The missions in the Huron country were now en- tirely abandoned.
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This settlement being in time ravaged by the Iroquois, a final stand was made at Lorette, also in the outskirts of Quebec, which mission exists to this day. The great Huron mission, which had been con- ducted for thirty-five years, had employed twenty- nine missionaries, of whom seven had lost their lives in the work. This important field forsaken, many of the missionaries had returned to Europe disheart- ened, and apparently the future for Jesuit missions in New France looked gloomy enough. The French colonies of Quebec, Three Rivers, and ntreal, had suffered from repeated raids of the N ew York confederates, and their forest trade was now almost wholly destroyed.
In this hour of darkness, light suddenly broke upon New France. The politic Iroquois, attacked on either side by the Eries and the Susquehannas, and fearing that while thus engaged their northern victims might revive for combined vengeance, sent overtures of peace to Quebec, and cordially invited to their cantonments the once detested black gowns. Champlain had early made enemies of the Iroquois, by attacking them as the allies of his Algonkin neigh- bors. This enmity extended to all New France, and lasted, with brief intervals of peace, for over half a century. Two years later,Bres- sani, while on his way to the Huron missions, was also captured by the Mohawks, passed through a similar experience of torture, was sold to the Dutch, and transported back to France, and again like J ogues resumed his hazardous task of attempting to tame the American savage.
His political errand accomplished, he returned to Quebec; but in August was back again, with a young French attendant named Lalande, intent on opening a mission among the Iroquois. Meanwhile, there had been a revul- sion of sentiment on their part, and the two French- men had no sooner reached the lVlohawk than they were tortured and killed.
During an Iroquois attack upon Quebec, seven years later , Father Joseph Anthony Poncet was taken prisoner by the marauders and carried to the Mohawk, where he suffered in the same manner as his predecessors; but his captors being now desir- ous of a renewal of peace with the French, spared his life, and sent him back to Quebec with overtures for a renewal of negotiations. Early in July, 16 54, Father Simon Ie Mayne was sent forth upon a tour of inspection, and returned to Quebec in September, with glowing reports of the fervor of his reception by both Mohawks and Onondagas.
At first, Dablon and Chaumonot had high hopes of their Onondaga enterprise; but mistrust soon arose in the minds of the natives, and Dablon found it necessary to proceed to Que bec and a btain fresh evidences of the friendship of the French. By the close of the year, the work was in a promising stage; a number of Christianized Hurons, who had been adopted into the confederacy, formed a nucleus for proselyting, several Iroquois converts had been made, and all five of the tribes had been visited by the missionaries.
There was, however, still another chapter to the story. In the summer of , after two years of bloody forays against New France, a Cayuga sachem, who had been converted at Onondaga, came to :Mont- real as a peace messenger, asking for another black gown to minister to the native converts and a number of French captives in the Iroquois towns.
Once more, Le :Moyne cheerfully set out upon what seemed a path to death; but he passed the winter without molestation, and in the spring following was allowed to return to Canada with the French prisoners. It was five years later , before the govern- ment of New France felt itself sufficiently strong to threaten chastisement of the raiding Iroquois, who had long been making life a torment in the colonies on the St.
Fathers James Fremin, James Bruyas, and John Pierron were sent out in 7; later, they were assisted by Julian Garnier, Stephen de Carheil, Peter 1filet, and Boniface, so that by the close of a mission was in progress in each of the five cantonments. A few notable con- verts were made, among them Catharine Tegakouita, known as the" Iroquois saint;" Catharine Ganneak- tena, an Erie captive who afterwards founded a native mission village on the banks of the St.
The converts were subjected to so many annoyances and dangers, that isolation was thought essential, and there was established for them opposite :Montreal the palisaded mission of St. Francis Xavier; this settlement, fostered by the French as a buffer against Iroquois attack all the colonists, was subse- quently removed to Sault St. Louis, and is known in our day as Caughnawaga. This depletion of the Iroquois population alarmed the sachems of the confederacy.
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The French did not abandon the Iroquois mission- field until , when the rising power of the English obliged them to 'withdraw from the country. The entire party were again driven from the cantonments in , De 11arieul be- ing the last of his order to remain on duty. When the black gowns were at last expelled from New France, secular priests continued their work among the remnants of those New York Indians who had sought protection by settling among the French colonists on the St.
