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Relevant to our discus- women's work were frequently sion above about language, note that even in the Odyssey, where dogs are valued the Hellenistic epigrams, so DAVID word 'dog' can be used also as an insult, for example in Od. Hero with a Thousand Faces. August 5, In both cases the divine being pretends to comes out be a male family friend and in both cases is asked about his family; a meeting with the Athene posing as Mentor is in fact asked about directly by Telemachus s seat; 2 Telema- 1. At the same time, with his two swift being asked one's family is typical of Greek Epic as a whole, 55 not just his father's friends in these scenes, and the person who asks about family in the Book of with his spear and Tobit, is Tobit, who would better parallel Odysseus.

But even more assembly where the critically, there is a major difference in that very early on, "wise" Tele- go on a journey, the machus suspects that Mentor is really a goddess 1.

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I also found is one, not two, it interesting that both Hannah Gt GIII, Old Latin and Penelope Tobiah ever carry a refuse to eat thinking they had lost their sons, but this seems more like a common motif or stereotype than a dependency. Nickelsburg suggests. Jacobs not do much for the reader of Tobit beyond being noted as a clever ume, there are numerous books allusion. So much more opens up to the reader who examines how Joyce's allusions and references, Genesis can be used in the story. For example, note the parallels be- tween Tob and Genesis In for understanding the story of Tob And he told [his] wife to make many loaves and having walked Nonetheless, every Tobit to the herd he brought two oxen and four rams and he told [them] to kill with the Hellenistic novels and them and they began to prepare.

Knead and make cakes! In both cases, a husband asks a wife to 5, and 6 refer to cultural make bread products, the husband selects animal s for eating and asks assume that the dog does not servants to prepare it. There is no other passage in the Torah that is sumption that is not for certain. But the parallel details themselves are only part of that an influence of Hellenistic the fun. The reader of Tobit who detects the similarities may recall that negative. Explanation 5 makes this is also a passage in the Torah in which angels, like Raphael, are ence of Persian culture in which guests in disguise as humans.

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The parallel thus works both at the micro in exorcism is why the dog is and macro levels. Moreover, the angels of this scene in Genesis are here tains that the dog's link to a to deliver the good news of the couple having a child. In Tobit the fear its presence. Even Jubilees could this very chapter in verse 12, its only appearance in the Hebrew Bible, way by Hellenistic culture, even is the same as the name of Sarah's mother.

One must continue to world of midrashic delight. Reading Tobit with a strict insistence upon view of dogs is a new developmen Homeric parallels flattens the text. The larger project of linking the cultural contact. Whether this is characters of Tobit to matriarchs and patriarchs goes beyond mere ty- significant explanatory power. It pology; it suggests numerous ideas including that the characters are a tolerated but does not explain why part of or a continuation of the world of Genesis, in which God's help is Explanation 5 referencing always forthcoming with the help of angels.

In contrast, the parallels definitely true, whether one looks with the Odyssey do not add this level of richness to the reading. To- Zoroastrian inhabitants of India bit's use of Ahiqar, in contrast, also does work on micro and macro lev- edly important in Persian culture. There is however a great work of literature that follows a journey of sorts of a Diaspora Jew who is also a husband and father. Without knowing the story and details about the Odyssey, one misses the point 58 fub For the student of literature studying this massive vol- materials, may be found online at [accessed September 16, In concrast, a reading of Odyssey is not necessary for understanding the story of Tobit.

All the same, it remains for thede. All tlu-ee explanations continue to details themselves are only part of assume that the dog does not otherwise belong in a Jewish text, an as- sumption that is not for certain. Explanation 4 makes the simple claJm the similarities may recall that that an influence of Hellenistic culture is why the dog is not seen as in which angels, like Raphael, are negative. Explanation 5 makes the more complex claJm that an influ- thus works both at the micro ence of Persian culture in which the dog was highly valued and an ald of this scene in Genesis are here in exorcism is why the dog is presented in the text.

