The chief criticisms against the current U. What often goes under-considered, at least in public discourse, are the ethical controversies of operations in undeclared war zones and the potentially severe backlash for and by civilians in communities where drones hover overhead, ready to strike at any moment. This inherent, persistent environment of fear creates undoubtable animosity toward the state, distrust of the United States and hopelessness for local citizens.
Drone strikes are often used as part of the recruitment narrative by extremist organizations, and serve as instigators for radicalization and government disenfranchisement. The current ISIS narrative has evolved from leaders calling for foreign fighters to join its ranks in Iraq and Syria, to its current directive at would-be recruits to stay within their home countries and fight "the infidels" with whatever means is at their disposal.
It is reinforced through the viral spread of Hollywood-style videos portraying authentic violence and video game-like user interface that are meant to radicalize and mobilize aspirants to violence. One theory that has been under-considered in the current geopolitical climate is that of inter-civilizational conflict. This conflict is represented in the current return to nationalism, conservatism, even white supremacy, within many Western countries and suggests that this discord between hyper-nationalism and liberalism in the face of a foe like terrorism will eventually undermine liberal democracy as we know it today.
The unorthodox rhetoric and controversies on display during these two highly publicized elections exemplify the role of technology and the shifting power of citizens in the current geopolitical climate, along with East-West tensions, and most importantly, intra-state tensions in the West. It is important to note, however, that in a world in which the citizen is simultaneously empowered with a voice and influenced in unprecedented ways by technology and media, policymakers should reconsider the approach to counterterrorism and the weight given to traditional versus alternative policy options, which place greater importance on winning the hearts and minds of citizens and promoting inclusive state culture.
Skip to main content. Relying on examples such as the National Security Council document number sixty-eight of NSC , which is widely seen as having established the rationale for U. For instance, in addition to observing that U. In other words, U. For instance, it is often easy for your enemy to shoot at you, but it is equally easy for you to hide behind a wall and automatically regain energy.
In a similar vein, MW and MW2 never show the graphic reality of the death of your character, nor do they suggest that war has any psychological effect on the boys In keeping with such a catastrophic and pessimistic vision of world politics, the idea that the U. Having discussed the potential effect of games on understandings and perceptions of warfare with dozens of MW and MW2 players, we also observed that there are probably as many players who are seduced by the vision of the military portrayed in Call of Duty as there are players who are repulsed by it. For instance, one player from the Middle East confided that he loves the game even though he rejects militarism, U.
Thus, as the literature on audience reception of digital games and interviews with players show, Call of Duty will not necessarily make you want to join the military or support the wars waged by you country. In other words, playing Call of Duty primarily because it is fun — and millions of players can confirm it is! Indeed, it can help us to critically analyse the moral implications of the hyper militarization of our everyday lives, denounce the trivialization of state violence, and raise the hard questions that might prompt our leaders to make the world safer for peace, international reciprocity, and social and international justice.
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Shaughnessy, Dan. Sisler, Vit. Stahl, Roger. Stephanson, Anders. Souri, Helga Wawil. Suellentrop, Chris. Tavinor, Grand. Thomson, Matthew. Virilio, Paul. West, Jason. Enloe defines it as an ideology that frames military force as a necessary resolver of conflict. This definition is consistent with Albert T. See Zagal , However, it is a fact that this article focuses more on the narrative of Call of Duty than on its structural features of gameplay. However, they do not address the case of MW2. Joel Penney also focused on Call of Duty.
However, he studies the installments in the series that are set in World War II. See Costigliola , For an introduction to neoconservatism, read Gagnon and Mascotto European journal of American studies. Contents - Previous document - Next document. Abstract The goal of this article is to discuss how digital war games such as the Call of Duty series elicit consent for the U. Outline 1. The Politics of Militarism in Digital Games. Full text PDF Send by e-mail.