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Quran translation in italian language translated by Piccardo

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A compositional model is thus stated explicitly. Il racconto si schiude con una serie di scene nelle quali sono mostrate a lui spaventevoli punizioni. La visione si apre in distinti successivi luoghi un po' come accade con la Navigatio , e in modo analogo quello che si rivela all'occhio umano sono le entrate e le anticamere dell'Inferno e del Paradiso. We have evidence of pilgrims visiting from many parts of Europe, including Florence itself in the following centuries.

A feature of the spread of all the Irish visionary texts we have examined is their inclusion in encyclopoediae and sermon-collections which were used throughout Western Christendom. Thus, while recalling the significance of books, and of the Irish civitates in which they were shaped, we must also be mindful that the transmission from Ireland of ideas and images relating to the Otherworld did not depend solely on texts, but extended to the oral, and to the visual, as well. Prove attestano che nei secoli successivi pellegrini vi giunsero da molte parti d'Europa, Firenze compresa.

Si veda la citazione da Caesarius sul foglio distribuito. Ashburnhamiano 58 Extracts , Vita S. Fursei, Vita S.

Corrado Augias - Il libro delle parole altrimenti smarrite - Sabrina D'Alessandro - intervista

Columbai auctore Adamnano, Vita S. Columbani, auctore Iona, Vitae S. Biblioteca Laurenziana, MS. Strozzi IV: Vitae Sanctorum. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Urb. Only once, throughout his works, does Dante make explicit mention of the art of manuscript illumination. This happens in Purgatorio XI; the canto where, after having been witness together with Virgil to a choral recitation of the Pater noster , and after having met the soul of the knight from Maremma Omberto Aldobrandeschi, Dante meets Oderisi da Gubbio, a master, Dante tells us in ll. As is well known, Dante's encounter with the Umbrian illuminator who like all the souls of the first terrace of Purgatory is forced to walk with his chest against his knees due to the heavy stone he is carrying on his back, Purg.

X, , will then dominate the whole of the second part of the canto. The first part of Oderisi's speech is a reflection on the vanity of artistic pride; reflection prompted by Oderisi's recognition that his fame as illuminator has been surpassed by that of Franco Bolognese. The second part of Dante's encounter with Oderisi is devoted to the narration of the story of Provenzan Salvani a Sienese politician , and to a prophecy of Dante's exile from Florence.

Purgatorio XI is undoubtedly one of the most significant cantos of the Commedia. It is the central canto of the three dedicated in the Purgatorio to the terrace of pride, the sin which, as Dante himself tells us Purg. Characterized thus by a strong autobiographic vein, enhanced by the reflection on artistic endeavour and by the reference to Dante's exile, it cannot but make a fundamental contribution to one's reflections concerning the relationship that Dante may have thought there could be between his poetry and the theological truths that, with his poetry, he wants to illustrate.

In this context, what could be the significance of the reference made to the art of manuscript illumination? This is the question I would like to consider in what follows. Nonostante Dante solo una volta menzioni specificatamente l'arte della miniatura, particolari aspetti della sua opera hanno portato a varie ipotesi riguardo possibili accostamenti fra Dante, la sua poesia, e l'arte di Oderisi. Alcuni passi, ad esempio, ci ricordano che, se pur a livello dilettantistico, Dante si esercitava nelle arti pittoriche, e quindi forse anche nella miniatura.

VII, - ci confermano la sua conoscenza dei termini tecnici ricorrenti nei ricettari di pittori e miniatori del tempo. Notwithstanding the fact that Dante only once explicitly referes to manuscript illumination, particular aspects of his work have led to a number of hypotheses regarding possible connections between Dante, his poetry, and Oderisi's art. Some passages, for example, remind us that, albeit at amateur level, Dante himself was a practitioner of the pictorial arts, and possibly, therefore, of manuscript illumination.

