At first characteristics and the scope of lobbying shall be defined to provide the necessary framework for further discussion of the topic. Second, when assessing democratic governance empirical measures for indicators are essential components of analysis. Therefore the measurability of lobbying shall be addressed in the second part of the paper. Third, approaches to regulate lobbyist profession to ensure higher levels of democratic governance shall be examined.
Lastly, the case of the European Union shall be analyzed to exemplify successes and loop-holes of the existing regulatory measures and conclude about the importance of lobbying as an indicator when examining the democratic process. Lobbying as means to influence government decisions in favor of specific interest groups is not a new phenomenon. Techniques to influence government officials through communication, oral or written, have existed for centuries European Commission, , p.
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While an elementary definition would merely state that lobbying is an act to influence others Bouetiez, Milbarth offers a more precise, yet broad, account of the term. According to him lobbying is:.
Not only can lobbying be an attempt to influence different levels of government local, national, regional, international or different branches legislative, executive or judicial but also is it pursued by many different actors, such as corporate lobbyists, contract lobbyists or non-for-profit lobbyists OECD, , p. The U. Center for Responsive Politics counted a total of Factors that led to the increase in lobbying as a professional activity could be: First, the sheer rise of pressure groups that seek to influence the government.
Second, the decline of corporatism and emergent formalization of relations between the government and major interest groups, which made it necessary for the latter to engage in other activities to maintain or gain influence Rowbottom, , p. Third, awareness about the complexity of the concept of lobbying as well as some factors that led to increase in professional lobbying is essential when analyzing the different proposals for measuring and regulating professional lobbying.
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When assessing lobbying as an indicator for the level of democratic governance of countries it is important to identify measures to retrieve empirical evidence. However, the secretive nature of lobbying leads to difficulties when measuring its relevance for the democratic process.
Second, it is difficult to measure to what extend officials action can be identified as a result of lobbyists effort to influence their decision. Third, it is hard to distinguish between unethical lobbying, i. Despite these difficulties some empirical evidence for lobbying can be retrieved from efforts to increase integrity and transparency in the field.
Examples are lobbyists registers that give accounts of lobbyists, clients and expenditure on lobbying processes and other regulatory measures. Threats to government legitimacy are those lobbyists who are well paid to advocate for special interest groups. In public perception the reputation of lobbyists has decreased significantly. It is interesting that despite the conviction of many that transparency would alleviate problems of lobbying; only About this Item: Springer VS , More information about this seller Contact this seller 9.
More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft About this Item: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft , Condition: Brand New. German language. In Stock.
Lobbying. An indicator for democratic governance?
Published by Vs Verlag Fur Sozialwissenschaften Published by Peter Gmbh Lang Jun From: BuchWeltWeit Inh. Ludwig Meier e. Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. Condition: Neu. Neuware - Vom 1. Juli bis zum Zu diesem Zeitpunkt sah sich Frankreich mit einer weitgehend vorgegebenen politischen Agenda und einem gespannten europapolitischen Klima konfrontiert.
Das Handbuch analysiert die Funktionen und Arbeitsbereiche des Parlaments im interinstitutionellen Kontext auf Grundlage der etablierten Regelwerke.
Language: German. Brand new Book. Vom 1. Einer Vielzahl von Aufgaben stand ein nur sechsmonatiger Erf llungszeitraum gegen ber. Was waren die thematischen Schwerpunkte dieser Pr sidentschaft und wie sah die nationale Handhabung aus? Seller Inventory LIB Okt Okt , Die versuchte Einflussnahme ist nicht per se zu verurteilen, wohl aber die mangelnde Transparenz. Published by Springer International Publishing , Berlin Published by Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany About this Item: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany, The European Parliament is the only directly legitimized institution of the European Union: a dynamic, truly supranational and more and more powerful actor.
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The handbook offers as systematic and practical insight into all functions of the European Parliament. The analysis takes into account the specific conditions of the EU's institutional system; Parliament's functions are reviewed both within the interinstitutional context as well as on the basis of the internal rules and routines. The handbook therefore offers a comprehensive, theoretically sound and empirically supported insight into the constitutional reality of the European Parliament. It adresses scientists, students, politicians and practitioners of European Affairs.
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