Why do we live as long as we do? Why do we die? However, the third question that situates death in the broader context of aging science has been completely ignored. He notes that questions about death are important because, among other reasons it is the problem of transition probabilities from the stochastic changes of state from health to disease or from living to death.
He believed that the problem of death must be investigated in its own right since there was no necessary relationship between aging and dying. A preliminary model of describing the stages of death that may apply to all living organisms with certain key assumptions is presented in Table 1. Many variations on this model can be considered. For example, the schema becomes a two-stage model for death that occurs instantaneously severe trauma —i.
However, in both principle and in reality, they may live for decades suspended in this stage. One of the most difficult predictions is identifying when an individual has entered into the active dying process i. Although difficult, the ability to predict will never advance through physician-by-physician anecdotal observations. Systematic studies of death in model species should reveal whether it is possible a priori as distinct from retrospectively to identify markers indicating irreversible descent with specified levels of probability.
The general model presented in Table 1 can be further refined to include additional phases or subphases such a pre-descent stage linking death with earlier events involving aging and disablement, and a post-expiration phase linking the death of the individual as a whole with postmortem biological processes. Developing a literature based on the systematic study of the final stages of life the process of dying will begin to fill in an important gap in the study of life—how life ends.
The clinical definition of death is important because it defines the point at which to withdraw medical and care giving resources from decedent and, with prior consent, use the decedent as a source of organs that can be used in organ transplants. Likewise, developing a deeper understanding of dying through the use of experimental methods will be important because the knowledge will provide a more sound basis for identifying the point at which the end-phase has begun and for revealing the progressive stages in active dying that most and perhaps all living creatures experience that die naturally.
This is a continuation of the collapse but here it occurs in the non-vital systems such as sensory, visual and so forth that cannot be sustained due to collapse of vital systems in Phases I and II. IV Expiration Final release; extinction of all signs of life of individual as a whole. A few twitches so this phase too occurs over a period of time and is not instantaneous. Dworkin R New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Kass L Source: Adapted from Lynn, J. Perceptions more In addition to the nature of their disease, age affects people's experience of dying.
Prior to death, according to data from the established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, those dying at older ages experience more disability than those dying at younger ages Guralnick et al. The impact of age and disability will differ somewhat depending on trends in chronic disability among older people. The compression of mor bidity hypothesis posits that an increase in healthier life styles means that people will have relatively less disability before they die and, thus, that increasing life spans will mean less disability than would otherwise be expected.
Evidence on this hypothesis has been mixed see, e. A recent analysis, however, reported declines in the prevalence of chronic disability among the elderly in the United States with recent declines — greater than in earlier years — Manton et al. Reliable and valid research on American attitudes toward dying and death is surprisingly limited.
In part, this reflects conceptual and methodological difficulties, for example, imagining hypothetical and—given current life expectancy—often far-distant situations e. The most intensive studies often rely on small, opportunistic samples, especially college students, but more methodologically rigorous surveys rarely focus on dying and death.
When People Die: The Aging of America
One consequence is that it may difficult to assess how current initiatives to change perspectives and practices in end-of-life care actually affect attitudes. Much of the social science literature on attitudes, particularly that generated in the s and s, has focused on the psychological construct of "death anxiety" variously and confusingly viewed as a realistic fear of a real threat or as a neurotic over-reaction to the general prospect of death. In addition to reliance on small unrepresentative samples, critics have identified numerous conceptual methodological problems in such research see generally the review by Neimeyer and van Brunt, For example, simple scales assume a single dimension of anxiety whereas fears or concerns about death appear to involve multiple dimensions including fears of pain and suffering, fears of the unknown, and concerns about the death of significant others.
The growing interest in measures of quality of life has brought new perspectives to the field and an interest in identifying and improving the more rigorous instruments, such as the Death Attitude Profile-Revised Wong et al. Broader public opinion polls have rarely dealt with anxieties about death. A poll sponsored by the American Association of Retired Persons AARP found that a substantial majority of those surveyed reported that thinking about death did not bother them with 68 percent of those 18 to 64 and 76 percent of those 65 and over agreeing AARP, An earlier Gallup Poll indicated that most Americans rarely think about death Gallup and Newport, , which some might interpret as reflect ing death anxiety or denial.
However, despite characterizations of the United States as a "death-denying society," direct evidence for this thesis is "remarkably sparse" Neimeyer and van Brunt, , p. Moreover, some evidence suggests that education aimed at altering attitudes may sometimes arouse death anxiety rather than dampen it McClam, ; Testa, ; Rigdon and Epting, ; Durlak and Riesenberg, ; Durlak, Public opinion research has tended to focus on specific issues such as attitudes about assisted suicide, hospice, or advance directives.
