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The underlying functionality of technological objects is consistent with the parameters of the society of production, where each element must meet a productivity goal in the capital chain, structured around rationalist standards existing since the 18th century. Machines replace people in the production chain, or performs functions to assist them in fulfilling their tasks.

Given these aspects of the society of production, machines, while losing their original functionality or presenting dysfunctions, move away from the homogeneous regularity of production means. Its production and consumption cycles obey, also, to the need for technical progress and obsolescence, driven by commerce strength.

Inventing useless objects and anomalous machinery in the industrial production chain, and discover poetic, inventive and playful potentialities hidden in everyday objects become libertarians gestures, subverting. It is this encounter with inventive technical objects, and the subsequent dysfunctional and heterogeneous use of machinic elements that emerges with all potentiality in "Gambiologos 2. The artists featured in this show reveal in their poetic and conceptual universes new forms of interventions, collaboration, participation and interactions between systems, machines and humans.

They call our attention to movements, internal noises and resonances of technological devices that retrieve, disarm and resignify. They reveal the translation processes between systems and languages, human or machine-like beings. They also propose a view of the machine as a living element. Going back to the dawn of technology to raise questions about high and low technology standards, obsolete and cutting edge technologies, to finally inquire about the forms of vision and representation built by technology and its optical devices.

They make use of the precarious, improvised materials, unpredictability of operation, cyberpunk aesthetic, technological waste as well as the futility, degeneration and obsolescence of the machine as a cultural tactics to face an increasingly technocratic society. The refurbishing of technological objects, their functional displacement, and the appreciation of the obsolete materialize a new way of thinking about technology besides to consider art as a technological transformation agent.

Here we should clarify the difference between consumption and consumerism. While consumption is related to daily satisfaction of basic needs, consumerism, for Zygmunt Bauman, refers to the association of happiness with the consummation of a growing and increasingly intense desire, involving immediate use and subsequent dejection. Consuming life. Polity Press, It referred, thus, to any productive making. Technique is not at people's service nor are people slave of technique; it would be what is in between natural and human, therefore containing a bit of both. For Gilbert Simondon5, the evolution of technique would obey less to economic needs or to human practices than to an intrinsic unification urge of mending parts into a unitary whole, and humans would be only operators in this process.

According to this philosopher, the most appropriate relationship of humans with machines would be one where inventiveness could be perpetuated, thus breaking the exhaustive repetition of operations commonly attributed to technical objects' operations. A profound transformation in the statute of the artwork takes place, because in this process the artist subtracts an object from the mercantile field to place it in the artistic field, granting it, with a signature, a status of art, thus calling into question concepts of originality being the source of and creation to create from nothing.

A culture of the use is inaugurated, grounded by the appropriation of objects of within the production chain. The artwork, in this context, would be a shift of a product from one realm to another. Just like any cultural object, it appears only as a temporary end, included in a network of interconnected elements, through which it would be possible to reinterpret previous inventories.

By appropriating, re-interpreting, re-using and reproducing existing cultural products, a practice of post-production is installed, which according to Nicolas Bourriaud, characterizes art after the s Readymade is a series of works proposed by Marcel Duchamp, in which the artist appropriates of industrial scale objects and, through his signature, places them in the artistic realm.

One of his best-known readymades is the Fountain All these artistic practices, although formally heterogeneous, have in common the recourse to already produced forms. They testify to a willingness to inscribe the work of art within a network of signs and significations, instead of considering it an autonomous or original form.

Artists today program forms more than they compose them. If Duchamp's concept summarized the artistic act as an act of choice, at the expense of manual activity, new post-production strategies take the object as an active agent, already existing in a previous state but dependent on the artist collaboration and on the receiver for its transformation.

The seemingly irrational assemblages8 of Arthur Bispo do Rosario's or Farnese de Andrade's works reveal a new logic of thinking and organizing objects. The practice of collecting for a later composition, oriented by an aesthetic of accumulation, reverses the usual dejection of elements in the sphere of consumption and production. It starts from the principle that every element can be reincorporated in a new set without completely losing its original meaning. The objects are not disposable, they are eligible for resettlement in a constant transformation chain.

Within this logic, an object doesn't die, but it rises again to a new life. The cartography of Bispo do Rosario's everyday objects, in his "Tackle panels", rearrange the world based on singular subjective views. In the relationship of the object with the world there is a hidden reality that allows for the imagination of new arrangement possibilities between us and the objects surrounding us.

In "Mutation", Marepe uses dolls and industrial parts to develop a cyborg sculpture, mix of human and machine, a representation that is linked to a cibertech imaginary, typical of science fiction stories. It sees not only the formal relationship between two objects - resin block and computer - but also an ontological connection, in a remote epoch, between residual objects and digital files.

Both can be read as data, through which it would be possible to access a past filed in a memory built by information gathering,. While making it possible the inclusion of all materials in the artistic realm, they break with the boundaries between art and life. An operation that aim at solving everyday problems in alternative and inexpensive ways, the gambiarra "makeshift", "life hack" establishes some unusual functions for available objects. However, when dealing with creative re-appropriation of means and technologies, especially in contexts of scarce materials and resources, this tactic shows creative and political potential.