VII, , confirm Dante's knowledge of the technical terms used by the painters and illuminators of his day. Another connection between Dante's poetry and the art of illumination could be drawn, following Fubini, by recognizing that in crafting the opening of his cantos often characterized by the description of a detailed scene taken from everyday life Dante must have often thought of illuminated manuscripts, for there are passages that seem themselves to suggest possible miniatures and illuminations.

This connection is confirmed by Fallani in one of his historical studies concerning the figures of Oderisi da Gubbio and Franco Bolognese. Quali queste caratteristiche possano essere ci viene subito indicato nei versi iniziali dell'undicesimo del Purgatorio. The reference to manuscript illumination, according to my hypothesis, is not accidental but reflects the theological exigencies of the poem and, in the strongly autobiographical context of Purgatorio XI, should be seen as a crucial element for one's reflection concerning the relationship between Dante's poetry and the theological truths that this poetry wants to illustrate.

What these characterstics may be is revealed by the very opening lines of Purgatorio XI. Il canto di Oderisi e della miniatura si apre con una splendida parafrasi poetica del Pater noster. Dante attinge liberamente dalle due diverse versioni bibliche della preghiera Mt. The canto of Oderisi and of manuscript illumination opens with a beautiful paraphrase of the Pater noster. Dante freely takes lead from the two different versions of the 'Our Father' found in the gospels Mt. There has been much discussion as to the extent to which Dante remains faithful to the original nature of the prayer or to the medieval exegetical tradition of the latter.

However important, such discussions leave aside that which is perhaps the most important lesson to be derived from the Dantean Pater noster ; a lesson which may fully be appreciated in the light of the reference Dante makes later on in the canto to the art of manuscript illumination. La poesia di Dante, quindi, come la miniatura. Non solo come veicolo di immagini che potrebbero riprendere o suggerire un'illustrazione miniata, ma come particolare procedimento artistico e, soprattutto, teologico.

Seen in the light of the example of manuscript illumination, the prayer that opens Purgatorio XI appears to be, to refer back to the title of our session this morning, an intertwinement of Dante's poetry and the words of the Bible. Just as, on an illuminated page, the art of the illuminator and the letters of the illustrated text are, in the eyes and in the experience of the reader, inextricably intertwined to form a whole in which the art of the artist is guided by the words of the text while at the same time is itself an interpretation of those words.

Dante's poetry, therefore, may be seen as analogous to manuscript illumination. Not, however, simply insofar as it may be a vehicle for images that may recall or even suggest a particular illustration, but insofar as it may be seen as a particular kind of artistic, and theological, procedure. Seen in this perspective, the art of the poet or of the illuminator is not an end in itself but a tool for the enhancement of the text that it is called to illuminate. If, moreover, this text is the word of God, then the artist's work may be seen as prayer, as a dialogue between the artist and the mystery of the logos.

As such, then, it may be seen as an exercise in humility. In the first instance, as an exercise in humility on the part of the artist, insofar as he allows his art to be defined by, and receive its identity from, the divine logos. Secondly, however, as an act of humility on the part of the logos , insofar as it allows itself to be interpreted, incarnated, in a particular illustration or terzina.

With the intertwinement of artistic and theological procedure in mind, let us now turn to consider Oderisi's words concerning the vanity of artistic pride to see to what extent our appreciation of their significance may be enhanced by our considerations so far. It has often been noted that Oderisi's words, ll. In the light of what has been said above, this may be seen as a new example of the way Dante interweaves his own word with that of God, as if in a game of reciprocal interpretation.

We note, however, that in the above lines the words of the Bible are not recalled explicitly but are subtly inscribed in the terms of Oderisi's speech. We therefore begin to see how a game of reciprocal interpretation may not be limited to those moments in which Dante's poetry explicitly recalls the biblical text, but may in fact deeply permeate Dante's narrative procedure as a whole.

Rimaniamo per ora sul discorso riguardo la gloria artistica. Let us stay a while longer on the speech regarding artistic pride. Artistic pride, Oderisi says, is vain because the fame of a particular artist will always be surpassed by that of another and, in any case, from the perspective of eternity, the fame of any one particular artist is a phenomenon of insignificant duration.

