For Burkert, as Schlesier shows, the god is instead deeply embedded in Greek ritual, and associated with myths that echo the oldest stages of sacrificial practice. Her focus is the ritual-and-text link. Is violent killing sacrilege or sacralisation? How does the paradigm of animal killing infiltrate metaphorical extensions of sacrifice as in the Oresteia? In what ways is sacrifice already itself aestheticized, so that literary allusions represent a second order of distantiation? Her precise explication of Agamemnon ff. Her striking conclusion is that homo necans is also of necessity homo ludens.
In a wide-ranging essay that begins the series of chapters moving beyond Greek literature, Wolfgang Palaver concisely contrasts the approach of Violence and the Sacred with that of Homo Necans. While Girard privileges mimetic desire in the aetiology of violence, and the scapegoating mechanism as a primal solution, Burkert, following Meuli, looks rather for historical evolution; the former seeks a universal thesis, while the latter favors empirical evidence in ethnography.
Girard optimistically recognizes a sea-change in the Judeo-Christian re-interpretation of scapegoating as a true cleansing of sin, whereas Burkert, stressing sacrificial violence, finds cultural continuities rather than clean breaks in cultural development. Taking an evolutionary view of culture again, without the precise definitions of the preceding chapter , he finds in spiritual praxis three features that qualify it as a suitable adaptive mechanism: therapeutic value from mystical and ecstatic states ; an aid to group-identity formation via ritual and in-group branding ; and a spur to social order through ethical precepts and fear of divine retribution.
D-urkheim, ks formes of reciprocal collaboration and supplementation. Building-sacrifices, example,are for this reasonwidesprs4cl. The stonewis then placedon top of the remainswhile they were still hot. Thereafter, neighborswould return regularly on the anniversaryof that sacrificetJ repeat it. Klusemann, DasBauopfer Ggry ; cf. Krauss, Volksglaube religiisir Briuci derSildslaaen nd r89o , r; B. According to the EnumaElit, Ea kills his father Apsu and buil"dshis temple rpo. However, animal sacrifice is rare, and human sacrifice ,rr,utteried, for a buitdingsacrifice in the ancient Near East: see R.
Lachmannr 4' lapides solidam in terramrectos conlocabant. On the I. Aegisthuswith the lyre on the Bostonoresteia-crater: verE. Among the Hittites, ;,to befor gg1. Gesche, bie vergottungCaesars Q, , with A. Ir it is ioll,owed have undergone the Tho'u who the sacrificebecomesan initiation' expressedin both exoneratedand consecrated'as unspeakableare at and.
Although we can understand the persistence sacrificialritual of through its social function, this by no means excludeschange as an explanation. Ritual is a pattern of action redirectedto serve for communication, and this means that the terms of expressionare open to substitution, i. If and the receiverare sufficiently familiar with one another, the complex of signs can be greatly reduced. On the other hand, when in competition with rival communications,the sign is exaggerated and heightened.
Substitutesigns thus used-whether consistingof natural or artific. They are not chosenarbitrarily,but are taken from a continuous tradition; they are neither independent nor selfevident, but bound to the systemin which they function. Their richness of meaning coincideswith the complex effectsthey produce in 2' predeterminedinteractions. In ritual aggression,the ends and the means of aggressionare exchangeable.
Even mammalstear up tufts of grassor shred tree bark when performing the threatening rituals that both introduce and postpone a fight. In human ritual, too, the aggressive gesturecan becomeso important that its objectis unessential. The wildest form of destruction, that of tearing an object to pieces nnapayp.
Mtiri, "Symbolon," BeiL z. Tillich, Symbol undWirklichkeit In myth, see the thyrsosbecomes terrifying weapon: seeEur. In groups shaped by ughere that it imperils its necessary in the younger generation, forces that question gression, "rp"iiully of i'he acceptance iradition becomeactive.
W. Brede Kristensen's Concept “Life Out of Death”
Willfulness stands in the way of t'he impulse to imitate. Thus, along with its theatricality,human ritual must always have a strong underlying component of seriousness,and this means that time and again there is a regression from symbolismto reality. A non-instinctiveritual, transmittedby human beings, can fulfill its communicatoryfunction only if it avails itself of a pragmatismthat is unquestionablyreal.
This all changedwhen mankind took its most important step, its mastery of the environment, in the Neolithic Revolution, the invention of agriculture, some 1o,oooyears ago. Nomads seem, historic finds, especially rather, to be offshoots of farming and city culture-see Mtiller-Karpe uo-zr. W Schmidt, usually arguedin connection DasMutterrecht[r] -that the cultivation of bulbous plants must have preceded grain-growing;cf.
