Le paragraphe 66 Application du sous-al. Pertes : application du par. Idem : sous-al. Idem : div. Application des par. Section D. Tax Terminology Harmonization Act, , S. The moraine in Les Bois is less than years old. It consists of granite blocks resting on a limestone bedrock. Find out about the forest, shrubs and particular flora which have developed in the area. Family guided tour - "Tell me about the mountains" Les Houches - Enfants Thursday 18 07 - After discovering the museum thanks to an "object hunt" through the different rooms reconstructing a traditional home in the Valley, find out about the lifestyles and agropastoral practices of the past in the mountains.
In an essay bringing together the viewpoints of sportspeople, philosophers and scientists, the author addresses a burning issue: Why choose fear? Enjoy a local aperitif at the end of the tour. Family workshop: Natural painting Servoz - Enfants Thursday 18 07 - Discover the dyeing potential of a variety of wild and cultivated plants.
Create your own vegetable paints, dyes and natural materials, experiment with different artistic techniques and take your creations home with you! Reserve your Friday Vallorcine - Rassemblement Friday 19 07 - Come and enjoy a fun day out with your family at the chalet du Col des Montets! Lunch break in the pastures, local produce tasting, picnic. Learn all about the alpine pastures, how they came into existence and how they have evolved over the years.
It has won multiple awards in Chile and France. Deep Nature cosmetic workshops at the Planards leisure area Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Sunday 21 07 - Cosmetic workshops at the Planards leisure area: learn how best to pamper your skin and create your own customized products! Free screening, courtesy of the tourist office. Welcome drinks Servoz - Pot d'accueil Monday 22 07 - Join us for welcome drinks, courtesy of the Tourist Office, and come and find out about the activities, entertainment and services you can enjoy during your stay!
Come and hit a few balls in the very heart of the village, right by the Servoz church. This presentation will focus on the means implemented to better understand this type of pollution and its causes, as well as the weather conditions associated to these special episodes. Nocturnal event - Musical reading: Why climb? Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Tuesday 23 07 - Experience the mountains in a different way by listening to excerpts from Robert Macfarlane's "Mountains of the Mind".
In this book, tales, legends and personal experiences alternate with a number of episodes taken from the history of mountaineering. Children's workshop - Basket weaving Les Houches - Enfants Tuesday 23 07 - After a tour focused on the museum's carrying implements, learn how to weave a basket and leave with your own hand-woven basket! The event will take place by the Chavants lake in Les Houches. Where can he be, what are the reasons for his disappearance, and above all, who's responsible?
An original and educational itinerary at the heart of a sensitive natural area. Family guided tour - "Tell me about the mountains" Les Houches - Enfants Thursday 25 07 - After discovering the museum thanks to an "object hunt" through the different rooms reconstructing a traditional home in the Valley, find out about the lifestyles and agropastoral practices of the past in the mountains. Bread making workshop Servoz - Enfants Thursday 25 07 - Learn how to make your own bread and bake it in a traditional wood-fired oven.
Family activity - Who's who in Chamonix? Who are these heroes?
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At the Alpine museum and in the streets of Chamonix, discover and find those who have marked the Valley's history. Reserve your Friday Vallorcine - Rassemblement Friday 26 07 - Come and enjoy a fun day out with your family at the chalet du Col des Montets! Ethnobotanical walk Servoz - Enfants Friday 26 07 - An introduction to local botany and wild plant foraging on a walk around the village of Servoz. Held in the tourist office. Theme: "Travel sketchbook around Vallorcine".
Reserved for private individuals. Inscriptions and information by the tourist office. The actresses and actors are locals. Welcome drinks Servoz - Pot d'accueil Monday 29 07 - Join us for welcome drinks, courtesy of the Tourist Office, and come and find out about the activities, entertainment and services you can enjoy during your stay! Programme: Dvorak or Beethoven, Symphony No. Venance Payot compiled a complete inventory of its 90 species in the 19th century. Children's activity - "Cow pots" Les Houches - Enfants Tuesday 30 07 - Guided tour to discover the secrets of cows and the various containers used in the butter and cheese making processes; followed by a painting workshop.
Sensory development workshop: Alpine pastures Servoz - Enfants Wednesday 31 07 - Sensory learning workshop for toddlers. Treasure hunt Thursdays Les Houches - Famille plus Thursday 01 08 - Set off on an adventure to discover the totems and clues which will lead you to the treasure chest. Outdoor Zumba Les Houches - Danse Thursday 01 08 - Come and take part in an outdoor Zumba class with an extremely motivated teacher!
Honey and products of the hive workshop Servoz - Enfants Thursday 01 08 - Discover the fascinating world of bees and learn how to make useful everyday products and delicious recipes using honey, propolis, beeswax, pollen, royal jelly Discover her magical world!
An observing eye will unveil each plant's specificities in order to tell them all apart. A combination of tenderness, subtlety, humor, escapism Opening on Friday 2 August , from 6pm to pm. History of pastoralism and interactions with the environment around the lakes of Anterne and Gers: a cross between paleoenvironmental and archaeological studies.