The Ottawas were the first Indians from the upper lakes to trade with the French, hence that vast district be- came early known as the country of the Ottawas. The Huron mission was the door to the Ottawa mlSSlon. Jogues and Raimbault were with the Chip- pewas at Sault Ste. After a wretched winter on that inhospitable coast, spent in a shanty of fir boughs, with savage neighbors who reviled his presence, he proceeded inland intent on ministering to some H urons who had fled from Iro- quois persecution to the gloomy pine forest about the upper waters of Black River, in what is now Wiscon- sin.
In August, , he lost his life at a portage, IJ. The field of the Northwest seemed at first, as did the Huron mission, highly promising. The missionaries were every- where greeted by large audiences, and much curiosity was displayed concerning the rites of the church; but, as usual, the nomadic habits of the Indians ren- dered instruction difficult. The fathers, with great toil and misery, and subject to daily danger and in- sult, followed their people about upon long hunting and fishing expeditions; and even when the bands had returned to the squalid villages, life there was almost as comfortless as upon the trail.
Ignace, opposite Mackinaw; and it was from here that, in , he joined the party of Louis Joliet, en route to the Mississippi River. The St. Ignace mission became the largest and most success- ful in the N orthvvest, there being encamped there, during :Marquette's time, about Hurons and 1, Ottawas. The interesting story of Marquette, a fa- miliar chapter in American history, will be fully devel- oped in the documents of this series; and we shall be able to present for the first time a facsimile of the original :MS. Journal of his final and fatal voyage , which is preserved among the many treasures of the Jesuit College of S1.
After the suspension of the publication of the Relatiolls, in , we obtain few glimpses of the Ot- tawa mission, save in the occasional references of travelers. La Pointe, Green Bay, S1. Ignace later :Mackinac , Sault Ste. Marie, St. Joseph's, and Kaskaskia became the most important of them all; and at some of these points Catholic missions are still maintained by Franciscan friars and secular priests, for resident French Creoles and Indians.
The uprising of the Faxes against French power, which lasted spasmodically from about to , greatly hampered the work of the Jesuits; they did not, during this period, entirely ab- sent themselves from the broad country of the Otta- was, but conversions were few and the records slight. In time, French settlements grew up around the palisaded missions, intermarriages occurred, and the work flourished for many years.
Black gowns visited the prosperous Illinois towns as late as , when the death of Father 11eurin closed the work of his order in the Northwest. The Jesuit Marquette was in Louisiana in , but established no mission. In , Francis Jolliet de :Mon- tigny and Anthony Davion, priests of the Seminary of Quebec, established missions on the Yazoo, alTIOng the Natchez, and elsewhere in the neighborhood; to their aid, soon came others of their house,-St.
Capuchins and Jesuits were both admitted to Louisiana, in , the former to serve as priests to the French of the country, chiefly at New Orleans and Natchez, while the Jesuits were restricted to the Indian missions, although permitted to maintain a house in the outskirts of New Orleans. It was not long before the Illinois mission became attached to Louisiana, and missionaries for that field usually en- tered upon their work by way of the New Orleans house. Father Du Poisson was killed by savages at Natchez, where he was temporarily supplying the French settlers in the absence of their Capuchin friar; Souel fell a victim to the Yazoos, at whose hands Doutreleau narrowly escaped destruction.
However, the Jesuits did not despair, but soon returned to the Lower :Mississippi, where they continued their labors until about , although the order had in been suppressed in France. The Louisiana mission of the Jesuits, while pro- ducing several martyrs, and rich in striking examples of missionary zeal, has yielded but meagre document- ary results; few of the papers in the present series touch upon its work, and indeed detailed knowledge thereof is not easily obtainable. Severed from Can- ada by a long stretch of wilderness, communication with the Lawrence basin was difficult and spas- modic, and in the case of the Jesuits generally unnec- essary; for, having their own superior at New Or- leans, his allegiance was to the general of the order in France, not to his fellow-superiors in Quebec and :Montreal.
The several missions of New France played a large part in American history; that of Louisiana, although interesting, is of much less importance. V the Jesuits that we owe the great body of our informa- tion concerning the frontiers of New France in the seventeenth century. It was their duty annually to transmit to their superior in Quebec, or :Montreal, a written journal of their doings; it was also their duty to pay occasional visits to their superior, and to go into retreat at the central house of the Canadian mISSIon.
This annual Relation, which in bibliographies occasionally bears the name of the superior, and at other times of the missionary chiefly contributing to it, was for- warded to the provincial of the order in France, and, after careful scrutiny and re-editing, published by him in a series of duodecimo volumes, known collect- ively as The Jesuit Relations.