Explanation 6 main- having a child. In fear its tainspresence. Even fubHees could conceivably be influenced in some way by Hellenistic culture, even though it is wary of non-JeWish cul- leads the reader into a ture to such an extent that H forbids Jews to sha. Whether this is the case or not, the explanation lacks that the characters are a significant explanatory power. It accounts for why the dog's presence is Genesis, in which God's help is tolerated but does not explaln why the dog is Present in the first place. In contrast, the parallels Explanation 5 referencing Persian culture is most interesting.

It is of richness to the readmg. To- definitely true, whether one looks at Zoroastl"ian literature or at P. The Zoroastrian Vendidnd" devotes a substantia] amount of space to dogs, stl"essing severe punishments for that follows a journey of husband and father. Without Odyssey, one misses the point 58 fub J vondid;,d vdl Jacobs 60 thpse who misfeed them.

In discussing the Ahura Mazda answered: "The dog with the prickly back, with the long and Collins favors a possibly thin muzzle. The idea that dogs drive out evil spirits is notable in the Parsi custom of and widespread tradition.


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Dogs also accompany Persian deities that when studied, helps one such as Mithra and Sraocha. This At the outset, this sounds promising, especially since the notion of influence and how to establisl driving away evil spirits is important the story of Tobit, even though as the means of cultural there is no explicit connection between the dog and exorcism made in the story.

Arguments however that simply state that the dog is present because dogs were revered in Persia suffer the same difficulties as the Hellenistic explanation. The first is the issue of whether one can in fact demonstrate a Persian influence in Tobit and the second is whether Persian culture exclusively held dogs in high esteem and involved in activities such as exorcism. There has been a long debate on the extant to which Iranian culture, especially Zoroastrianism, has impacted upon Judaism.

To be sure, living under Persian rule for centuries is unlikely to be without impact.

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But the question is complicated by the fact that Zoroastrian literature is not attested until a much later period. One would however, expect in the course of cultural inter- change something more dynamic and complex than the simple map- ping of one culture upon another, a process of adaption and adaptation as much as adoption. One may also one wonder whether the circum- 60 Misfeeding a sheep-dog, for instance, is said to be as serious a crime as serving bad food to a master of house of first rank IV. Comns favms a possibly Pen;ian m at least eastern background to Dame] yet also cautions that "the evidence, however, pennJts neither spirits is notable in the Parsi custom of specificity nm certainty.

What is de. After all, the story does include the regions of Ecbatana and Rages. The question as to whether Asmodeus, the name of the de- consider when exploring the question mon, derives from Asma Daeva is a complex one and involves issues the issue of whether one can in fact "'lating to the P.

Even if the until a much later period. EreshkJgal, the Mesopotamian queen of the beliefs would seem worthy of ex- Netherwmld is still famously invoked in Greek magical papyri and in the course of cultural inter- Pazuzu, a Mesopotamian demon is featured in the movie 'Ihe Exorcist. This seems to be what is happening in Tobit as the Asmodeus there in no way behaves like his namesake; he is not a figure of cosmic hnport; he behaves like the genedc evil spirit m demon men- said to be as serious a crime as serving bad Jacobs tioned in Tobit's recipes, with parallels more to Mesopotamia than to 80 ' Zoroastrian theology.

Is it the Shawnee creator god, N unique? It is. But it is anything but unique. The link be- catl , South America Ai Apaec of tween dog and human is one of the deepest and most complex of inter- mantanka of Buddhist Nepal, 88 Da species relationships. Dogs are thought to have been domesticated as Hel. The clearest cases of this and the realm of spirits. Hence its association with the netherworld and the goddess Lakevann Armenian 9 its power against evil spirits or demons. Anecdotally there are many stories of the healing and even psy- 77 chic nature of dogs. Eyes, Is it Hennes," Hephaestus," Asclepius, s.

The lin! Europe the Cennantc 1 very likely the first animal in fact Hel. Hina Hawaii , Marvunogero Papua New Guinea and Ka- daklan 93 dog thus occupied a complex culture, between visible reahty n with the netherworld and Dogs can also """'e as symbols of deities m axe the manifestation of deities. I have personally god L. Salveo of Samoa'" and such as epilepsy whose dogs are To'ahiti of as well as Aroui of the Yon.

Jacobs protected the family and home, including against demons. She is repre- Gula being linked to a dog is an sented by a hound. This hound may be beside her on her throne or may healing that in all likelihood goes , in fact carry her and her throne on its back. Along with the serpent, the dog served as his symbol.