Family activity "Let me see through your eyes" Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Enfants Friday 02 08 - The Alpine Museum invites you to share this activity with your children or grandchildren. Reserve your Friday Vallorcine - Rassemblement Friday 02 08 - Come and enjoy a fun day out with your family at the chalet du Col des Montets! Board games or storytelling for children Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Saturday 03 08 - -What are you up to on every first Saturday of the month?
Knife wood carving course over 3 sessions Servoz - Enfants Saturday 03 08 - Equipped with a simple knife, come and learn to carve a piece of wood and sculpt a shape out of it to make it come to life! First aid and mountain rescue basics Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Sunday 04 08 - How to react in the event of an accident in the mountains and first aid introduction training vital emergencies and injuries.
Free screening, courtesy of the Tourist Office. Welcome drinks Servoz - Pot d'accueil Monday 05 08 - Join us for welcome drinks, courtesy of the Tourist Office, and come and find out about the activities, entertainment and services you can enjoy during your stay! Nocturnal event 'Mont Blanc, nature's laboratory" Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Tuesday 06 08 - In Saussure, Vallot and Janssen's footsteps: discover the Alpine Museum's science collection, enter the planetarium and observe the sun.
Family activity - The secrets of milk Les Houches - Enfants Tuesday 06 08 - Find out about the secrets of milk and the techniques used to process it. After a guided tour to discover the implements of the past, take part in a workshop and learn how to make your own butter! The little milk factory Servoz - Rassemblement Wednesday 07 08 - Find out more about milk and the secrets of its transformation through both astonishing and entertaining experiences and workshops: Artwork, Cheese and butter making workshop, Magical ink workshop Follow their directions and discover numerous geological treasures along the way!
Family workshop: Natural painting Servoz - Enfants Thursday 08 08 - Discover the dyeing potential of a variety of wild and cultivated plants. Guided tour - Traditional mountain food Les Houches - Rassemblement Friday 09 08 - After having discovered the garden and the museum's themed historical reconstructions, find out about what people traditionally ate and cooked in the mountains and leave with a family recipe! Knife wood carving course over 3 sessions Servoz - Enfants Saturday 10 08 - Equipped with a simple knife, come and learn to carve a piece of wood and sculpt a shape out of it to make it come to life!
Deep Nature cosmetic workshops at the Planards leisure area Chamonix-Mont-Blanc - Rassemblement Sunday 11 08 - Cosmetic workshops at the Planards leisure area: learn how best to pamper your skin and create your own customized products! Welcome drinks Servoz - Pot d'accueil Monday 12 08 - Join us for welcome drinks, courtesy of the Tourist Office, and come and find out about the activities, entertainment and services you can enjoy during your stay!
France's highest courts are located in Paris. Following the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris";  the only sister city of Paris is Rome , although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world. The security of Paris is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris , a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade.
There are 30, officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6, vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores no more than two a year are allowed and verify that during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood.
Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events. The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie , a branch of the French Armed Forces , though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions. Crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities.
Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence. Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map.
Between and they rebuilt the city centre, created the wide downtown boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the distinctive cream-grey " Paris stone ". They also built the major parks around the city centre. Paris' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,  particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned.
The most expensive residential streets in Paris in by average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne 8th arrondissement , at 22, Euros per square meter; Place Dauphine 1st arrondissement; 20, euros and Rue de Furstemberg 6th arrondissement at 18, Euros per square meter. Among these, 1,, Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from and before, 20 percent were built between and , and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.
Paris averages 1. Its distribution varies widely throughout the city, from 2. On the night of February 8—9, , during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons. They counted 3, homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. More than half had been homeless for more than a year. This was an increase of persons since Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris' administrative limits have remained unchanged since A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in , but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to maintain as a unique entity.
Paris' disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. These areas, quartiers sensibles "sensitive quarters" , are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods.
To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department , and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department. The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. This is a decline of 59, from , close to the total population of the 5th arrondissement. Eurostat , the statistical agency of the EU, places Paris 6. The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2.
The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between and Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population estimate of July showed a population increase for the first time since , and the population reached 2,, by , before declining again slightly in According to Eurostat , the EU statistical agency, in the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21, people per square kilometre within the city limits the NUTS-3 statistical area , ahead of Inner London West, which had 10, people per square kilometre.
According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine , Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne , had population densities of over 10, people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU. According to the French census, , residents of the City of Paris, or A further , in the City of Paris and in , in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth.
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The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the census, , residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe , , were immigrants from the Maghreb , 70, from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt , 5, from Turkey , 91, from Asia outside Turkey , 38, from the Americas , and 1, from the South Pacific.
In the Paris Region, , residents were immigrants from Europe , , were immigrants from the Maghreb , , from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt , 69, from Turkey , , from Asia outside Turkey , , from the Americas , and 2, from the South Pacific. French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion.
According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim country, particularly Algeria , Morocco , and Tunisia. An IFOP survey in reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.
The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in to be ,, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States. The economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce; of the , enterprises in the city, At the census, The Paris Region had 5. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires ; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements.
The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance 16 percent of employees in the district and business services 15 percent. The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries. In , it was the workplace of , employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services.
Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt , Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology. The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries finance , IT services and high-tech manufacturing electronics, optics, aerospace, etc. In the worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit , based on a survey made in September , Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.
In , Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong. Station F is a business incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris.
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Noted as the world's largest startup facility. The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill , businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. The majority of Paris' healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75, manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades.
Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region's aerospace companies employed , The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology,  and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne , with its wholesale Rungis food market , specialises in food processing and beverages.
Paris' at-census unemployment rate was The provisional unemployment rate in the whole Paris Region was higher: 8. It ranged from 7. While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.
Greater Paris , comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received These included 12 million foreign visitors and Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States 2 million , Great Britain 1. In , measured by the MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the third-busiest airline destination in the world, with The city's top tourist attraction was the Notre Dame Cathedral, which welcomed an estimated 12,, visitors in This was followed by the Louvre Museum 8. The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle ; Les Invalides , where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre.
Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis , in Seine-Saint-Denis , is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens. In Greater Paris had 2, hotels, including 85 five-star hotels, with a total of , rooms. The Hotel Meurice , opened for British travellers in , was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris. In addition to hotels, in Greater Paris had 84, homes registered with Airbnb , which received 2.
The company paid the city government 7. For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era.
Sculptors such as Girardon , Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. This served as France's top art school until The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard.
The Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in , with 8. The second-most visited museum in the city, with 3. The Orsay displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. It attracted 2. It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. It received 1. Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television.
The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. Its stars in the s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker.
A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city. Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway , Samuel Beckett , and, in the s, Milan Kundera. The winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature , Patrick Modiano who lives in Paris , based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the s—s.
Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas. There are about bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.
In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Troubadours , from the south of France, were also popular. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon. Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the s and s; by Paris had some dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.
Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,  and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city.
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Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city. Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou.
Most of the clubs closed by the early s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll. Paris has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris' largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2, seats. Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment.
European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine , food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers ; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9, restaurants.
In , of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris.
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These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance , which combines French and Asian cuisines. In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. Its name is said to have come in from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian , and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment.
Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners. Beginning with the Paris Exposition of ; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Paris is an international capital of high fashion since the 19th century, particularly in the domain of haute couture , clothing hand-made to order for private clients.
Paris Fashion Week , held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre and other city locations, is among the top four events of the international fashion calendar, along with the fashion weeks in Milan, London and New York. In , around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence -level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France,  while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France.
The University of Paris , founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in , following the student demonstrations in Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg , the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris' 7th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine , is located in Paris' 16th.
The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education , located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes. There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris.
Paris' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F. The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France , always finishes in Paris. Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open , held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,  is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour.
The 17,seat Bercy Arena officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4, capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin.
Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. Together these three airports recorded traffic of Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the s to the s. Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon , Marseille , or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the s.
Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports , the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China , whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles , Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.
The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. These include piste cyclable bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb and bande cyclable a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road. Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources.
From , the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital. This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water-supply network. In , Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets. Paris today has more than municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3, hectares and containing more than , trees. Between and , Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand , created the Bois de Boulogne , Bois de Vincennes , Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont , located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters.
During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents' Cemetery , were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital.
When inner-city burials were condemned from , the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.
After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since Radio France Internationale , another public broadcaster is also based in the city.
Since 9 April , Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:  . Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with: .
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 July This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris disambiguation. Capital and most populous city of France. Commune and department. Coat of arms. Fluctuat nec mergitur "Tossed by the waves but never sunk". January 1, est . See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French. Main articles: History of Paris and Timeline of Paris.
Main article: Lutetia. Main article: Geography of Paris. Main article: Climate of Paris.
Main article: Administration of Paris. See also: Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris. See also: Architecture of Paris , Haussmann's renovation of Paris , Religious buildings in Paris , and List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region. Main article: Demographics of Paris. See also: Religious buildings in Paris. Main article: Economy of Paris. See also: List of most visited museums. Main article: Art in Paris. Main article: List of museums in Paris. Main article: Writers in Paris. Main articles: Music in Paris and History of music in Paris.
See also: List of films set in Paris. See also: French cuisine. Main article: French fashion. Main article: Education in Paris. Main article: Libraries in Paris. Main article: Transport in Paris. See also: List of railway stations in Paris. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities of Paris.
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Paris portal France portal European Union portal. Retrieved 6 March USA Today. Retrieved 2 May Airport World. RATP Paris metro operator. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 25 September Japan Today. Retrieved 22 April Paris Digest. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 23 November Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 11 February Beatdom Literary Journal. Retrieved 19 January Smithsonian Magazine.
Retrieved 12 July The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October Le Moniteur in French. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 2 December The Independent. Retrieved 12 June Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 24 April Site of Grand Paris Express. Retrieved 27 November The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 20 June Le Monde in French. Retrieved 15 January Le Figaro in French. Retrieved 11 January Retrieved 14 November The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 July Mairie de Paris. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 29 June Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau.
Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 27 February Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 24 May — via Paris. Meteo France. August Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques — et records in French. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February