We are thus told that Oderisi's fame has been obscured by that of Franco Bolognese, that of Cimabue by that of Giotto, that of Guido Guinizelli by that of Guido Cavalcanti, and that that of Dante will probably end up obscuring that of the latter two. Oderisi therefore offers us a picture which, by emphasizing the only relative importance of each artist, seems to want to undermine the value of all artistic endeavours and, implicitly with them, of all the works of man.

In denying that any artistic product may be the definitive expression of the canons of a particular art, Oderisi's words seem, at first, to be denying that any human work may, in its particularity, touch the essence of an absolute and eternal truth. However, in the lgiht of what has been said above about art as a tool for the glorification of the word of God, one finds the full significance of Oderisi's words precisely in the placing of human works against the backdrop of an eternal truth. According to the hypothetical Dantean perspective outlined above, artistic procedure becomes theological procedure in its becoming an instrument through which man may enter into dialogue with the logos.

Such an instrument, Oderisi's words suggest, may never presume to craft a definitive product because every artistic expression will be born from a particular individual, historical and cultural situation. In its particular nature, however, every work of art may find its significance through its relationship with the word of God, the value of which does not manifest itself in abstract concepts but only if incarnated in history through the works of man.

Seen from the perspective of an eternal truth, therefore, human art may avoid to fall into insignificant relativity to the extent in which it is ready to recognize its only relative status and to the extent in which, on the basis of this recognition, it is ready to enter into dialogue with the logos. It is therefore no accident that Oderisi's speech is characterized by a series of names: Oderisi, Franco, Cimbaue, Giotto, one Guido and the other.

It has been said that with Oderisi's speech Dante inaugurates the modern idea of art criticism; an art criticism which, as pointed out by Assunto, is no longer based on 'objective categories of the beautiful' but rather on 'the individual characteristics of the work of a particular artist'. In Oderisi's speech, the series of names, in highlighting the only relative importance of the work of a single artist, serves the purpose of outlining a conception of community and tradition in which the artistic identity of the individual finds its significance only in relation to the artistic identity of others.

Names are not for Dante the sign of an identity definable only in terms of itself, but the sign of an identity in a process of constant redefinition in the light of its being and acting in relation to others. The lust for artistic glory, therefore, is an example of pride insofar as it brings an individual to assert his own identity not in relation to that of others but in contrast with, and in negation of, the latter. Having said this, we begin to see how considerations prompted by the hypothesis of a theological parallel between Dante's poetry and the art of manuscript illumination may touch on some of the central questions of the ethical dimension of the Commedia.

For, as suggested by the narrative elements of Purgatorio XI themselves, the recognition of the relative importance of the work of each individual artist revealed as we have seen by the latter being put in relation to the logos and to a community is inextricable for Dante from a more general understanding of human personhood in which the latter is defined precisely by its interaction, in community, with the word of God.

We thus find in the canto of the reflection on the sin of pride a strong emphasis on the idea of community; an idea which, in ll. With their highlighting the idea of a 'common mother' for all human beings, Omberto's words allow us to return to the opening of the canto better to appreciate the significance of the 'Our Father' which opens the canto itself.

We have said above that, as an illumination, this prayer could be read as an intertwinement of Dante's art with the word of God. If we now consider the significance that this prayer has in the narrative context of the canto, we realize that the same intertwinement metaphor may illuminate also our understanding of the Dantean conception of the ideas of community and personhood. For not only does Dante rewrite the text of the prayer but, in respect to the gospels, also rewrites the narrative context in which the prayer is spoken. For the souls of the first terrace of Purgatory, the choral recitation of the 'Our Father' is an integral part of the process through which "the human soul is cleansed and becomes worthy of ascending to heaven" Purg.