Improvisation and recycling of materials are associated with DIY do-it-yourself practices, method by which individuals resort to their own strategies for production, repairing or transforming objects, breaking external dependence on the satisfaction of a desire or need. In addition to offering an alternative to the culture of consumption and to the disposable aspect of objects, it also points to the need for a closer relationship between the individual and technology, stressing its personal and creative instances.

Paulo Waisberg in "Slaughterhouse", by intervening on stuffed chicken made in China, exposes its internal electronics components and modifies its operation, thus preparing an underlying ironic device to the innocence of children's toys. Low-tech elements, old devices, handmade objects, industrial products, artifacts from multiple sources are assembled in new configurations, without obeying hierarchies. It is established, therefore, a relationship between indigenous art and mechanical technology, granting a cyber face to a traditional element.

The non-hierarchical ways and the simultaneity with which these products, commonly thought of as disparate, are presented, accentuate the degree of proximity between artistic, cultural and industrial products. In the installation belonging to the series "Reverse Landscapes", Dirceu Maues develops proto-devices which take over the dawn of photography technique,.

The optical device created with cardboard boxes, lenses and tracing paper - precarious and cheap materials - provides an ambiguous image, in which the categories of low and high tech are confused: in constant formation, without never being fixed, the image and its support recall high definition plasma display panels. The transitional character of the image, its texture and its instability show the landscape as a fictional construction and as a product of a development that is simultaneously technical and human.

Where do objects go after they are discarded? This is the blind technology consumerism, in which we avoid the question of our discarded parts fate, and its possible ecological, economic and social effects. In "Escape II", Anthony Goh and Neil Mendoza also confer new uses to discarded cell phones by developing an interactive bird with them. The possible dialogues between technologies from different historical periods are addressed with irony in "Morse mouse", by Guto Lacaz.

In "Of broken things", Lucas Bambozzi builds a machine that destroys old mobile phones in an act of devouring obsolete technologies. The machine is autonomous and independent of human control, with its operation being determined by electromagnetic flows in the space in which it is situated. In other words, it is the use of mobile equipment which determines the destruction of their counterparts, in a metaphor of the consumer cycle and the dejection that guides technological apparatuses in general. The prevailing conceptions guiding socioeconomic settings, as well as moral and cultural expressions, stipulate a homogenization index of Western society.

For Bataille, this homogeneity is based on productivity and utility, in which the production and preservation of an individual and his species are allowed. Each heterogeneous element is suppressed and any inept element is automatically discarded. Our current standard of homogeneity also adds the justification of capital: everything that can be commercialized has its existence justified. In order to be considered functional, the product must sell.

Following this logic, technique and technology have been built since the eighteenth century for an industrial project which main objective is productivity and the rational, technical and scientific domain of the world. The way of relating to machines is also guided by an operational standard: the machine is a tool that follows a fixed programming coined at the time of its making. Given these homogenization standards, Bataille proposed a new economic principle constituted by unproductive spending and loss.

The category of useless, non homogeneized, heterogeneous and fleeting the rules rise like a force that establishes a necessary balance of the socially useful, productive and homogeneous. According to its own definitions, art would itself be a heterogeneous element, part of the unproductive agency, since it has a value that is independent of functionality, besides it being endowed with its own purpose. The artistic reappropriation of industrial and technological elements would rehabilitate, therefore, the heterogeneous, creative and dysfunctional use of technique.

In the practical deviations operated by the gambiologists-artists, we have a glimpse of a critical discourse regarding technocracy, particularly of tech determinism, in which each object has a designated function. Error and fault reappear on programming as disorders leading to the contradiction of utopian techno-scientific sublimation values. Materialization of a critique of the capitalist society use system, the macchine inutili "useless machines" , by the Italian Bruno Munari, expressed in the early s a radical break with the utopian, naive and technophilic conception of the Futurist movement leaded by Marinetti in relation to technology and its function in modern times.

Rather than metaphorically represent such machines as sources of power and dynamism, Munari went in the opposite direction, near the Dadaist spirit, carrying a denial attitude towards industrial and economic rationalities. He used, then, fragile elements as paper, wood and silk thread in order to make the work move freely as a kinetic piece. Known as "the new Leonardo", he proposed a real learning of the language of machines in order to prepare a full and organic art in permanent transformation, in which the basic structure would pass through technology.

They are useless machines since they "don't produce, alike other machines, material consumer goods, don't eliminate labor nor increase capital" The critical intent of inventing "useless machines" is taken up on the homonymous piece of Aruan Mattos and Flavia Regaldo, who use scientific knowledge to build structures where functionality is non-existent and the effectiveness of science and technology is ironically challenged.

The unpredictable behavior of electromechanical parts and the use of elements that simulate physiological movements plastic bags that are intermittently filled with air are used here to build a relationship with the organic behavior of an organized body, subject to the intrinsic interaction between parts, and independent of human manipulation.

In the emergence of a poetics of everyday life, objects from the artist's personal collection such as cups, vases and teapots are chosen to be animated in craft videos that, in turn, command the movements of the mechanical and electronic parts of her pieces. Parts of industrial objects are taken from their original structures by the interest arisen by the movement or by the sound they produce, and rearranged to form small machines in "Mere things", by Joseph Morris.