The authors of the journals which formed the basis of the Relations were for the most part men of trained intellect, acute observers, and practised in the art of keeping records of their experiences. They had left the most highly civilized country of their times, to plunge at once into the heart of the American wilder- ness, and attempt to win to the Christian faith the fiercest sa vages known to history. N 39 not only amply fitted for their undertaking, but none have since had better opportunity for its prosecution. They were explorers, as well as priests. Bancroft was inexact when he said, in oft-quoted phrase, "N at a cape was turned, not a river entered, but a Jesuit led the way.
The Jesuits per- formed a great service to mankind in publishing their annals, which are, for historian, geographer, and ethnologist, among our first and best authorities. Insects innu- merable tormented the journalists, they were im- mersed in scenes of squalor and degradation, over- come by fatigue and lack of proper sustenance, often suffering from wounds and disease, maltreated in a hundred ways by hosts who, at times, might more properly be called jailers: and not seldom had savage superstition risen to such a height, that to be seen making a memorandum was certain to arouse the ferocious enmity of the band.
I t is not surprising that the composition of these journals of the Jesuits is sometimes crude; the wonder is, that they could be written at all. Nearly always the style is simple and direct. Never does the narrator descend to self- glorification, or dwell unnecessarily upon the details of his continual martyrdom; he never cOlnplains of his lot; but sets forth his experience in phrases the most matter-of-fact. His meaning is seldom obscure. Arrived at last, at his journey's end, we often find him vainly seeking for shelter in the squalid huts of the natives, with every man's hand against him, but his own heart open to them al.
We find him, even when at last domiciled in some far-away village, working against hope to save the unbaptized from eternal damnation; we seem to see the rising storm of opposition, invoked by native medicine-men,- who to his seventeenth- century imagination seem devils indeed,-and at last the bursting climax of superstitious frenzy which sweeps him and his before it.
We seem, in the Relations, to know this crafty savage, to measure him intellec- tually as well as physically, his inmost thoughts as well as open speech. The fathers did not under- stand him from an ethnological point of view, as well as he is to-day understood; their minds were tinctured with the scientific fallacies of their time. But, with what is known to-day, the photographic re- ports in the Relations help the student to an accurate IiVTRODUcTION 41 picture of the untamed aborigine, and much that mys- tified the fathers, is now, by aid of their carefulj our- nals, easily susceptible of explanation.
The Relations at once be- came popular in the court circles of France; their regular appearance was always awaited with the keenest interest, and assisted greatly in creating and fostering the enthusiasm of pious philanthropists, who for many years substantially maintained the mis- sions of New France.
In addition to these forty volumes, which to collectors are technically known as "Cramoisys," many similar publications found their way into the hands of the public, the greater part of them bearing date after the suppression of the Cra- moisy series. Some were printed in Paris and Lyons by independent publishers; others appeared in Latin and Italian texts, at Rome and other cities in Italy; while in such journals as..
It does not appear, however, that popular interest 42 I. General literary interest in the Relations was only created about a half century ago, when Dr. John G. Collectors at once commenced searching for Cramoisys, which were found to be exceedingly scarce,- most of the originals having been literally worn out in the hands of their devout seventeenth- century readers; finally, the greatest collector of them all, James Lenox, of New York, outstripped his competitors and laid the foundation, in the Lenox Library, of what is to-day probably the only complete collection in America.
These, too, are now rare, copies seldom being offered for sale. The Quebec reprint was followed by two admirable series brought out by Shea and O'Callaghan respect- ively. The O'Callaghan series, seven in number the edition limited to twenty-five copies , contains different material from Shea's, but of the same character. The memo- randa contained in this volume,-a rarity, for the greater part of the edition was accidentally destroyed by fire,-were not intended for publication, being of the character of private records, covering the opera- tions of the Jesuits in New France between and The Journal is, however, an indispensable com- plement of the Relatio1ls.
It was reprinted by a :Montreal publisher J. Valois in , but even this later edition is already exhausted. American historians, from Shea and Parkman down, have already made liberal use of the Relations, and here and there antiquarians and historical societies have published fragmentary translations. The great body of the Relations and their allied documents, how- ever, has never been Englished. The present edition, while faithfully re- producing the old French text, even in most of its errors, offers to the public, for the first time, an English rendering side by side with the origiNal.
In breadth of scope, also, this edition will, through the generous enterprise of the publishers, readily be first in the field. These seyeral documents will be illustrated by faithful reproduc- tions of all the maps and other engravings appearing in the old editions, besides much new material obtained especially for this edition, a prominent feature of which will be authentic portraits of many of the early fathers, and photographic facsimiles of pages from their manuscript letters.