I, Through their recitation of the 'Our Father', the souls learn to read their experience in the light of the word of God, while at the same time being in a position to realize how in turn their experience may bring to a rewriting of the logos itself.


We therefore find, between soul and logos the same game of reciprocal interpretation we had seen between logos and poetry. Fondamentale, nel gioco di reciproca interpretazione tra persona e logos , l'articolarsi di una dinamica comunitaria. Nel loro continuo recitare il 'Padre nostro', le ombre della prima cornice del purgatorio imparano gradualmente a leggere la loro esperienza alla luce di una preghiera che, accomunando tutto il creato nella glorificazione di un unico creatore, non ammette che il valore di una singola creatura venga esaltato al di sopra delle altre.

In this game of reciprocal interpretation between person and logos , a fundamental role is played by the dynamics of community. As we have said, it is certainly not a coincidence that Dante should choose the Pater noster - with its emphasis on the dependance of all creation on one Father - for the purification of the soul from the sin of pride. In their continual reciting the 'Our Father', the souls of the first terrace of Purgatory gradually learn to read their experience in the light of a prayer which, in bringing together all creation in a community for the glorification of a single creator, does not allow the value of a single creature to be exalted above that of others.

At the same time, the prayer itself, in its being rewritten within the story of the Commedia, in its being rewritten through the experience of the various characters that Dante meets, is presented to us by Dante not so much as encapsulating absolute and objective truths as being the source of ethical possibilities to be determined by the particular interaction of individuals within a community. Per Dante, potremmo dunque dire, l'intreccio fra anima e logos si attua attraverso l'intreccio, il gioco di reciproca interpretazione, fra anima e anima, fra persona e persona. Il dare corpo narrativo a questo tipo di attenzione verso l'altro sembra in effetti essere uno dei principali obiettivi della poetica dell'undicesimo canto del Purgatorio.

We could thus say that for Dante the intertwinement of soul and logos is actualized through the intertwinement - the game of reciprocal interpretation - of soul and soul, person and person. It is actualized, therefore, through the attention that an individual may bring towards the person and the needs of others, and to the extent in which a person may be ready to have this attention define one's own actions, one's own being.

In fact, the narrative embodiment of this kind of attention towards others seems to be one of the main objectives of the poetics of Purgatorio XI. Notiamo anche come da una parte i termini stessi della preghiera dei penitenti vengano definiti dalla situazione di peccato delle anime della terra vv. In the first instance, we find an attention towards others implicit, as many a time in the Purgatorio, in the choral performance of prayer; a performance which requires, in the very act of entering into dialogue with God, the ability to adjust one's own voice in relation to the presence and character of the voice of others.

We also note how on one hand the very terms of the prayer of the penitents are defined by the condition of sin of the souls of the world ll. Ritroviamo, inoltre, il gioco di reciproca interpretazione fra persona e persona quale caratteristica della poetica dantesca anche nei passi non esplcitamente liturgici del canto. Torniamo all'incontro fra Dante e Oderisi. Notiamo innanzi tutto i gesti che precedono lo scambio fra i due artisti.

Mentre parlava con Omberto Aldobrandeschi, Dante andava camminando, contrariamente al suo interlocutore, con il busto eretto, posizione che non permette al cavaliere toscano, per quanto egli si sforzi, di riconoscere Dante vv. Moreover, however, we also find a game of reciprocal interpretation between person and person as a characteristic of Dantean poetics in the non-explicitly liturgical passges of the canto.

Let us turn back to the encounter between Dante and Oderisi. We note first of all the gestures that precede the conversation between the two artists. While he was speaking with Omberto Aldobrandeschi Dante at first walks, unlike his interlocutor, with a straight back; a position which does not allow the Tuscan knight to recognize Dante ll. While he is listening to Omberto's words, however, Dante bends down, and this gesture gives birth to the dialogue with Oderisi.