What previously had a specific functionality now causes in Morris an imaginative thinking which sees gear systems, mechanical impulses, chain reactions. Small metal wheels, fragments of devices that reproduce cassette tapes, objects from multiple equipments undergo a new functional organization of elements, which erupts a new ordering logic.

The interaction between chemical reactions, electromechanical motion and image capturing and projection operates in "Translator", by Mark Porter, in the structuring and behavior of a machine that gradually modifies itself and the space in which it is by performing drawings on the wall. In the expulsion of liquids together with simultaneous and continuous image making, the electromechanical and digital structure somewhat mimics the irregular patterns of human gestures.

From the determined execution, control and precision that it is usually induced to machines, elements of uncertainty and randomness arise, which relativize human superiority over technical surrounding objects. In this quest for expanding the sound universe, it is possible to find unconventional uses of traditional musical instruments, as well as the creation of sound devices, hybrid and heterogeneous, made with retrieved, manipulated objects converted and incorporated into electromechanical systems. Machinic stuff are thus, constructed, to autonomously operate in the production of sound.

Small-scale manufacturing, hacks and the combination of low and high techs are facing the excessive industrialization of contemporary objects and the vertiginous obsolescence cycle that accompanies this production. The reclamation of craft and the combination of digital and analogue technologies are parts of Paulo Nenflidio's work. Sound machines and other objects arising from invention and improvisation of materials articulate the experimentation with mechanical physics, electro-acoustic and electronics, within a sophisticated formal and visual formulation.

The "Thunder Machine" sonically recreates the electromagnetic phenomenon through digital programming, which randomly and autonomously triggers the electromechanical elements of this machine-sculpture. The approximation of natural and technological is then rescued by this simulation of natural noises. In "The ballad of extended backyard", the Japanese artist Ujino rescues the poetics of the contemporary world sounds by using heterogeneous secondhand elements such as blenders, hair dryers, chandeliers, turntables, guitar parts, combined to make a large sound machine that automatically performs a rhythm section.

The structure has a function that is similar to a music box: a turntable causes the rotation of a vinyl to which pencil pieces onto the surface are attached. Upon reaching the switches located above the vinyl, these pencils close the electrical circuits turning on or off the appliances, producing sounds within a uniform rhythmic series. The score becomes something visible, exposed to the viewer.

The roundness of the sound patterns, in which any sense of progression or time development concept are lost, makes this musical piece by Ujino a anti-symphony performed by an automaton musical group The mechanisms of this sound sculpture, endowed with its own movements, are leading a singular execution and proclaim the autonomy of the machine. Mass consumption and waste give the extra elements and the experimentation with the immanent combining ability of ordinary elements in order to escape from the commercially given and consumed.

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There is, then, a miscellany of elements clustered in non-hierarchical ways, since common and artistic, musical and non-musical objects are put on the same level. Everything is subject of combination, of incorporation. This congregation defies and subverts the distinctions made by the erudite culture, between stratified and conventional standards of art and the objects and sounds of the world.

By rescuing the poetry of the world's noise12, these artistic proposals follow the trails opened by the noise aesthetics, the sampling techniques of concrete music13, the unpredictability of random music and the programming possibilities of electronic music, intrinsically associated with the machine, hardware and software included. The reassessment of the noise as a musical element questions and dispenses the conventions of harmony, scale and rhythm.

Luigi Russolo, already in the early 20th century, held that the post Industrial Revolution technologies should be incorporated immediately to art. The urban noise caused by electrical machines and apparatus, by referring to the very experience of life, could not be dissociated from the aesthetic experience. The reappraisal of the noise as a musical element, as well as the use of extramusical elements in the composition, including sounds from any source, continued to be experienced in the concrete music of Pierre Schaeffer in the s.

In this same decade John Cage elaborates compositions using ordinary objects: scrap, cooking pots, blenders, kettle. Contemporary noise and also silence resurface as intrinsic and necessary components for sound and music experience. Silence is, for Cage, the basis upon one organizes the metric division of time, and it underlies the entire composition.

Sounds of any kind could, therefore, emerge in a certain compass without any syntax, order or sense of progression. The noise would thus be part of silence. Combined randomly, the two align endless possibilities of variation and randomness. Noise is a term used to describe some varieties of experimental music and sound art that use acoustic or electronic noise produced unexpectedly or using previous recordings. These experimentations may cause effects of atonality, repetition, cacophony, dissonance etc.

The most important would be to accept the sounds erupting in emptyness and to be open to the absence of intentionality in the composition. Intention is now for Cage the only difference between the noises that spontaneously spring up in silence and those caused by the musician. This intrinsic relationship between silence and noise reappears in "" by O Grivo, a sound sculpture in honor of Cage that explicitly carries its duration in the title.

This metric duration is the required time for the gears of the small gadget built by the duo to cause a noise: the barely audible sound of a metal rod tapping a musical instrument string. At the same time, this lowermost sound that breaks the silence of our waiting ironically justifies the whole complex structure of gears. The project connects, therefore, the visual and the sound of concrete objects. In "Hole", by the Chelpa Ferro group, a wooden box of speakers, a microphone and other audio equipment connected in series make audible a noise that is generated by association and multiple translations of the impulses between one device and another.