In the Preface to each volume will be given such Bibliographical Data concerning its contents, as seem necessary to the scholar. An exhaustive General Index to the English text will appear in the final volume of the series. The object is, of course, to ward off the threatened inva- sion of New France by the Jesuits, by showing how thoroughly the work of proselyting is being carried forward without their aid.
By the same ship which, in the hands of Pou- trincourt's son, Biencourt, carries to France this ingen- ious document, one Bertrand, a Huguenot layman, sends a message to his friend, the Sieur de la Tronchaie. In his Lettre Missive, Bertrand de- scribes the conversion of Membertou and his fellow savages, and speaks with enthusiasm of the new country: as well he may, for in Volume II.
Certain Huguenot merchants of Dieppe conspired to prevent the passage of the Jesuits to America; but finally the queen and other court ladies, favoring the missionaries, purchased con- trolof the Huguenots' ship and cargo, and the exult- ant fathers are now on the eve of sailing. I 47 IV. In this letter, written by Biard to his provin- cial, a few weeks after the arrival at Port Royal, the missionary gives the details of his voyage, describes the spiritual and material condition of Poutrincourt' s colony, and outlines plans for work among the Indians- only Huguenot ministers being, as yet, allowed under the charter to serve the spiritual needs of the colonists themselves.
Father Jouvency, one of the eighteenth-cen- tury historians of the Society of Jesus, herein gives an historical account of the Canadian missions of his order, in ; and, by way of comparison, tells of the condition of the same missions in 17 0 3, ending with a list of the Jesuit missions in North America in the year , the date of original pub- lication. Herein, J ouvency gives a detailed account of the Indian tribes of Canada,- their customs, charac- teristics, superstitions, etc. Although not in strict chronological order, these chapters are given here as being from the same work as the foregoing.
In the preparation of several of the Notes to V olume I. Jane Marsh Parker, of Rochester, N. By Royal License. DOJlJlez luy des ailes pour ,. I know that there is no lack of good- will and loyalty in tile service of the King and of your Majest " to tile end that after what is due to God YOll ma 1 bc obeyed by allmallkiJld. Et de nofire regne Ie premier. Par Ie Roy en fan Confeil. And this to remain valid until the expiration of six complete years, counting from the day on which the printing of said book shall be finished.
During said period of time all Printers, Booksellers, and other persons of whatso- ever rank, quality, or condition are prohibited from publishing, selling, imitating, or changing said book or any part thereof, under penalty of confiscation of the copies, and of fifteen hundred livres fine, one- half of which is to be paid to us, and one-half to the poor of the town hospital in this city of Paris, to- gether with the costs, damages, and interests of the aforesaid petitioner: notwithstanding all cries of Haro, Norman Charter, 4 Licenses, letters, or other appeals and counter-claims, opposed to this now or in future.
Given at Paris on the ninth day of Sep- tember, in the year of grace, , and in the first of our reign. By the King in Council. History shows that the voice of the Apostles has resounded for several centuries past throughout all the old world, although to-day the Christian kingdoms form the smallest part of it. But as to the new world, dis- covered some hundred and twenty years ago, we have no proof that the word of God has ever  been proclaimed there prior to these later times; unless we are to believe the story of Jean de Lery, 5 who says that one day as he was telling the Bra- zilians about the great miracles of God in the crea- tion of the world, and the mysteries of our redemp- tion, an old man told him that he had heard his grandfather say that, many years before, a bearded man Brazilians have no beards had come among them and had related something similar; but that they would not listen to him, and since then had been killing and eating each other.
As to the other countries beyond the sea, some of them have indeed a certain vague knowledge of the deluge, and of the immortality of the soul, together with the future re- ward of those who live aright; but they might have handed this obscure doctrine down, from generation to generation, since the universal deluge which hap- 59 l fatth. It remains now to deplore the wretched condition of these people who occupy a country so large that the old world bears no comparison with it, if we include the land which lies beyond the straits of Magellan, called  Terra del fugo, extending as far toward China and Japan as toward New Guinea; and also the country beyond the great river of Canada,6 which stretches out to the East and is washed by the great Western ocean.
Dense ignorance prevails in all these countries, where there is no evidence that they have ever felt the breath of the Gospel, except in this last century when the Spaniard carried thither some light of the Chris- tian religion, together with his cruelty and avarice.
For more than twenty-five years, the English have retained a foot- hold in a country called, in honor of the deceased Queen of England, Virginia, which lies between Florida and the land of the Armouchiquois. Soon after I published my History of New France,lO there was an embarkation of eight hundred men to be sent there.