In adjusting himself to the condition of the souls, in taking a position metaphorically identifiable with humility, Dante's gestures reveal ethical possibilities that may be actualized through the dialogue between person and person. Notwithstanding the movements of the shadows are impeded by the weight of the rock they carry on their shoulders, Dante's bending down prompts a sudden series of actions - rendered supremely in the "he saw me, recognized me, called me" of l.

Called by Oderisi, Dante turns to address the Gubbian illuminator:. Oderisi does not respond to Dante's question by affirming his own identity but by placing his identity in relation to that of Franco Bolognese; and after having praised Franco Bolognese, goes on to identify the sin of pride precisely in the lack of 'courtesy' l. Simili considerazioni si possono fare riguardo allo scambio fra Dante e Oderisi sulla figura di Provenzan Salvani che chiudono il canto.

Nonostante la storia di Provenzan Salvani occupi quasi un terzo del canto, egli stesso non partecipa alla narrazione di quest'ultima. Similar considerations may be made about the conversation between Dante and Oderisi regarding Provenzan Salvani which closes the canto. Notwithstanding Provenzano's story occupies almost a third of the canto, Provenzano himself does not participate in its narration.

He therefore receives his identity through the words of Oderisi, while the telling of his story, in offering us a new reflection on the dynamics of pride and humility, confers new dimensions to our understanding of the condition and of the words of the Umbrian illuminator. Provenzano's story reveals, firstly that a reading of Purgatorio XI cannot leave aside Christological considerations. For the dynamics of the lines quoted above seem explicitly to recall the dynamics of the atonement of sin obtained through the passion of Christ.

We note how the strength of 'he fixed himself' in l. More importantly, however, we note how the use of 'vein' in l. About the pain suffered on the sixth terrace of Purgatory by the souls of the greedy constantly kept in a state of thirst and hunger by mysterious odours coming from two upside down trees Forese says:.

The actions of the souls of Purgatory are for Dante defined by the actions of Christ, supreme example of the word of God incarnated thorugh the works of man, supreme example of human personhood defined by divine will and by the needs of others. Forese thus rewrites through his own personhood the meaning of the actions of Christ, just as Christ's words on the cross are themselves supreme rewriting and incarnation of the words of the Psalms: Heli Heli lema sabacthani Mt.

Alla luce delle parole di Forese, possiamo quindi leggere la storia di Provenzano anch'essa in chiave cristologica e, in questa chiave, trovare conferma che le nostre riflessioni sul dialogo fra persona e logos attraverso il dialogo fra persona e persona possono arrivare a toccare il cuore etico e teologico della Commedia. In the light of Forese's words, we can read Provenzano's story also in a Christological key, thus finding confirmation that our considerations regarding the dialogue between person and logos through the dialogue between person and person may reach out to touch the ethical and theological core of the Commedia.

For Provenzano's story, narrated by Oderisi, sets one's humble readiness to put one's identity into question in relation to the other as an essential precondition for one's being able to imitate Christ. In a Dantean understanding of human personhood, every person has in his acting and in his being the possibility of giving new life to the logos ; the possibility, we may say, of allowing the miracle of the Incarnation to be repeated. And, according to Dante, the actualization of this possibility is in fact the ultimate end of all human agency.

It is certainly no coincidence that in Dante's depiction of his ideal community in Paradiso XV, it is not Cacciaguida's mother but Mary, mother of Jesus, who is said to give birth to Dante's ancestor. From this perspective, then, every human personhood may be seen as a possible vehicle for the incarnation of the logos. An idea, this one, which in the union of Dante with God which ends the Commedia , is revealed to be the cornerstone of Dantean theology.

In the Paradiso Dante gives poetic expression to the typically medieval conception of an ineffable God who is beyond the reach of human language and human reasoning; of a God who defies all attempts at conceptualizaion and is ultiamtely only definable as love. In describing his union with God, however, Dante says that the divine light. The last line of the above 'terzina' is usually seen as referring to Dante's gaze fixed on the mystery of the incarnation, on the mystery of the second person of the Trinity's assumption of human lineaments.