The self-production of electromechanical sound questions the musician's role as a sole creator of sounds and controller of the composition, suggesting a piece that is shared with the randomness of technological instruments, be analog or digital. The use of these platforms in artistic creations subverts the political-marketing field that involves technology and leads art to a political realm, discussing, as well, its own formal and conceptual characteristics within the era of ciberinformation.

Access to the internal functions of electronic devices or, as Flusser puts it, the opening of the "black box" allows for the simultaneous modification of the machine and its user, action that goes beyond the interactivity of ordinary programming. Projects found online, which are free to use and, through the access given to the source code, they can be altered and redistributed by anyone.

To the tactics of appropriation and detour employed in artistic projects, open electronic workshops concerning DIY design as a tool to promote horizontality of speech and exchange are assembled. Regarding these workshops produced by the group since , we realize the intention of creating an effective approximation of the individuals with technical objects, with an aim to increase knowledge and promote actions of manipulation and creative and inventive reinterpretations of these objects. This practice of workshops is aligned with the "maker movement" that arises in as a way to leverage a more participatory approach to technique and technology, contributing to this approach by using DIY practices.

In this context, we see the emergence of hackerspaces, which are community spaces where tools and knowledge are shared and reintroduced, after the removal of the individual from the instance of production of the industrial age, direct manufacturing, use of skills and personal involvement in maintenance, transformation and invention of multiple artifacts that involve electronics, computing, robotics, metalworking, carpentry, among other disciplines.

In so doing, learning by making, collaborative networking and knowledge sharing are emphasized. The intention in sharing and expanding technological knowledge is presented as a political tool in a global context in which influence — political, economic, social and cultural — takes place mainly through large corporations' technological domination. The objects and facilities that are present at "Gambiologos 2.

LEDs, reused electronic circuits, stickers, dolls, wooden carved pieces, among other materials, compose an aesthetics of the excess that matches the excesses of contemporaneity. It is not just about considering a certain type of artistic practice that uses low-tech and recycling of materials, but it is about identifying a creative rework that critically reconsiders the utilitarian definition of objects, the idea of technical progress and the obsolescence of tech devices. Juliana Gontijo is a researcher, lecturer and independent curator.

She is the author of the book "Technological dystopias" Ed. Circuito, , awarded with the Funarte Stimulus to Critical Production grant. Pinto do Monteiro, a repentist poet from the state of Paraiba in northeast Brazil, defines poetry as "the art of taking from where you don't have and placing it where it doesn't not fit. Poet, author and maker are synonymous with the Greek term poete1. The gambiological artists create from waste, this being a despised group, symbolically excluded but a surplus in its material sense.

They act as poets because they resignify things that have lost its sense in a system of signs and have gained the generalized meaning of garbage, disposal. In the exhibition, Sara Ramo in "On the move" introduces this universe by showing the excess of objects we possess and that identify us. Accumulation is our fate. The objects we have and that we transport with us are meaningful to us.

Bispo writes with objects. His "tackle panels" consist of phrases that are layed out in four columns. The artist structures chaos as a poet structures verses, highlighting elements in a composition of rhymes of different sounds. Poetic construction, according to Bakhtin, has this characteristic of constant reinterpretation of everyday life, of the recognition of objects that, paradoxically, given their banality and massive presence in the world, tend to invisibility: [ Bakhtin notes that only individual praxis allows us to connect the three domains of human culture - science, art and life.

In the absence of this continuous practice there is what the author calls "mechanical" actions, a set whose elements are united in space and time in an external mode, without being imbued with an internal unit of meaning; parts of the whole are contiguous, but remain far apart. The only way to overcome mechanical actions would be. The gambiological artist is also a collector who has a watchful eye on the picking and selection of what will be used and the endless combinations that can be proposed.

In gambiological works the process defines.

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  5. It is from what is found, from what is available that the result appears. It's the amount, the excess that defines poetry. Gambiological processes are old acquaintances of people from different cultures, wether there is a specific name for these practices or not. The gambiological impulse is natural born; hence the need for constant control of waste by public authorities, which in some cases punishes anyone who pick up waste, justifying it as maintainance of hygiene and safety2.

    The focus of gambiarra is not the product, it is the process. The non-planning of informal constructions comes to couplings, juxtapositions that occur gradually. It is more Tetris and Lego than architecture. These solutions, therefore, become useless and extremely critical machines. The gambiarra is therefore also a contestatory act — a constant disobedience to clean design that hides its constituent processes and imposes just one use of the objects, previously determined from top to bottom. Hence the mistake of accepting the art of gambiarra as daily production but not in the Arts, in its exclusive spaces, being it charged with accusations of "cosmetics of the precarious" OBICI, Gambiarra refers to processes that occur in a more evident way in limited economic contexts, but it transcends them.

    It is only when the "do it yourself" is succumbed 1.

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    Accessed in: February 26, Thus, the critical forces of power, especially those industrial and technological forces, appear in different but consistent ways in works of the exhibition. Soja 9 said that architects and planners were still tied to perceived and represented space, but they have difficulty in participating in the experienced space.

    In this respect, the artworks exhibited allow a turning point in understanding the makeshifts in galleries, positioning it as something that goes beyond residual aesthetization, although the residual has an aesthetic, and this is quite clear in the exhibition. As Denise Scott Brown puts it, "even after the artistic fashions change, we will still be here because this is a pop city, this one, the one we have. The gambiological artwork never realizes itself as an end, only as a range. If we agree to Perec 47 that space is a doubt and is never given to us, we have to believe, too, that the temporary designation processes that gambiological works show turns it into the science of streets, of nomadism, of movement in thought.