Live for the dog's presence, although dogs were placed in temples to Asclepius and were sometimes credited between the dog and healing is for cures obtained through incubation. It is nized for their ability to protect against evil spirits. Many homey, and in Europe during the Middle Ages Cerberus or venerated in their own right throughout northern eludes international tales.

The the dog to Gula is relevant information yet not a definitive explanation. Jacobs against demons. She is repre- Gula being linked to a dog is an example of the link between dogs and beside her on her throne or may healing that in all likelihood goes back to Paleolithic times.

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But even its back Asclepius was said to were there some remaining influence of Gula's cult at the time s of ant and the dog is also pictured by Tobit's composition, one still cannot prove that Gula' s cult is the reason the dog served as his symbol. Live for the dog's presence, although along with other evidence, the link and were sometimes credited between the dog and healing is important information.

It is not surprising, given the dog's t evil spirits. Many readers may be aware of the iddle Ages The sys- cting the house agamst spm s. As presented in AW , the tale of drag? Thompson notes that this motif is attested in Irish myth, in French Canadian tales and among the Basutu, Zulu and Kaffir. Jacobs replaces the dragon and is now a spirit, but there is ample evidence with snakes climbing that the large fish is equally standing in place of the sea mon- tion as a remedy.

It would seem that Raphael is doing the job one would A far more ancient expect of the dog. The dog always seems to be present when Raphael woman is possessed by is also. But there is no way to prove that the dog is tied to the archan- clear whether or not slaves raises many geL in Tob merely Despite the importance of the dog in folktales involving dragon- slaying, the dog in Tobit cannot be linked to a specific folktale. And maining with him although it is a strong possibility that the dog may derive from the body, stating that world of folklore, even that cannot be proven definitively.

It is however noteworthy that the dog in Tobit, although described tim and foe to be right before the scene with the fish and although appearing right before less scary. It makes a healing, has so little to do compared to what is otherwise described in sexual purity more other cultures and in many other tales. We see this as well in a Slovak- was in control of its Gypsy dragon slaying tale in which the hero has a big wise dog, yet the can be said about the dog is not mentioned elsewhere in the story.

For Tobit, however, the be said is that the dog is dog is not the only muted aspect; the demon is also muted. With an outside influence. Is he in Sarah's body? How exactly does he kill the and folklore opens up seven bridegrooms that have proceeded Tobiah? Uther explicitly iden- cence of the dog as a tifies Tobit as being a version of the Monster's Bride ATU also ing and exorcism , called by some The Dangerous Bride and by others The Poisoned accompany healing Maiden. ATU typically includes serpents coming out of the prin- think anew about how cess's mouth to kill her rescuer and in some versions requires that as angel Raphael is ,.

Tobit has and with powers Tobiah fumigate the entire bedroom but three Jewish Medieval ver- the dog is present sions clearly see the demon as in Sarah's body, when in they have gathered as well as just the fumigation take place under her clothes. One also sees a similar Such knowledge does motif in the Talmud which has what seems to be a strange obsession but does add a richer There are other add depth to a reading.

Tobit's Mysterious Canine Revisited there is ample evidence with snakes climbing into women's vaginas and can involve fumiga- place of the sea mon- tion as a remedy. E Egyptian stele in a Temple of Amun at Karnak. The recipe for removing the demon given in Tob merely speaks of the demon fleeing the person and not re- maining with him or her; Tob is even further removed from the body, stating that demon will not be seen around her and Tob.

Tobit's presentation is thus less graphic and less disturbing; Sarah is neither depicted with the demon directly in her body nor is she clearly depicted as being possessed. What does it mean for helper, vic- although described tim and foe to be presented less vividly? It certainly makes the story ao1oeatrmtg right before less scary. It makes Sarah's cure seem less disgusting. It also makes her described in purity more assured. It certainly shows that Tobit as a narrative as well in a Slovak- was in control of its "sources" and not controlled by them.