Since , 13 surveys conducted by the National Opinion Research Center NORC have asked whether doctors should be legally allowed to painlessly end a patient's life if the patient and family request it. During this period, the percentage of respondents agreeing has risen from approximately 60 percent to about 70 percent.
The poll showed that support was highest among younger people over 75 percent in the 18 to 34 age group and lowest among older people about 60 percent in those age 65 and over. On the issue of whether a person has the right to end his or her own life in an unspecified fashion because of incurable illness, NORC surveys report a shift from majority disagreement in the s and early s to majority agreement in recent years 64 percent in A Gallup Poll taken in late summer , however, reported that only 50 percent of those surveyed believed physician-assisted suicide should be legal NHO, b.
This compared to 75 percent of those in an April Gallup Poll who responded positively to a question that was similar to the NORC question in not using the term suicide Foreman, The late summer survey showed that women were less likely to believe that physician-assisted suicide should be legal and less likely to predict that they would avail themselves of that option should they become terminally ill. Patient preferences regarding end-of-life care have been a particular interest of researchers, clinicians, and policymakers as reflected in the considerable literature on advance directives and similar measures, which is discussed in Chapter 3.
When questioned about who people would want to make final choices about their care if they were seriously ill, a Louis Harris Poll reported that 67 percent of the national sample said that they wanted to make the decisions, but 28 percent wanted their doctor to decide Medica Foundation, Two Gallup Polls, one in and another in , found 9 out of 10 respondents reporting that they would prefer to be cared for at home if they were terminally ill with six months or less to live Seidlitz et al.
A Profile of Death and Dying in America - Approaching Death - NCBI Bookshelf
These results are consistent with smaller studies Townsend et al. Although a ma jority of patients in both Gallup surveys expressed interest in a comprehensive program of end-of-life care at home, not all of those who were interested identified the term "hospice" with such a program.
In the survey, 70 percent of respondents reported that they would seek hospice care, and 62 percent said they would still seek curative care. The latter figure indicates that people do not necessarily wish to forego curative efforts when they accept comprehensive palliative care. Other research suggests that younger people express more willingness to forego resuscitation or ventilator support than do older people when they are asked hypothetical questions about preferences in the event of terminal illness Gallup and Newport, A small study of patients seen at a Veterans Affairs medical center found that almost half said they would accept intubation and ventilator support even if the outcome would be persistent mental deficits Mazur and Merz, In one exploratory study investigating patient views of states worse than death, coma, severe dementia, and loss of such functions as the ability to feed oneself were cited as possibly worse than death, but the stability of such views is unknown Pearlman et al.
Surveys tend to highlight "mainstream" attitudes, or at least those attitudes easily tapped by pollsters, but there really is no "one" American attitude toward death and dying Koenig and Gates-Williams, ; see also Appendix D.
The Dying Process
For example, studies of attitudes about advance directives and preferences for end-of-life care tend to show that whites are more favorably inclined to advance directives than African Americans and more likely to indicate that they would forego life-sustaining therapy Caralis et al. In a study of cancer patients not necessarily terminally ill , researchers found cultural differences in views on family roles, information disclosure, expression of pain, and attitudes toward illness Die Trill and Holland, In a study of elderly patients, the University of Southern California found that the family dynamics in immigrant Korean or Mexican families allowed for less patient autonomy than in black or white families that had not recently immigrated Blackhall et al.
The immigrant families were far more likely to believe that the truth about terminal diagnoses should be withheld from patients. Families, and not patients, were considered the proper decisionmakers in end-of-life care. Dying is a both a biological process and a psychological and social experience that occurs in a cultural context. Trying to characterize briefly the distinctive aspects of the dominant American culture that influence attitudes toward death and dying is a task fraught with the risk of oversim plification, overstatement, or even caricature.
The dominant culture—as expressed in the news and entertainment media, the professions, and other prominent social institutions—tends to be loosely described as Western or European-American and Judeo-Christian. The United States is, however, far from a cultural monolith. As described above, important cultural differences in attitudes and practices regarding end-of-life care exist within the United States, and these are often divided along racial, ethnic, and religious boundaries Koenig and Gates-Williams, ; see also Appendix E. Nonetheless, the committee's experience with various health care systems and its review of comparative analyses points to the influence on end-of-life care of an actively interventionist medical profession, a deeply ingrained public philosophy of individualism, and a general American unwillingness to accept limits—including aging and death.
The interventionist bent of U. The United States generally has high rates of surgery, diagnostic tests, and other procedures compared to other countries, even with neighboring Canada see, e. Overall, a "technological imperative" Fuchs, seems to characterize medical practice, including care of the dying. The result of this medical activism, some argue, can be tragic.
- Neutrino Cosmology.
- Packaging for Sustainability!
- The Briefing: Marching for Allah.
- Miller Time.