    It is a science that continually shows the role of procedural requirements in relation to the fin-ished work. What could serve as a hallmark therefore becomes a common thread, permeable to young artists working with electronics, robotics, popular and contemporary artists who use little or nothing of digital technologies. Thus, gambiarra connects the production of popular culture to art. It is not an institutionalization of an exclusive street practice, but rather the evidence that popular artists and erudite artists have similar processes, revealing a transgressive possibility that goes beyond the works and brings critical reflections on the art scene itself.

    Joseph Morris, with the "Mere things" series, brings the banality of the objects and the simplicity of machinical structure, that proposes a way to reconnect with the objects we share. He takes up the writings of Bakhtin on the importance of human presence on the connection between art, science and life. I must endorse also the very layout of the works on display, making it clear that we are not in the traditional white cube galleries, or the black cube of digital art exhibitions. The metal structures that divide and not isolate the room propose a space that refers to the workshops, which we can call gray cubes.

    It is no coincidence that the Gambiologos Fred, Lucas and Ganso , among many activities, have never overlooked the workshops, which, incidentally, are part of the "Gambiologos 2. The activities cover the process of understanding the science of gambiarra as something collectively and continuously built. The act of making is a fundamental part of the gambiolog ical science.

    Sennet 20 45 notes t hat t he separation created between the actions of the hand and mind are not only intellectual, but rather social. To include the handmade in this dynamic is subversive in that it replaces distance for familiarity and participation, without necessarily falling into traps of so-called interactive technologies, which largely only reproduce pre-programmed and predictable interactions of commercial interfaces. Ujino mentions that he hopes "that in the future people can connect and rearrange technologies from what they themselves want.

    Jorge is an artist but also long-time workshop coordinator. In their workshops, he organizes what lies at the heart of his work. His "Toylab" is a proposal to rebuild cheap tech toys made in China with distinct functions or features. It is a method for recognizing objects, especially toys, which are produced in mass and sold worldwide. From its original meaning4 to current usages in language, gambiarra is about connections. And if there is something typical in hacks, this is something that connections are constantly made visible. While commercial technological arrangements conceal the processes where.

    As Obici notes 43 , " We can see how the parts are combined, as the structure is organized. What we see in the exhibition is not only an aesthetic connection between artists' pieces, but a very important operating mechanism. Gambiologia is thus the science of gambiarra. However, if we look beyond the common sense of what is considered science, we notice that there is a lot of hacking in the scientific process. The act of collecting, selecting and reordering, withdrawing from an existing set what is considered interesting and structure it in new combinations, "uniting two things that belong to different worlds In the scientific method, hypotheses are confirmed or refuted, and scientists learn with experimentation.

    At this point, the hacker and the scientist operate in the same manner: if you try an experiment and you require the outcome to be what you expect, this is not good science. In fact this isn't even science, it's bad science maybe, but it's not science. Good science requires that you are open to the outcome whether it's what you're expecting or not.

    Science, like hacking, requires lots of failures. Before coming out with useful theories you've got to try things again and again and come out with the unexpected almost all the time. The subversion of science practices relates to creative processes in the art that appropriates science and technology and overcomes dichotomies between amateur and professional, digital and analog, or even between traditional and scientific knowledge.

    These practices dialogue with the proposals for open science and knowledge sharing we see today in hackerspaces and DIY science labs. Gambiologia also proposes a science of the collective, of "do it yourself", but also the science that has to do with more traditional scientific processes, research, analysis and proposition of results that can be made more generic or broad. Likewise, there is a. More than a subversion of art and science, Gambiologia is an allegory that belongs to art and science. While machines work in the production of perfection, the gambiologists boil imperfection down to the arrangement of objects to compose the works.

    As a good expert of language, he knows it must be incomplete. This is the paradox of the robot: if it appears "perfect", it is locked in a cycle in itself. And it stops communicating. Only opening, difference and incompleteness produce information. Within this perspective, we can also mention the work of Mark Porter, "Translator", which shows a kinetic sculpture that gradually alters the space where it operates. The mechanical-drawings-turned-sculptures "portray the irregularity of human actions. Paulo Waisberg extends this sense of anguish of objects and machines with the works "Lung" and "Slaughterhouse".

    Again, the anthropomorphic mainly in "Slaughterhouse" is shown as incomplete, open, imperfect, but necessary for us to connect with the machines we discard. Anderson says that maker culture announces the third industrial revolution, with the possibility of customized design and individualized production. Even with all the known social, economic and ecological problems that industrial production has generated, we still live under the spell of the possibility of building things.

    Within this constant worship of the object, makeshift becomes relevant as an alternative and critical view, as shown 4. According to Giuliano Obici's thesis, Houaiss points the emergence of the term gambiarra in , period synchronous to industrialization and urbanization that occur in the late nineteenth century to the twentieth. The gambiarra appears with disorderly growth and development of cities and the emergence of slums, consisting of substandard housing shacks , lack of infrastructure gambiarra or lack of regulation that opens a field for the exercise of illegal practices.