It is not reported that they bathed their hands in the blood of those people, for which they are neither to be praised nor blamed: for there is no law nor pretext which permits us to kill anyone, whosoever he may be, and especially the per- sons whose property we have seized. As to our French people, I have complained enough in my History of the cowardice of these later times, and of our lack of zeal either in reclaiming these poor erring ones, or in making known, exalted, and glorified, the name of God in the lands beyond the seas, where it never has been proclaimed.
And yet we wish that country to bear the name of France, a name so august and venerable that we cannot, without a feeling of shame, glory in an un-Christianized France. I know that there are any number of people who are willing to go there. But why is it that [I I] the Church, which has so much wealth; why is it that the Nobility, who ex- pend so much needlessly, do not establish some fund for the execution of so holy a work?
Two courage- ous Gentlemen, Sieurs de 1Ylonts and de Poutrincourt, haye in these later times shown such great zeal in this work, that they have weakened their resources by their outlays, and have done more than their strength justified them in doing. Both have continued their voyages up to the present time. But one of them has been frustrated twice, and has had heavy losses through too great confidence in the words of certain persons.
Ce qui ne fucceda pas bien. But with what difficulty has he labored in this cause up to the present time? Thrice has he crossed the great Ocean to carryon his enter- prises. The first year was passed with sieur de :Monts in seeking a suitable dwelling and a safe port for the withdrawal of the ships and their crews. In this, they did not meet with much success.
The second year passed in the same way, and then he re- turned to France. During the third year, we experi- mented with the soil, which yielded abundantly to our cultivation. This present year, discovering through an unfortunate experience that men are not always to be trusted, he made up his mind to depend upon no one but himself, and put to sea on the twenty- sixth of February; the  weather being very un- favorable, he made the longest voyage of which I have ever heard; certainly our own, three years ago, was tedious enough, when we drifted about upon the sea for the space of two months and a half before reaching Port Royal.
But this one lasted three whole months, so that one reckless man was about to mutiny, going so far as to form wicked conspiracies; but Sieur de Poutrincourt's kindness, and respect for the place where he lived in Paris, served as a shield to protect his life. Thence, in trying to reach Port Royal, he was carried by violent winds forty leagues beyond, namely to the Norombega river,l1 so celebrated and so fabulously described by Geographers and Historians, as I have shown in my said History, where this voyage may be seen in the geographical Chart  which I have inserted therein.
Thence he came to the riyer saint John, which is opposite Port Royal beyond French Bay,12 where he found a ship from S1. Malo trading with the Savages of the country. Here complaint was made to him by a Captain of the Savages, that one of the crew of the said ship had stolen away his wife and was abusing her: the Sieur informed himself about the matter and then made a prisoner of the malefactor and seized the ship. Arrived at last at Port Royal, it is impossible to describe the joy with which these poor people received the Sieur and his company.
And, in truth, there was still greater reason for this joy, since they had lost all hope of ever again seeing the French live among them. This Port Royal. It is fortified upon the North by a 67 Terrir, 1Ilcanitzg to discover tIle land. Et foucieux de leurs vieux amis ils deman- doient comme vn chacun d'eux fe portoit, les nommant particulierement par. Furthermore, there can be caught in this port, in their season, great quantities of herring, smelt, sardines, barbels, codfish, seals and other fish; and as to shell-fish, there is an abundance of lobsters, crabs, palourdes,14 cockles, mussels, snails, and porpoises.
But whoever is disposed to go beyond the tides of the sea will find in the river quanti- ties of sturgeon and salmon, and will have plenty of sport in landing them. Anxious about their old friends, they asked how they were all getting along, calling each individual by his name, and asking why such and such a one had not come back. This shows the great amiability of these people, who, having seen in us only the most humane qualities, never flee from us, as they do from the Spaniard in this whole new world. And consequently by a certain gentle- ness and courtesy, which are as well known to them as to us, it is easy to make them pliant to all our wishes, and especially so in regard to Religion, of which we left them some good impressions when we Aux Hebr.
But just as we were hoping to continue [17 J the work, it happened that sieur de nts. So it would have been rash and unwise to administer baptism to people whom it was necessary afterwards to abandon, and give them an opportunity to return to their cor- ruption. But now that the work is being carried on in earnest, and as sieur de Poutrincourt has actually settled there, it is lawful to impress upon their minds and souls the stamp of Christianity, after having instructed them in the principal articles of our Faith.