It could however also be seen as an indication of the fact that Dante recognizes, in the divine mystery, his own appearence, his own face. According to the latter reading, 'my face' in l. One can see God only through an understading of how one's personhood may reveal itself to be a manifestation of that love which God is; an understanding which is however only possible if each individual personhood is embraced by the idea of community encapsulated in 'our effigy' quoted above but also in the 'Our Father' prayer.

According to this idea of community, the second person of the Trinity, in its being the infinite meeting point between man and God, is properly defined as the totality of all human manifestations of that humble divine love which, through Christ, frees man from sin. Abbiamo detto, in un primo luogo, che alla luce dell'esempio della miniatura, l'arte di Dante puo essere vista, nel suo intrecciarsi con la parola di Dio, quale procedimento non solo artistico ma anche teologico.

Translation of «suzzacchera» into 25 languages

Abbiamo poi notato che ad un livello narrativo l'intreccio fra poesia e logos trova suoi paralleli nell'intreccio fra persona e logos e fra persona e persona. Per concludere il nostro ragionamento, riflettiamo ora sul punto di raccordo che questi paralleli trovano, come suggerito peraltro dai versi del Paradiso per ultimi citati, nella dimensione autobiografica della Commedia. Starting from an hypothesis concerning the relationship that in Purgatorio XI Dante seems to want to establish between his art and that of Oderisi we have thus outlined a trajectory that has led us to touch on some of the central ideas of Dante's ethics and theology.

We saw, firstly, that in the light of the example of manuscript illumination, Dante's art may be seen, in its being intertwined with the word of God, not only in terms of artistic but also of theological procedure. We then saw that on a narrative level, the intertwinement of poetry and logos may find parallels in the intertwinement of person and logos and of person and person. To conclude our considerations, let us now reflect on the meeting point that these parallels may find, as suggested in fact by the lines from the Paradiso last quoted, in the autobiographical dimension of the Commedia.

Ritorniamo, dunque, a Provenzan Salvani. L'interpretazione tradizionale di questi versi, secondo la quale il 'ghiosarlo' del v. Let us, then, return to Provenzan Salvani. As we have seen, after having told the story of the Tuscan politician, Oderisi reminds Dante that only through his exile from Florence will he be able properly to understand and interpret - 'gloss' - Provenzano's story as it has just been told.

The traditional interpretation of these lines, according to which 'gloss' in l. In this perspective one may recall the opening pages of the Convivio especially I, iii, 5 and together with them an image of Dante who, in his wandering from city to city, from court to court, is brought by experience to appreciate the value of being able to make one's existence dependent on the actions of others. Il 'ghiosarlo' del v. In un secondo luogo, il riferire 'ghiosarlo' a Provanzano permette di leggere le parole di Oderisi non solo come riferimento generale all'esilio ma anche come riferimento particolare alla scrittura della Commedia , in gran parte determinata, come ben noto, dall'espulsione di Dante da Firenze.

Non possiamo, infatti, tralasciare il fatto che il verbo 'chiosare' sia fortemente legato, in particolar modo nella cultura medievale cui Dante appartiene, all'atto della scrittura. The term 'gloss' in l. This would in the first instance allow one, in line with what has been said so far, to add strength to the traditional interpretation of the passage in question: the experience of exile thus becomes for Dante not only a means through which he may be able to understand the meaning of Oderisi's words about Provenzano, but also itself a new rewriting of the meaning of the latter's story and therefore, according to the theological perspective outlined above, also a new embodiment of the story of Christ.

Secondly, seeing 'gloss' as referred to Provenzano allows one to read Oderisi's words not only as a general reference to Dante's exile but also as a particular reference to the writing of the Commedia , itself largely determined, as is well known, by the expulsion of Dante from Florence. For we should not forget that the verb 'to gloss' is strongly linked, especially in the medieval culture of which Dante is part, to the act of writing.