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    On the other, gambiological artists show us that there is much more in these practices than it may seen. There is a cognitive structure, a modus operandi that faces the excess and chaos, and pick up a way of knowledge from it. For him, it is necessary to see code as practice and matter, even to understand how the discursive construction gave rise to the idea of invisibility and hence all social and political implications of this phenomenon.

    So we remove technology from purely technical environments and it is possible to understand it from its entanglements with cultural practices. Coding expresses abstract relations and formal operations between different groups. The concrete, social, economic, intellectual and even physical context where these groups are has a direct impact on code building. Questioning "the perfect machines" also implies questioning the concepts of speed and efficiency that are inherent in tech industry.

    The artists present machines that subvert the speed of digital technology ones. By imposing another temporality, propose contemplation and waiting. And do not answer the complex processing demands or functions that seek the effectiveness of the machines. Guto Lacaz, in turn, is a master of useless machines.

    His couplings between objects and distinct functions refer to the transience of buildings in the favela slum. Mauro Alvim, with "Father! I want to queer the cannon" builds a bull-cannon with scrap iron. The sculpture is part of a series on the historical Canudos War in Brazil and brings the utopia of a possible world to be driven horizontally, outside exclusive hierarchies.

    It is also interesting to think that Canudos brings us to the origin of the term favela5, the urban setting that is the most associated to gambiarra practices in Brazil, including from dictionaries, which make reference to clandestine light connections. By reframing trash, waste, the selected artists question the cycle of planned obsolescence, the constant imposition of the practice of using and throwing away. Likewise, the materiality of technologies is clearly presented. Lucas Bambozzi, with the installation "Of broken things", brings a machine that destroys cellphones, highlighting saturation and reducing objects of massive presence which are, at the same time, objects of status but are in scrap condition.

    It's the technology in its actual operation, exposed circuits found in garbage piles against hidden circuits within new machines. The gambiologia also questions the idea of technology as something global, abstract and clean. Technology, being it high or low tech, is dirty and concrete. The difference is that some objects allow us to observe these features and others hide them under the cloak of pure abstraction. Mackenzie 3 criticizes the error of a limited understanding of technology and 5. Arthur Cravan drowned in the Pacific in ; the same ocean where we have the largest area of waste worldwide, the aforementioned Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

    The exhibition, therefore, deals with a contemporary theme, a picture of what we live in. If we are drown in garbage, if the anthroposcene is on the agenda of philosophical, ecological and technological discussions, if, in a not so distant future, our sea will be a Great Pacific Garbage Patch6, the gambiologia reveals the most concrete of our existence: the search for perfection and for the formula of life in the sciences on one hand, and an increasingly destroyed and trashed world, on the other.

    The artworks dialogue with this paradoxical context. The gambiologos are the artists of the anthroposcene. A piece that may sum it up is "We came from the sea," by Farnese de Andrade, which shows a set of maritime pieces mixed with everyday objects that give us the idea that we are looking at our own guts. What is indeed true: the trash is our open guts, our main production, with which we cover the world.

    As poets of the excess, the gambiologos bring back the words of poet Arthur Cravan7, "I have twenty countries in my memory and trail in my soul the colors of one hundred cities". If our current life context reveals the failure of humans as demiurges, it lies in the strength of imperfect creation the poetic making that takes from where you don't have and places it where it doesn't fit. Amster-dam: Archis Foundation, She is a co-director of Tropixel festival, the Brazilian node of Pixelache Finland , a transdisciplinary platform for experimental arts, design, research and activism.

    His work is informed by a deep meditative study into the nature of human consciousness, and is focused on how our relationship with the natural world can fundamentally change our ideas of what we really are. As well as making artwork and performance, he teaches workshops in movement, meditation and deepening our connection with nature. Neil is an artist and creative technologist exploring ways of breathing life into objects and spaces through the use of digital and mechanical technology.

    He is a founding member of the collective is this good?. Sculptural panels, collages of objects, precarious displays. Visual intuition and sense displacement. Reordering the world through the clutter of everyday experience. These works were developed from discarded objects found at the Juliano Moreira psychiatric institution in Rio de Janeiro where the artist spent much of his life and produced most of his work. They have participated in several exhibitions, scholarships and residences as: Aesthetic Interactions - Funarte ; JA.

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous in today's society but often their use has unintended consequences, intruding into and changing social situations, distancing people in real life by dragging them into the digital world. They are also a massive source of electronic waste. This installation takes cast off devices and suggests an alternate reality in which these unwanted phones and noises become something beautiful, giving them a new life by creating an experience that people can share together in person.

    He had a reclusive life in a psychiatric hospital for half a century. Transiting between reality and delirium, he believed to be in charge of a divine mission and used dispensed materials at the hospital to produce his pieces, which mapped his reality. Making use of the word as a pulsing element, he manipulated signs and played with the construction and deconstruction of discourse to create his embroideries, assemblages, banners and objects that would later be consecrated as reference works of contemporary Brazilian art. He passed away in in Rio de Janeiro, being granted immediate posthumous recognition.

