files, as computerized by Brian Stross, University of Texas at Austin. Wisdom takes all verb root to be nouns and invents nominal meanings for them, meanings that are sometimes so specific that it is hard not to be lured into believing that they actually do exist.
There are inconsistencies in the phonological renderings, but some of these are probably due to actual variation in the speech community. Wisdom clearly has a reasonbly good ear, generally though not in every instance hearing glottal stops, for example. Fieldwork by Lacadena and Wichmann in these two municipalities , carried out under the auspices of UNESCO suggests that these final 4's may still be present in some of the aldeas of Olopa. Before studying the list the reader is adviced to first read Section 2. They are based on an inspection of the ca. Not included are optional rules for contractions of words in free speech.
Such contractions are frequent as evidenced by the texts in Fought , and a study of how they work is particularly valuable for insights into syntactic structure; this, however exceeds the limits of the present work see Fought for some analysis. Some rules have exceptions. It should be noted that the exceptions listed are singular cases, whereas the examples of cases where the rules work are examples proper. Even though a rule may be followed by one example and one exception, the example covers many instances, whereas each exception will represent its own instance alone.
Since the rules are based on a limited corpus they cannot be expected to be complete. Outcome of vowel clashes and related rules. Exceptions: Some of these may perhaps be explained by blocking rules that serve to hinder phonotactically unallowed for syllable clusters or by taking into account cases where the segments that cause the stress to move off of the root are inflectional, i. The change was triggered by the preverbal auxiliary , , whose vowel caused homophony in the 3rd person singular pronoun step 1 below.
It is to be expected that it is the most frequently used form that changes first. The change caused subsequent changes to avoid homophony step 2 and 3. Some linguists have argued for some Mayan languages that all lexical roots begin in a consonant.
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When a consonant seems to be absent they operate with a glottal stop present phonetically. Only antipassives are excluded from this rule. In the dialect represented by the data in Wisdom thematic suffixes also express transitivity. This was presumably the earlier function. All forms are or seem to be derived. The former determines thematic suffixes, the latter has consequences for the shape of passives and imperatives. Nevertheless, there is a high degree of regularity. The following schema shows which combinations of verb type and thematic suffix are attested.
Instead I provide extensive lists following the schema. For such forms the imperative is formed by means of one of four suffixes, which correspondingly divide the verbs into four great classes. The morphological and distrubtional facts are as follows. IMP 2A.
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ART 1A. SG DEF. SG for a while 1A. SG 1A. Although the imperative paradigm provided here is not complete, missing affixes are not such as occur in BM's work.
PL 1A. The aspect—either perfective or imperfective —is signalled solely by means of the choice of person markers. The most important groupings are the maximal division into transitives, intransitives and positionals and the minimal division according to transitivity and thematic suffixes. The most problematical parameter for establishing classes is that of derived vs. A clear criterion for deciding whether a verb is derived or underived is still lacking. I shall be using the term "root" in the absence of such a criterion. This is clearly risky, but when restricting the use of the term to all forms that do not carry one of the affixes identified in this morphology see the alphabetical list at the end for reference I hope to avoid misunderstandings.
I retain the traditional designation "positional" although it does not cover all cases. Nevertheless, I consider positionals a class independent of that of transitives rather than a subclass; without implying any diachronic ideas I shall call such pairs "cognate. Although this example is so far isolated, I expect more to be revealed by systematic elicitation.
From that time on the program has been realized and developed by school and environmental non-government organizations in many countries of Europe, with more than , school children participating. In addition to this textbook, various materials have been developed: study plans, methodological guidance for teachers, leadership instructions for NGOs for distributing SPARE, suggestions for including practical low-cost measures of energy-savings, methodological and informational video films, and multimedia CDs and DVDs. We are grateful to all the school children, teachers, activists of NGOs and specialists of various organizations who assisted in the development of the SPARE program.
We also express our gratitude to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of the Environment of Norway, which have provided financial support for the program. In , the United Nations conference on environment and development took place in Rio-de-Janeiro, Brazil. Representatives of countries of the world participated. The conference, orientated towards sustainable development solutions, was first to establish on a global level, ideology of sustainable use of resources and conserving the environment for the generations to come. Energy saving and use of renewable sources plays the key role in development and environmental protection, since common sources of energy have so far been the greatest polluters on the planet.
All energy processes use energy sources. Some sources are clean, like solar and wind energy, with zero gas emission, and therefore no negative effect on environment, while others can lead to catastrophic consequences, with great greenhouse gases emission and polluting waste. Non renewable energy sources, with no exception Sample of 2 pages off Energia Eterna 8 2.
A Primeira Lei da Termodinamica 10 A energia conserva-se 10 A quantidade de energia permanece constante 11 4. A humanidade precisa de cada vez mais energia 14 2. Transportes 40 O que fazer: 40 Medidas simples 41 Medidas para profissionais 41 7. O Sol 43 2. A Bioenergia 46 3. OVento 48 4. Amostra de 2 paginas de Son chistes para matar a los vivos.
Como estrella un servidor. Soy Caperucita-lobo el bueno y le llevo golosinas Me muero y me entierran en ella. Tuvo un acabado precioso. Jekyll y Dr. Abra la boca. Veo una tempestad en el mar. Con un poco de paciencia Vamos, salta. Es muy importante premiar a su mascota cuando obedece. Bueno, Angelito, regresa a tu hogar. Aseguraos de tener a vuestra mascota bien alimentada. Jekyll e Dr. Obrigada, Bela! Ya es hora de poner otra trampa. Se ha quemado un contacto 10 20 4.
Eso es todo. He estado observando tus movimientos. Impacto calculado: 27,43 km al Oeste.
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Vuestra velocidad es excesiva. Mis sensores indican He dado mi primer paso Conducidme a vuestro refugio como buenos Centinelas. Outro planeta! Grande meteorito! Para o mal. No se conforman con poco. Entonces, a por ellos.
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- Conflits régionaux et indépendances nationales en Afrique de lOuest (French Edition);
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Han encontrado a una mujer muerta en las afueras. Los demonios son una gran amenaza para el pueblo. Un monbre bonito para una chica bonita. Faltan cosas para el desayuno, ahora vuelvo. No la he visto desde la hora de la cena. He encontrado esta cesta en el camino, creo que es de Seira. A nosotros nos ha venido muy bien. No te metas. Una pistola con balas de plata. Lo siento. Acepten esta cena como disculpa. Como ahora. No hay nadie.
No falla. Dile la verdad. Esto no es lo que esperaba. Mala hierba nunca muere. Con un poder como el vuestro Si dispara seguro que nos da. La trampa del enjambre. Outra vez! Que vergonha. O que fazes aqui? Era o que queria evitar. E a comida?