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Much more big wise dog, yet the can be said about the muted quality of the exorcism, but what cannot Tobit, however, the be said is that the dog is there because the narrative was at the mercy of muted. With Tobit, an outside influence. The coales- explicitly iden- cence of the dog as a companion of divine being and as a helper in heal- ATU also ing and exorcism enriches our reading of the tale.

Knowing that dogs The Poisoned accompany healing deities such as Gula and Asdepius may lead us to out of the prin- think anew about how the dog is present only when the healing arch- requires that as angel Raphael is present. Knowing how the dog is linked with healing times.

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There are other instances in Tobit in which further information can add depth to a reading. Shabbat a. Jacobs fish is presented, not to mention its association with Jonah. In manJ' ways it renders the story a lot less magical than seem that any perceived 13 it could have been. There is the ease with which the demon is dis- element of culture is patched and the fact that the medicinal fish organs are combined with careful research to verify prayer, not incantation.

There is a matter-of-a-factness to much of the Thirdly, where there story and the removal of the demon is a forgone conclusion a little less that an outside influence, than halfway through, thus limiting the suspense. A full exploration of plain the presence of the this important quality is beyond the scope of this study, but one IJiay One may come to such an suggest that the reduction of the magical was a consequence of the sis and research. And even strong focus upon Jewish religion. In any case, the fact that the narra- to keep in mind that the tive is so much blander than other tales of its type is of extreme impor- outside of it may be tance to the study of the story as a whole and to the wider project of the ways the stories of , understanding how Jews have taken upon worldwide motifs yet at the rework the Mesopotamian same time have made the stories their own.

In terms of the history of Indeed, sometimes it Jewish ideas, one might see a similar move, even to a greater extreme, tween internal elements in the treatment of the demonic in priestly writings in the Torah. For narrative of Tobit integrates motifs of the wider world into a Jewish rate an element from narrative. It seems likely that the narrative would not include a dog in something already present the story if it really were a problem simply because of exposure to a Fourthly, it would seem specific text or a specific culture.

Indeed, this research has shown that ence upon an external despite the negative language, dogs could have an important place in one can generate a great deal the larger Israelite and Jewish worlds. Although, we cannot pinpoint a the awareness that even if definitive reason for the dog's presence, the existence of other muted conscious manner the assoua1 elements in the story places the presentation of the dog within a wider Where there is no such context. Daphne gets nabbed by a demon, and the gang split up to look for her. Shaggy and Scooby enter an old music store, where they find Daphne stuffed inside a piano.

Velma and Fred find an old drugstore and Velma discovers one of the bottles have been recently tampered with. The bottle breaks and releases a pink gas, the same pink gas that appears when the demons show up. Shaggy, Scooby and Daphne meet up with Fred and Velma. Suddenly, the demon appears and chases the gang. They drive back to the construction site to find Mr.

Crenshaw's office destroyed and Mr. Crenshaw missing. Then they return to the underground city, still being chased by the demons, but manage to lose them and stumble upon a cable car roundhouse. The demons appear again and Shag and Scoob hop onto a cable car and the demon chases them around the cable car. After a period of time, the cabel car crashes and Scooby and Shaggy flee and hide in a old movie set, where they fall through a trapdoor, crashing into Velma, Daphne and Fred and they slam through an old wall, back into the wax museum-where all of the demon statues are missing.

They set up some of the monster figurines on the cable car rails and operate them along the rails, chasing the demon into an underground secret tunnel. They follow the tunnel and end up in Sally's basement where Albert Tross appears. Scooby also discovers a chest full of coins -- Albert Tross is the culprit! The gang chase him, and finally trap him. They pull a rubber mask off to reveal Sam Crenshaw underneath.


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His get-up was Albert Tross; he used him to be able to get into the underground city in Sally's basement. But when the gang found the matchbook and connected him to the Crow's Nest, he had to make Tross disappear, too. The sizzling handprints and the red smoke was made using the medicine in the pharmacy, and he was stealing treasure from the underground city. Also, he stole demon statues from the wax museum and hooked them up to the cable cars to make it look like demons were running amok. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki.

This needs a stretch. Feel free to remove when satisfied of completion. Needed : Synopsis: The real ending is missing. Contents [ show ]. Share your thoughts below Categories :. Sam Crenshaw as Albert Tross and the Demon.