"Ecclesia de Eucharistia" : l'avis d'un théologien - Croire - Questions de vie, questions de foi
Sieur de Poutrincourt is careful to do this, remem- bering what the Apostle said, He that cometh to God, must believe that he is J" and after believing this, one comes gradually to ideas which are farther removed from mere sensual apprehension, such as the belief that out of nothing God created all things, that he made himself man, that he was born of a Virgin, that he consented to die for man, etc. And inas- much as the Ecclesiastics who have been taken over there are not [I 8J familiar with the language of these people, the Sieur has taken the trouble to teach them and to have them taught by his eldest son, a young Gentleman who understands and speaks the native language very well, and who seems to have been destined to open up to the Savages the way to heaven.
Ammzall it! Sanies Pagnin, 9. But beyond French Bay, which extends into the land about forty leagues, and is ten or twelve leagues wide, the people on the other side are called Etechemins; and still farther away are the Armouchi- quois, whose language is different from that of the Etechemins, and who are fortunate in having an abundance of vines and large grapes, if they only knew how to make use of this fruit, which they be- lieve as did our ancient Gauls to be poisonous. They also have excellent hemp, which gro,vs wild, and in quality and appearance is much superior to ours.
Besides this they have Sassafras, and a great abundance of oak, walnut, plum and chestnut trees, and other fruits which are unknown to us. As to Port Royal, I must confess that there is not [I9J much fruit there; and yet the land is productive enough to make us hope from it all that Gallic France yields to us. In the usual version of the Bible it is defined " :Magistrate," and yet even there the Hebrew inter- preters translate it by the word "Prince. Isaiah 4I, verso 25, Jerem. II ne met point d'impoft fur Ie peuple.
Mais s'il y a de la chaffe il en a fa part fans qu'il foit tenu d'y aller. And perhaps for this very same reason our Tectosages, who are the Tolosains,18 are so called. For this good father, who restored the world, came into Italy and sent [20J a new population into Gaul after the Deluge. And it is not im- probable that he himself imposed this name upon the Tectosages. Let us return to our word Sagamore, which is the title of honor given to the Captains in these new Lands, of which we are speaking.
At Port Royal, the name of the Captain or Sagamore of the place is 11embertou. He has under him a number of families whom he rules, not with so much authority as does our King over his subjects, but with sufficient power to harangue, advise, and lead them to war, to render justice to one who has a grievance, and like matters. He does not impose taxes upon the people, but if there are any profits from the chase he has a share of them, without being obliged to take part in it. I'en ay lettres dudit Sieur de Poutrincourt en datte du vnzieme jour de I uillet enfuivant.
Now this embertou to-day, by the grace of God, is a Christian, together with all his family, having been baptized, and twenty others with him, on last saint John's day, the 24th of June. I have letters from Sieur de Poutrincourt about it, dated the eleventh day of July following. And thus to each one was given the name of some illustrious or notable personage here in France.
A number of other Savages were about to camp elsewhere as it is their custom to scatter in bands when summer comes at the time of these ceremonies of Christian regeneration, whom we believe to be to-day enrolled in the family of God by the same cleansing water of holy baptism.
N ow this man, with others, was turned away from Christianity, by the cursed avarice of this wicked Frenchman to whom I have referred above, and whom I do not wish to name now on account of the love and reverence I bear his father, but I protest that I will immortalize him if he does not mend his ways. He, I say, in order to defraud this Sagamore [24J, Chkoudun, of a few Beavers, went last June to bribe him, after having escaped from the hands of Sieur de Poutrincourt, say- ing that all this Poutrincourt told them about God was nonsense, that they need not believe it, that he was an impostor, that he would kill them and get their Beavers.
I omit a great many wicked stories that he may have added to this. If he were of the religious belief of those who call themselves Re- formed, I might somewhat excuse him. But he plainly shows that he is neither of the one nor the other. This Sagamore, being a Christian, by his good example might have caused a great number of others to become Christians. But I am willing to hope, or rather firmly believe, that he will not remain much longer in this error, and that the Sieur will have found some means of attracting him with many others to himself, to impress upon him the vital truths with which he had formerly, in my presence, touched his soul.
For the spirit of God has power to drop upon this field fresh dew,. May God, by his grace, guide all in such a way that it will redound to his glory and to the edification of this people, for whom all Christians ought to make continual supplication to his divine goodness, to the end that he may con- sent to confirm and advance the work, which he has been pleased to begin at this time for the exaltation of his name and for the salvation of his creatures. Now, for the present, there is no need of any learned Doctors who may be more useful in combating vices and heresies at home.