Dante rewrites the story of Provenzano not only through his own life but also through his own art; the latter act also to be read, according to the theological perspective outlined above, as part of the dynamics through which a person may try to interpret and embody anew, through a courteous attention towards others, the mystery of the logos. Dante would therefore have seen his poetry not only intertwined with the word of God as an artistic gesture but also as an ethical act with which to enter into dialogue with the other, with which to offer to the needs of others the definition of one's own identity.

On one hand, the nature of this ethical gesture is determined by the way in which Dante's text does not only want to show the reader how certain situations or certain characters may be in line or not with a particular ethical vision, but also wants the reader to interact with these situations and these characters. We thus find that a fundamental characteristic of the poem, particularly evident as noted by Marti in the three cantos of the Purgatorio dedicated to the reflection on pride and humility, is the continual intervention in the text of the voice of the author calling the reader's attention to a particular aspect of the narrative.

Moreover, Dante offers us the very writing of the Commedia as an ethical act also in presenting himself both as author and as protagonist of his poem, thus inviting us to tie to our considerations regarding the writing of the Commedia the story of the protagonist himself. In concluding his speech on the vanity of artistic pride, as we have seen, Oderisi says:. Wrapped up in Oderisi's words is the idea that the value of Dante's poetry is in the end the same as that of the language of a child.

At first sight we appear to be faced with a new rhetorical expression wanting to emphasize the only relative importance of every human individuality against the backdrop of the eternal. But, if we look carefully, we see that Oderisi's question may in fact encapsulate a conception of Dante's poetics in line with all we have said so far; a conception according to which every liguistic act requires one to be ready at every moment to redefine one's own words in terms of their meeting the words of the other; a conception according to which the speaking of every word requires the infant-like ability to learn how to speak anew.

In the Inferno , it is true, Dante had said that. It is also true, however, that in introducing his final vision of God, Dante says:. In the Inferno , the otherworldly kingdom of pride, it is not possible for Dante to create situations and characters that may give flesh to the word of God; it is therefore not possible fully to invite the reader to a conception of the meeting with the other and with poetry as a game of reciprocal interpretation. In the Paradiso , however, the otherworldly reign of the 'love that moves the sun and the other stars', Dante gives voice to the idea that the interaction with divine otherness cannot but be for human personhood a constant source of transformation, and cannot therefore but require of man a conception of language in which the latter is also seen to be in a constant state of redefinition and for this reason comparable to the speech of a child.

In this perspective, the Purgatorio , as a reign of transition, may be seen as the place where poet and reader may learn to meet each other through the narrative creation of communities in which the individual person may learn to read his or her own experience in the light of the word of God. This meeting between reader and poet is determined, on the one hand, by the courtesy that the reader is ready to bring to the text; on the other, by the fact that the words of the poet do not appear to want to be definitive interpretation of the truth but, conscious of their particularity, simply an expression of the truth which may invite the reader to an ever deeper, though always personal, understanding of the latter.

In this meeting in the Purgatorio between poet and reader a fundamental role is played, as we have seen, by canto XI. Through the reference made to the art of manuscript illumination and through the encounter with Oderisi, Dante shows us those which for him are the terms in which the work of the poet may reveal its theological potential.

In so doing, he offers the reader a text both to interpret and be confronted by in the process of an ever redefined, and increasingly refined, understanding of what it may mean to put oneself in relation to the other.

Fubini, Metrica e poesia , vol. Fallani, 'Oderisi da Gubbio e Franco Bolognese: ricerche e ipotesi sui codici miniati' in Dante e la cultura figurativa medievale , Bergamo, , pp.

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Pernicone in Letture dantesche , a cura di G. Getto, vol. II, Firenze, , pp. Fallani in L'Alighieri 9 1 , , pp. Bertelli in Lectura Dantis Scaligera , vol. Marti in Giornale storico della letteratura italiana , , pp. Jacoff, Cambridge, , pp.

Iannucci, Toronto, , pp. Assunto, La critica d'arte nel pensiero medievale , Milano, , p.