Miiller-Karpe ll. Ucko and G. W Dimand of bleby, eds. Rtistow's Ortsbestimmung have ;r95o'z als I Gegenwart r95r and A. Weber'sKulturgeschichte Kultursoziologie been renderedobsolete. Man Makes reaolution Himself,ch' V , cf. Childe coined the term Neolilftic S. Cole, The NeolithicRevolution1r95g;'. The term is, however, controversial: see I r , zz9; Ucko and Dimbleby, Domestication. Hornung, Geschichte Fest o ,t5-ry;E. OrtegayGasset,Uberdielagd ;W. Thus, the most prestigiousquarry was the beastof prey. Through this emphasisthe sport remained pragmatic and serious.
Heraklts, the bearerof the club, was more popular as a lion-killer than as thetamer of the bull. We can even tru. The power of the traditironar rituar to bind thus remained intact. The animal must, of course,now be removed from the everyday world; it must becomesacred. Hence the adornmentand the procession, and, sometimes,the animal being set free and recaptured. In addition to the "action,,,whicliis. The rapture attendant on eating gamein the sacrificialmeal is no lessreal now.
Dimbleby, hoiestication. The ordestdomestic Y-tk: 3na animarsare-apart from the special caseof the ioe-eoats and sheep;shortry thereaftet the pig appears,fotowed tn the seventh mi. V zrg that the domestication of the cow occurred from u"o start for ,". Reedin Ucko and Dimbleby,Domestication, C. A:'nlhal,-A of I ossl, F. Zeuner, il. Even more than before, a sacred order is presumed and confirmed in this critical situation. In any case, with the integration of animal-sacrifice into agricultural society, a very stable socio-religious structure was established, which was to survive many thousands of years.
The ritual pattern was so strong and inflexible that a festival meal without the preliminary horror of death would have been no festival at all. The farmer had to be just as reliable, enduring, and farsighted as the hunter. In particular, it was no mean task to overcome the inclination to eat the seed grain rather than throw it on the ground in the mere hope that something would grow.
Here, too, the individual's desire for immediate profit could be controlled by the sacred tradition of the hunting ritual, which established the old order in a new context: renunciation and abstinence for the sake of long-range success, and with it a new order.
Thus, the harvest is celebrated in a hunting festival and in sacrifice. Most importantly, the seed grain could not be touched as long as it was stored in sacred granaries, those mysterious, half-buried depositories of wealth. Those who sacrifice a goat on the island of Leuke must deposit the buying price in the temple of Achilles: Arr. The fact that it is precisely the "Vegetationsdimon" who is killed time and again in the ritual has been explained in various ways: the drowning is weather-magic for rain 1fi zr4, 4r7 , the immolation is a purification 6oo8 , the burying is intended for sowing and germination 4r9-zr , the whole process stimulates the annual cycle of the death and rebirth of vegetation.
Indeed, in this case the rite cannot be derived from any attested or hypothetical mythology l. The myth of Trophonios and Agamedes Telegony, p. Consequently, farming implements assumedthe characrerof weapons. After all, a plow, u ri. Cutting the wheat could thus-become a symbolic substitute" castration; for grinding the grain and pressingthe wine could take the placeof tearing up an animal in the hunt or sacrifice. In agriculture,the victory of life can bE felt with to even greaterimmediacy.
The vine that has been pruned will bear all the more fruit; the grain that was buried in the earth sends u,, new shoots toward the light. The sacrificiarritual's power to bind i, p. Contracts are r"ul"d with libations of wine trrovDal , and weddings are celebrated cutting up cake or by bread; cutting or breaking must still precedeeating,nr luit as slaughtering precedesthe eating of meat.
The symbolisir courd easilyLecome detached were it not for a counterforceguiding it back to the frightening reality. This occurs first of all in the mvtf,, for the most gruesometales of living creaturestorn apart and of cannibalismare presentedin conjunction with the achievements civilized life. But of the myth is not enough. Blood-sacrifice must be made at the harvest festival and at-thepreparationsfor it. Here the savagerybeneaththe seeminglycivilized exterioris exorcized. In Greece,is iar back as we can see, the victims were animal.
But in the tropics, the very regions that had more favorableclimates, the planters regressedto relular human sacrifice,to cultic cannibalism. G Jung and k. Ker6nvi, Einfiihrung in das wesen!! Kuttir :':. The notion that this represents pre-agricultural a. Thus, aggression is once again directed toward human beings. Although the male societies that had been superimposedon the family structure lost their ostensiblefunction when the hunt was abanamong planters as secret,or mask, doned, they were reestablished societies.