Besides, there is a certain class of men in whom we cannot have complete confidence, who are in the habit of censuring everything that is not in harmony with their maxims, and wish to rule wher- ever they are. Pour ce qui efi de la demeure du Sieur de Poutrincourt il s'efi fourni au depart de ce qui lui efioit neceffaire. And then what would be the use of so many such men over there at present, unless they wanted to devote themselves to the cultivation of the soil? For going there is not all.
As to Sieur de Poutrincourt's residence, he provided himself at his departure with everything that was necessary. Croix, Pemptegoet, Kinibeki, and in other places,. For to think of living as the Savages do seems to me out of all reason. And to prove this, the following is an example of their way of living: From the first land which is Newfoundland to the country of the Armouchiquois, a distance of nearly three hundred leagues, the people are nomads, without agriculture, never stopping longer than five or six weeks in a place.
Pliny mentions a certain people called Ichthyophagi, i. These Savages get their living in this manner during three seasons of the year. LvI anner of living of the Souriquois and Et he- chemins. Ie coucher. As to their beds, a skin spread out upon the ground serves as mattress. And in this we have nothing to jest about, for our old Gallic an- cestors did the same thing, and even dined from the skins of dogs and wolves.
But as to the Armouchiquois and Iroquois countries, there is a greater harvest to be gathered there by those who are inspired by religious zeal, be- cause they are not so sparsely populated, and the people cultivate the soil, from which they derive some of the comforts of life. It is true that they do not understand very well how to make bread, not having mills, yeast, or ovens; so they pound their corn in a kind of  mortar, and make a paste of it as best they can, and bake it between two stones heated at the fire; or they roast this corn on the ear upon the live coals, as did the old Romans, according to Pliny.
Afterwards people learned to bake cakes un- der the embers; and still later bakers began to make use of ovens. Now these people who cultivate the soil are stationary, not like the others who have noth- ing of their own, just as the Germans in the time of Tacitus, who has described their ancient way of living.
Farther inland, and beyond the Armouchi- quais, are the Iroquois tribes, also stationary, because they till the soil, whence they gather maize wheat or Buckwheat , beans, edible roots, and in short all that we have mentioned in describing the Armouchi- quois, even more, for from necessity they draw their 85 Their beds. A rmouchi- quois. Nouveau jJfexique.
Gralld lac outre Calzada. Car quiconque a pris la peine de cultiver vne terre il ne la quitte point aifement. However, they have a great lake in their country, of wonderful extent, perhaps about sixty leagues, around which they encamp. In this lake there are large and beautiful islands inhabited by the Iroquois, who are a great people; the farther [29J we penetrate into the country. And this country is more than five hundred leagues direct- ly to the north of old :Mexico, being near, I believe, the end of the great lake of the river of Canada which according to the Savages is a thirty days' journey in length.
I believe that robust and hardy men could live among these people, and do great work for the advancement of the Christian Religion. But as to the Souriquois and Etechemins, who are nomadic and divided, they must be made sedentary by the cultivation of the land, thus obliging them to remain in one place. For anyone who has taken the trouble to cultivate a piece of land does not readily abandon it, but struggles valiantly to keep it.
Great expense and loss of life were once incurred in the re-conquest of Palestine, from which there was lit- tle profit; and to-day at slight expense wonders could 87 lVC'Zl' JJIexico. A great lake beyond Canada. Cazals, etc. Sans doute M. Paul Fort a refondu dans cette nouvelle. Cette fille, elle est morte, est morte dans ses amours. Les dryades craintives se groupent en buissons. Les sylvains, aux coteaux, gagnent les tournants brusques. Leurs cornes ont disparu comme des feux follets. Il tombe! Et les astres bourdonnent sous la ruche des cieux. Roman de Louis XI. Et, en effet, M.
Au pays du Bcrry. Les filles filent leurs quenouilles Ou bercent les petits berceaux. Maeterlinck, de M. Adam, etc. Ses premiers vers parurent en , dans La Conque de M. Pierre Louys. Le Sang parie. Sept heures. Y a-t-il des pardons pour les amours Qui imploreraient un retour? Le Sang parle. Revenu en de Pile Bourbon, M. La nature se tait. Fleurs de Corail. Le Verbe surprit Rome en sa luxure immonde. Pourquoi laisser encor vos muses endormies? Marseille, En Passant. Pourtant vous laissez les jaloux Ravir quelque chose de vous A chaque mot cruel ou doux Que vous leur dites.