    In he represented Brazil at the 46th Venice Biennale. A wood structure supports a glass container that, in approximately every 50 seconds, releases a drop of water. The drop touches the ceramic and is slowly absorbed. A resistance that is in contact with the ceramic releases heat by the thermostat control, preventing it to become saturated. A small motor performs the cyclical descent and ascent movement of a magnet. In turn, the magnet approaches ore grains deposited in a glass structure, which are drawn to suspension. With the removal of the magnet, the grains fall again. His works are photographs and expanded audiovisual pieces, often situated on the border between film and visual arts.

    The four photos are part of an "in-progress" series, in which, with formal simplicity and great plasticity, makeshifts in various locations worldwide are recorded. In this set of images, the artist's ability to improvise gives rise to moments of weirdness that are able to reinvent our common view of ordinary objects and situations. Avoiding the idea of separating the works in tight environments - a common solution in exhibitions of many pieces and little space - this show has its objects juxtaposed in a continuous space.

    The metal screens that support the works don't t separate them by rooms, thus creating a visual overlay of frames and works that confirms the concept of accumulation and bonding of this show. The inevitable white walls usually create static rooms and remove the spaciousness of galleries, transforming them into amorphous, clinical and domesticated spaces. The common expography treats spatial continuity as a problem and can't see possibilities in the idea of visual permeability.

    That's why to design an exhibition is almost always synonymous of creating "environments" and, unfortunately, that's why the glass trestles that Lina Bo Bardi designed for MASP were filed for two decades. The exhibition has its curatorial proposal articulated on improvisation, collecting, accumulation and acceptance or not of popular culture in Fine Arts.

    And its expography seeks to reflect and blend in with these themes, endorsing the mundane materiality of its works and trying to be an element capable of enhancing the strength of the exhibited objects. Since they develop a work that blends experimenting with electronic music, sculptures and technological facilities in live performances and exhibitions. They have presented work in several formats: objects, installations, video, performance and recorded albums. The trio makes unconventional use of musical instruments besides incorporating invented instruments from appliances and everyday objects in the performances, exploring the boundaries between noise and music.

    The group members live and work in Rio de Janeiro, where they also perform their solo artistic trajectories. Precarious audiophonic assembly, in which the frequency generated by the amplifier shakes the speaker and generates a howling which, picked up by the microphone, returns to the device and generates an endless loop of noise. In he began his original work in the fields of photography, film and video, performing research with the construction of handmade cameras and using precarious equipment.

    This piece consists of a small wall, built from the stacking of simple and precarious cardboard boxes, which serve as dark cameras and point to the same place: a small illuminated chair. The chair's image and everything around it is projected onto the paper inside the boxes, revealing an upside down world. Several boxes: many worlds in mosaic.

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    Ephemeral real-time images that transport us to a reverse horizon: to the time of all Photography precursors which, together, "burned in desires," to use Daguerre's expression, for the magical image projected inside the black box. Here, the experience of image makes a way back towards immateriality, towards the desire that preceded the photographic image as we know it - or as we knew it a few years ago.

    Inverted landscape A world within a box: the world upside down. Desires burn in images. Desires to fix desires in inverted desires, in parallel worlds: ephemeral image. He began his career as a drawer and engraver and from on he worked on producing assemblages, mainly using polyester, wood, antiques and found objects. He lived in Rome and Barcelona. He died in in Rio de Janeiro. His works remain being presented in many art events worldwide. To them, pieces of dolls, marbles, pieces of wood and other objects collected by the artist are aggregated.

    The futuristic look of the "Computer" wrapped in polyester and its composition similar to a computer cabinet contrast with the piece's organic aesthetics which is entirely analogic.

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    His works are It was originated from the reuse of various materials that would otherwise be discarded by the author, as well as others collected in the streets during the months prior to the exhibition. Among them are packaging leftovers, auto parts, cables and semi-damaged mobile phone chargers, window frame, microprojector, monitor, screws, etc.

    Business is more relevant than the creative act on itself. Born in Belo Horizonte, Brazil where he lives and works. He performs since the 's as an artist, designer, curator and researcher, focusing on the relationship between art, technology, politics and popular culture. His pieces are in diverse media: electronics, programming, graphic experimentation, object collagesm, street art and video.

    He was creative director at Osso Design and one of the founders of Mosquito Studio. Since he coordinates the Gambiologia Collective. He is the editor of "Facta - the gambiologia magazine". The group adopts the culture of makeshifts as inspiration for works on art and technology. The collective received an honorable mention at the Prix Ars Electronica in Austria. Large in-process installation simulating the studio of Gambiologia's fictional patron.

    This is a temporary and permanently in change occupation that happens during the exhibition, which refers to the workshops of the collective members and any gambiologist. In this installation, Gambiologia presented the most part of its pieces created from to , as well as original pieces produced for this show. Objects of collection and pieces that include: assemblages, sculptures, lamps, projections, stickertherapy, the Gambiocycle a multimedia-concept-tricycle and many other electronics. New works had been incorporated during the event and workshops for the visitors were held, in a way that this piece was considered done only on the last day of the exhibition.

    He is a multimedia artist, illustrator, designer, inventor and set designer. His production transits between graphic design, pieces made by ordinary objects, the exploration of technological possibilities in the arts and the world of media and consumption. As a graphic designer, he produces logos, books and magazines, posters, illustration, exhibitions and special projects. A tiny object, slightly smaller than a hand, where there are wires connecting it to another device that receives and transmits. I thought that by replacing the mouse with the manipulator I would be creating an interesting technological and aesthetical contrast.