The contrast between the sexeswas now played up-Miinnerbund versus female power-the more so becausewomen now shouldered the main burden, supporting the family according to the new agricultural method. Likewise, the conflict between the generations became highly dramatized in the initiation rituals. Deprived of its hunting quarry, the secretsociety makes the initiand himself into a victim.
However, the bloodshedand the refined methods of torture are very real and guaranteethe seriousness the ritual. Once again, life rises up from the peril of death. Indeed, the individual experiencesin himself how, after life had been endangered,there is a resurrection,a rebirth. To some extent, this too was still a game, a show. With the progressivegrowth of consciousness, civilization cameto dernand absolute seriousness-one could no longer pretend kill men.
For this to reasonthe death penalty becamethe strongestexpression governof mental power,ft and, as has often been shown, the criminal'sexecustagehas, however, been supersededthrough the excavationsatJericho andJarmo: see n. Schurtz, Altersklassen Miinnerbunde und Qgoz ;H. Peuckert, Geheimkulte j96t. On at initiation rites generally seeM. Eliade, Birth and Rebirth Latte, RE Suppl. Vll ; on its sacrificiatcharacter seeTh. Yll t6r Amira, "Die germanischenTodesstra fen," Abh.
Miinchen There are clear elementsof a comedy of innocencein the "last meal" before an execution and in the expectationof goodwill; cf. For the use of criminals in sacrificial ritual on Leukas, see Strabo rc p. But it is preciselythe irrationar,compulsive character of this behavior mechanism that confronts us more clearly today than ever before. Male societyfinds stabiiity in confronting death, in defying it through a display of readinessto aie, and in the ecstasyof survival. The pharaoh and Heraklescould be lord of the hunt, lord of the sacrifice,and warrior. The emphasismay well have varied accordingto the socialreality.
A farmer, for instance. Lykaion precinctseeII. Frobenius r9o3 attemptedcould hardly be ac'palaeolithic comPlished today. Richardson, B. Armsandrnsecurity: causes war 96"J ;G. The of Bouthour,Les guerres r95t. Eissler,Psyche t96g ,6a5, among others, stated zz that war is ,,the of the elder generationon the younger. Momigliano,"some observationson tlie causesof war in Ancint Historiography," in s. For the Hebrew term to conse. Brelich, sg R. Hornung, Geschichte Fest als rgb6. Amongihe Greeks, a military expedition was Prepared and ended by sacrificiil ritual.
There was sacrifice before setting off, then adornment and crowning with wreaths before battle-all as if it were a festival. A slaughtered victim introduced the subsequent deadly action which, in Homer, is simply called Epyov. Afterward, a monument, a tropaion, was set uP on the battlefield as a consecrated, enduring witness.
This was followed by the solemn burial of the dead, a privilege the victor could not deny his defeated enemy. The burial, almost as important as the battle itself, was far more lasting in its consequences, for it left an enduring "monument. For war, necessary yet controlled because it is ritual, has this function above all: it must integrate the young into the patriotic community.
The senatusresolves; the iuaentus must fight. Each generation has the right and the obligation to have its war. Behind every burial there is a funerary ritual. However, the Palaeolithic era, in which burial evolved, was also the age of hunting. Thus, the ritual of hunting and sacrificing accompanied the funerary ritual from the start, each influencing tie other. In prehistory and ethnology it generally holds true that deid men and dead animals are treated alike:3 both rituals basically deal with death.
It makes little difference whether one says that the quarry is treated like a dead man or whether a dead man is treated like thl sacrificial quarry. Homo sapiens is also homo necans and homo sepeliens. Both rituals are, of course, complex, and one can hardly hope to discover the origins of each detail. Nevertheless we can obierve that essential elements of funerary ritual derive from the ritual of hunting and sacrificing, inasmuch as the necessary functions deal with hun"ting rather than with the death of a member.
Oslo , g5, 4z 4. Anogoil; J. Schnaufer, Friihgriechischer Totenglaube rgZo ; u:n cremation see n' 17below. Moss, The Life after Death in oceaniaand the Malay Archipelago , who concludesthat the two coexistlargely without being related,but that ritual will sooner influence belief than vice ,r". Meuli,s ,,Ents'tehung und sinn der Trauersitten," schweiz. Archiu vorkskunde a , t'. Seealso H. Modern hunters have the "great Halili" sounded at thelurial Ji a hunter as at the end of a hunt: w. Galdikas, National Geographic iggo ,g32, on an adolescentorangutan, ry7 'Mtiller-Karpe.