Callahan has, for example, described "an unwillingness to let nature take its course" that often leads to an impersonal and unwittingly cruel "death in a technologic cocoon" Callahan, , p. One study of physicians and nurses reported that nearly half of those interviewed admitted to having acted contrary to their consciences, mostly by providing overly burdensome treatment Solomon et al.
The individualist strain in U. Traditionally, physicians have been guided primarily by the principle of beneficence doing good on someone else's behalf rather than by the principle of autonomy generally acting in accord with the wishes of informed patients see, e.
Critics of this emphasis on beneficence characterize it as paternalistic, with too little regard for patients' concerns and values. The more recent ascendence of the principle of autonomy shows itself in the attention paid to issues such as patient preferences, informed consent, and physician-assisted suicide. The stress on autonomy has, in turn, been criticized for sometimes being contrary to individual patient welfare and for being inimical to collective well-being see, e.
For example, in contrasting the highly individualistic United States with the more community-minded Canada and Western Europe, observers repeatedly cite the lack of a "social contract" in the United States that would provide a basic level of health care or, at least, insurance coverage for all residents. In the United States, these critics argue, people may have the theoretical right to make their own medical choices, but many do not have the financial access to minimal care necessary for implementation of those choices.
Moreover, a preoccupation with autonomy may encourage inattention to patients' concerns about their families Doukas and Gorenflo, For example, in one public opinion poll, the most frequently expressed fear about death was the fear of being a burden to one's family Foreman, As noted earlier, some critiques characterize American culture as one that, in addition to being strongly individualistic, also is "death denying" and regards "death as a kind of accident, a contingent event that greater prevention, proven technology, and further research could do away with" Callahan, , p.
Although research support is limited, a cursory glance at bookstore shelves, magazine articles, advertisements for plastic surgery and miraculous herbal remedies, and similar sources would suggest that Americans are, at the very least, not very sanguine about aging illustrated by, e. Other critiques have suggested that Americans do not deal very well with dying and death and suffer much avoidable angst and expense as a result see, e. A more sanguine view is that people in the United States are not so much death-denying as focused on the notion "of bringing to bear every possible resource to prolong active and healthy life" and of accepting death only when "it is felt to be inevitable" and, then, trying "to mitigate its connections with suffering" Parsons, , p.
The next chapter considers dimensions of caring at the end of life and ways of mitigating suffering. Each dimension involves patients, families, and clinicians in decisions that are often painful to make and difficult to implement. The physical remains of a person, commonly known as a corpse or body , are usually interred whole or cremated , though among the world's cultures there are a variety of other methods of mortuary disposal.
- Sicilian Tragedi (Oscar contemporanea) (Italian Edition).
- How to Recognize When Your Loved One Is Dying.
- 101 Words of Wisdom for Your Daughter (101 Facts).
- No pasar de largo: La experiencia ética (Spanish Edition).
In the English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include rest in peace , or its initialism RIP. Death is the center of many traditions and organizations; customs relating to death are a feature of every culture around the world. Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death.
The disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. This is not a unified practice; in Tibet , for instance, the body is given a sky burial and left on a mountain top. Proper preparation for death and techniques and ceremonies for producing the ability to transfer one's spiritual attainments into another body reincarnation are subjects of detailed study in Tibet.
Legal aspects of death are also part of many cultures, particularly the settlement of the deceased estate and the issues of inheritance and in some countries, inheritance taxation. Capital punishment is also a culturally divisive aspect of death. In most jurisdictions where capital punishment is carried out today, the death penalty is reserved for premeditated murder , espionage , treason , or as part of military justice.
In some countries, sexual crimes, such as adultery and sodomy , carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy , the formal renunciation of one's religion. In many retentionist countries, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice , desertion , insubordination , and mutiny.
Death in warfare and in suicide attack also have cultural links, and the ideas of dulce et decorum est pro patria mori , mutiny punishable by death, grieving relatives of dead soldiers and death notification are embedded in many cultures. Recently in the western world, with the increase in terrorism following the September 11 attacks , but also further back in time with suicide bombings, kamikaze missions in World War II and suicide missions in a host of other conflicts in history, death for a cause by way of suicide attack, and martyrdom have had significant cultural impacts.
Suicide in general, and particularly euthanasia , are also points of cultural debate. Both acts are understood very differently in different cultures. In Japan , for example, ending a life with honor by seppuku was considered a desirable death, whereas according to traditional Christian and Islamic cultures, suicide is viewed as a sin.
Though a Public Registry Law guarantees all Brazilian citizens the right to register deaths, regardless of their financial means, of their family members often children , the Brazilian government has not taken away the burden, the hidden costs and fees, of filing for a death. For many impoverished families, the indirect costs and burden of filing for a death lead to a more appealing, unofficial, local, cultural burial, which in turn raises the debate about inaccurate mortality rates. Talking about death and witnessing it is a difficult issue with most cultures.