    His works with hardware hacking, circuit bending, DIY and open source electronics applied to theatre, media arts and education. He runs the "Toy Lab" in Argentina. It's an audiovisual performance based on the use of toys, hardware hacking and obsolete technology. Electromechanical toys, lamps and other devices are sequenced and controlled, while being part of the sound and visual setup.


    Security cameras capture actions on the table, allowing the public to participate in what is happening in the "stage". Mutant reptiles, robots, toy soldiers and dinosaurs are the characters in this story where film genres collide and mingle. Ludotecnia is a tribute to the VHS generation and its TV shows on Saturday afternoons, full of stop motion creatures, mad scientists, superpowers and alien invasions. Making them is a constant back and forth struggle between my idea and the making of the machine, with each piece emerging as individual and unique, containing their own reflection.

    It is my hope that through Mere Things, these simple machines can empathetically connect us to our shared humanity. He was the creator and coordinator of Arte. Born in Belo Horizonte, Brazil He creates objects using "makeshift video" which are presented in public spaces. He also works as set designer and art director. He participated in exhibitions such as Arte.

    Digital hourglass mounted with cathode ray tubes. If an hourglass is a clock of sand grains that fall, "Timecode" is a clock of videoframes of sand grains that don't fall, but give us the impression of falling. Each frame depicts a moment of this game of gravity and sand grains. The piece emulates the functioning of the former invention, but also subvert it. In the hourglass the driving force comes from nature, wether in this piece it is an invention of its creator, who edits time in his own way, as well as reedits our own time, thus integrating both the tube and the hourglass into it.

    In Time is part of the work, it can't prescind it.

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    In this sense, this device seems to protect itself from the idea of a scheduling, approaching the notion of time to something more connected to a sense of occasion. The piece deals with the flow of communication around us and its potential transformation into waste. We are users of a system in continuous testing, which will never be ready. We use dysfunctional hardware and let ourselves be regulated by networks that are increasingly encroaching on our lives. The ubiquity of communication increases and we become agents, operators and hostages of this flow.

    Born in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, where he lives and works. He is a bachelor in Product Design at Fumec University. He is a hobbyist and self-taught artist in electronics for over 15 years. He designs, draws and builds electronics and lamps from reused materials, with extensive experience in the use of LEDs and circuit bending.

    He integrates the Gambiologia collective since He dedicates himself to the critical exploration of new media formats. He produces videos, installations, audiovisual performances and interactive projects. His works were exhibited in more than 40 countries. In he received the Prix Ars Electronica. In he had a retrospective. Installation-machine that draws from the electromagnetic flows existing in the space where it is installed in order to swallow obsolete mobile devices. The more intense the signals are, the faster and more effective the operation of the piece becomes.

    Several modules are integrated, showing the precarious precision of movements: the mechanism that pushes and dispenses cell phones, the gears and chains driven by the motor that drives the hydraulic vise, a niche of flow of the torn material. Its operation is slow, precise, and it complies with dynamic patterns. He has produced more than 12 thousand pieces, among them.

    He had solo shows and has participated in many collective exhibitions in Brazil and abroad.


    What interests me the most in this work is a pictorial issue, of plasticity, a combination of forms suggesting another form. The materials seem noble, high-tech, but they are totally poor. They have a sophisticated look and would be difficult to be modeled, but the result of the sculpture is a very simple form that almost resembles a readymade. In the end, I think it also brings the issue of capitalism, of a disposable culture that affects not only objects, but also people. Large dimensions metal sculptures made from scrap. The pieces oscillate between abstract and figurative, problematizing the utilitarianism of contemporary technological industry.

    The fluidity of movement suggested by the pieces contrast with its weight, while the decay of a humanity that produces waste in an uncontrolled pace is evident, through a singular transformation of these residues. The sculptures, thus, collide different times: of dead matter and of living human creation.

    She works in different media: drawing, video, photography and "organic machines. The animation of a window that speaks and breathes is displayed on a video monitor. Light sensors capture the screen's bright and makes the piece react, inflating and deflating plastic bags installed at it, in a movement reminiscent of breathing.

    At the same time that the figure of a child suggests a pessimistic future message, the movement of the piece brings us some hope, since its own base is a hand reaching towards the visitor, suggesting a relationship with the one who arrives. The parts used in this work were collected in a surplus automotive. He has exhibited his work in various solo and. These weapons-scraps point at the same time to the past and to the future, contradicting the civilizatory advance, using the backwoods barbarism of Canudos as a metaphor for a critique of the real destruction practiced by men called "modern".

    Paris: Seuil; Camargo Jr. Physis Rio J. Wee C, Pelczar M. Descartes' dualism and contemporary dualism. Arendt H. Habermas J. Rorty R. Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press; Nodar J. El inventor de la mente? Bahr F. Descartes R.

    In: Descartes R. Gilson E. Machamer P, McGuire J. Descartes's changing mind. Stud Hist Philos Sci ; Fuller S. Kuhn vs Popper: the struggle for the soul of science. Cambridge: Icon; Aucante V. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Manning G. Out of limb: the place of medicine in Descartes's philosophy.