Je suis triste tout simplement. Dans la cour une voix ravie Chante un refrain toujours pareil Sur la route toujours suivie. Mon mal est fini comme un drame. Or, M. Silvestro entre autres. Plus tard, M. Il se recueillait. Pour M. A ce moment, M. Septembre Tout est calme. Pierre Rovert. Cachaient leur douceur bleue entre deux brins de jonc. Les Heures de la Muse. Mais qui dira surtout les souvenirs antiques Epars en ce pays?
Les hauts faits, la valeur, les gloires, les reliques De ses illustres fils? Je ne puis me passer de vous. Le son de la Syrinx est doux au soir tranquille. Memphis dormait. O Virgile! En janvier , M. Il chante la vie avec ses joies et ses tristesses. Je sais que la candeur de ses yeux ne ment pas. Comme ils sont exigeants! La Chanson des Hommes. Cette nuit, je me pendrai A quelque vieux marronnier, Non loin de ta porte. Qui te rendrait jamais une telle tendresse? Jours heureux! La Blafarde , etc. Gabriel Randon fut de retour en France en Il connut alors Albert Samain, qui devint un de ses intimes.
Il se lia aussi avec Dubus et Julien Leclercq, tous deux disparus. Cause un peu? Tu dis rien! Mon dieu mon dieu! Dans les derniers vers de M. Les Vierges. Nous nous aimons. Un peu de vent tressaille aux pentes du coteau. Il fait froid. Chaque jour notre corps nous semble plus lointain. Que de baisers perdus!
Tombeau de Jules Tellier, Dans le dernier livre de M. Le Chemin des Saisons. Et le sourire fin de ces Parisiennes! Es-tu morte? Puis le vent meurt avec la voix du muletier. Le soleil, rouge, tombe au bout du long sentier. Claveau, M. Enfin, il indique bien notre point de vue sur le monde, qui est, lui aussi, tout humain. Nous ne sommes ni mystiques ni sceptiques. Je fus un homme. Voir aussi la lettre de M. Salut, Maison! Assez de ce rire moqueur! Je respire! Et le reste, le reste est vain! Il pleut, Les vitres tintent. Une porte, en battant sans fin, grince une plainte Mineure et monotone.
Souffle le vent, batte la porte, Tombe la pluie! Il pleut… — La vie est belle! Je vis, je vais parmi des choses, Bonnes, mauvaises, je ne sais. Je ne sais pas. Rame, etc. Mais M. Filsde M.
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Ils seront des citoyens, etc. En , il fonda, avec M. Les Chants de la Vie Ardente. Terre, en vain tu te plains! O jeune homme, entends-la, ma parole nouvelle! Que mon corps tout entier se disperse en lambeaux! Je cueillerai la rose et prendrai les flambeaux! Le soir qui les grandit tombe sur leur destin. Ce laboureur pensif sous le ciel radieux Evoque je ne sais quel obscur sacerdoce.
à : to, toward, towards
O saveur du baiser! Les Voix de la Terre et du Temps. La peur les saisit. Mais pas un bruit Si loin de la terre ne passe,. Les vignobles heureux dans le fleuve se mirent. Il se juge, et sa douleur et son orgueil en sont accrus. Il rejette tout ce qui est net.
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Suivant M. Voici comment raisonue M. Quant au fond, M. Bienstock Fasquelle, Paris, Hiers bleus. Les premiers romans de M. Les bonheurs de jadis aux tristes souvenances Nous attendrissaient doucement. Dont la jeune gloire Fleurit. Elle est morte. Namur, lo 12 avril Robert Arnaud signe ses vers du pseudonyme de Robert Randau. Son style est nerveux et puissant. III ch. Selon A. I — Correspondance Journet-Maritain , t. Une intuition de Charles Journet? Dupuis, dans Revue thomiste, oct. Les arguments de convenance sont-ils toujours fragiles?
Ut unum sint! Perrin, et B. Quelle est la racine de la divergence entre catholiques et protestants? Adriano Garuti. Centenaire de la naissance du cardinal Charles Journet. Pesch, Das Markusevangelium , T. Barbotin et G. Odelain et R. Passelecq et F. Maritain et E.
Liturgie, sacrements et théologie pastorale
Kierkegaard, Il Vangelo delle sofferenze — S. Les conclusions de C. Les cahiers de M. Schillebeeckx et P. Didier, Faut-il baptiser les enfants? Garrone, Que faut-il croire? Sur un ouvrage de M. Wolter et H. Porion O. Teilhard de Chardin est-elle dissociable? Bihlmeyer et H. La position de M. Moost, De gratia et praedestinatione. Cornelis et A. Robert et A. Delhaye et J. Dialogue entre le R. Bultmann et K. Barth — L. Marx et Fr.