Western societies may like to treat the dead with the utmost material respect, with an official embalmer and associated rites. Eastern societies like India may be more open to accepting it as a fait accompli , with a funeral procession of the dead body ending in an open air burning-to-ashes of the same. Much interest and debate surround the question of what happens to one's consciousness as one's body dies. The belief in the permanent loss of consciousness after death is often called eternal oblivion. Belief that the stream of consciousness is preserved after physical death is described by the term afterlife.
Neither are likely to ever be confirmed without the ponderer having to actually die. After death, the remains of an organism become part of the biogeochemical cycle , during which animals may be consumed by a predator or a scavenger. Organic material may then be further decomposed by detritivores , organisms which recycle detritus , returning it to the environment for reuse in the food chain , where these chemicals may eventually end up being consumed and assimilated into the cells of a living organism.
Examples of detritivores include earthworms , woodlice and dung beetles. Microorganisms also play a vital role, raising the temperature of the decomposing matter as they break it down into yet simpler molecules. Not all materials need to be fully decomposed. Coal , a fossil fuel formed over vast tracts of time in swamp ecosystems, is one example. Contemporary evolutionary theory sees death as an important part of the process of natural selection.
It is considered that organisms less adapted to their environment are more likely to die having produced fewer offspring, thereby reducing their contribution to the gene pool. Their genes are thus eventually bred out of a population, leading at worst to extinction and, more positively, making the process possible, referred to as speciation. Frequency of reproduction plays an equally important role in determining species survival: an organism that dies young but leaves numerous offspring displays, according to Darwinian criteria, much greater fitness than a long-lived organism leaving only one.
Extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa , reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where species presumed extinct abruptly "reappear" typically in the fossil record after a period of apparent absence.
New species arise through the process of speciation , an aspect of evolution. New varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche — and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. Inquiry into the evolution of aging aims to explain why so many living things and the vast majority of animals weaken and die with age exceptions include Hydra and the already cited jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii , which research shows to be biologically immortal.
The evolutionary origin of senescence remains one of the fundamental puzzles of biology. Gerontology specializes in the science of human aging processes. Organisms showing only asexual reproduction e. In multicellular organisms and also in multinucleate ciliates ,  with a Weismannist development , that is, with a division of labor between mortal somatic body cells and "immortal" germ reproductive cells , death becomes an essential part of life, at least for the somatic line.
The Volvox algae are among the simplest organisms to exhibit that division of labor between two completely different cell types, and as a consequence include death of somatic line as a regular, genetically regulated part of its life history. In Buddhist doctrine and practice, death plays an important role. Awareness of death was what motivated Prince Siddhartha to strive to find the "deathless" and finally to attain enlightenment.
In Buddhist doctrine, death functions as a reminder of the value of having been born as a human being. Being reborn as a human being is considered the only state in which one can attain enlightenment. Therefore, death helps remind oneself that one should not take life for granted. The belief in rebirth among Buddhists does not necessarily remove death anxiety , since all existence in the cycle of rebirth is considered filled with suffering , and being reborn many times does not necessarily mean that one progresses.
Death is part of several key Buddhist tenets, such as the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination. Death is seen in Judaism as tragic and intimidating. Persons who come into contact with corpses are ritually impure. There are a variety of beliefs about the afterlife within Judaism, but none of them contradict the preference of life over death. This is partially because death puts a cessation to the possibility of fulfilling any commandments.
The concept and symptoms of death, and varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific, legal, and socially acceptable terms or euphemisms for death. When a person has died, it is also said they have passed away , passed on , expired , or are gone , among numerous other socially accepted, religiously specific, slang, and irreverent terms. As a formal reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased ; another noun form is decedent.
Bereft of life, the dead person is then a corpse , cadaver , a body , a set of remains , and when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton. The terms carrion and carcass can also be used, though these more often connote the remains of non-human animals. The ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains , a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the coloring process, see Dyeing. For other uses, see Dead disambiguation and Death disambiguation. Main article: Medical definition of death. See also: Legal death. See also: Premature burial. See also: List of causes of death by rate and Preventable causes of death. Main article: Cryonics. Main article: Life extension. Main article: Death anxiety psychology. Main articles: Death and culture and Human skull symbolism. Main article: Consciousness after death. Main articles: Competition biology , Natural selection , and Extinction. Main article: Extinction. Main article: Evolution of ageing.
Preparing for a Child’s Death
See also: Bereavement in Judaism. Death portal. Retrieved 13 April Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Engineering. Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 5 February Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 18 January J, de Grey Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology.
Archived from the original PDF on 13 October Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 9 January Life Death Whatever. Illness, Crisis and Loss. National Geographic. Retrieved 23 October