Ritual 6. Funernry It is a peculiarity of the human race that it caresfor its dead. Hence, burials have been among the most important finds from prehistory. Along with the use of fire and tools, they testify to the proera,by which man becameman. On decorationseeHdt. On human sacrifice AztecsseeHornung, Ceschichte, But, when another dies, the frightening confrontation with death and the pleasurableshock of survival leave a deep impression. J The mo'st widespread element in funerals-so obvious it may seemhardly worth mentioning-is the role playedby eating,i'e', the funerary meal. Ethnology and religiousstudieshave dwelt mainly on attempts to feed the dead the bizarre and more or less unsuccessful themselves,but it is more often the real and festive meal of the living "in honor of" the dead that is of primary importance.
Thus, even while mourning the death of Patroklos,Achilles permits his companburial. At first the necessary combination of death and eating appearedonly in the hunt. Starting here, the ritual meal functioned as a bond within the community. He studiously avoided looking into Doe's direction. After some time. Then, standing on two legs, he raised both arms over his head and brought them down, fluttering, in front of him. He had killed her. Fossey,National Geographic r98r , 5or2.
For eatingat the tomb in Geometrictimes see 3. Boardman,IHS fl6 t ,z-4; cf. Murko, "Das Grabals Ttsch,"Wdrter z tgro , rh. Cregory of Nazianzusrailsagainsteatingand drinking in churchesat the tombs of the martyrs: AP 8. After the burial, people met for the festivemeal of the rpha, 6uata, rptaxas, iutaiota: An. TBesides this there is the psychological explanationthat the senseof loss is compensated for, in a form of oral regression, by eating.
This sense of loss could, however, manifest itself just as well through fasting; it is the ritual constraint that causesNiobe to eat after ten days: Il. Freud, Totemund Tabu,Ges. Werke 9 Q94o , , developed the idea of the ambivalencebetween love and aggressionin relationship to the dead man. After the mourners circled the corpsethree times while crying out in grief and swearingvengeance, many cows, sheep, goats, and pigs were slaughteredand",,blood pou-r:g from the cups flowed all around the dead man.
Because death beconies killing, and the participant, a killer," death itself becomesan act of the will, subject to performanceand repetition. For this very reasonit can be overcome through the festive meal, which confirms the survivor,s will to live. The sacrificialanalogiesextend to the actions that precedeand follow as well.
There is a. This is then foliowed by wild, ecstaticbehavior, bloodshed,and a hearty meal. The most striking resemblances between hunting and funerary customscan be seen in the treatmentof the bones. Martina, Solone '96g , o;andcf. Forailtaxovpta see ILz below. Grabowsky, lnternat. Ethnographie g9g ,'ry9; z H. In Qatal Htiyuk, as among the Parsees, bodies were set out for scavenging birds, after which the bones were carefully deposited in household shrines at the feet of the Great Goddess.
In Egypt, the roots of the mummification ritual are much the same. With the development of artisan skills, it became possible to substitute a symbol for the skull: the Roman lararium, for instance, preserved only the masks of the ancestors. Among the Greeks and Romans, even cremation" was used for the avowed purpose of obtaining the bones quickly.
The most sacred duty for the next-of-kin is to gather the bones 6cro ,oyeiv; ossalegere from the ashes of the pyre. The fire that burns the corpse is described as a beast of prey, "tearing apart" the dead man with "a furious jaw. This act is at once a joining together and a foundation, as in the Latin word condere. When, as early as Homert description of the death of Achilles, we find the wine jar of Dionysos serving as an urn,'o it is merely the transforma"Melfaart Q z4r The skulls from pre-ceramic Karpe Jerichothat 16 havebeen formed into portraitsare particularlyimpressive: Arch.
On skull-burial at Archanes Crete see ArchaeolFor ogy zo t ; cf. Ugarit see H. Bossert, rg5r ,on nr. Mylonas, AIA 5z t , r; V. FGrHist ll. S,,d loc. The produce gathered by the farmer replaces the hunter,s quarry; thus, githering bones acquires new meaning. It is then all the more characteristic that these elements have frequently been taken up in the sacrificial ritual. The large part that aggression plays in these rites is evident. With no enemy nea, the hand raised to strike comes down upon one's own headJ Men, of course, often seek some external substitute as the butt of their rage: hence those funerary sacrifices that are and intend to be merely destructive.
When a Hittite king died, for example, a plow ox was sacrificed while the king was invoked: "What you have become, this too shall become. Once again, death is mastered when the mourner becomes a killer. For this reason there is often no clear-cut distinction between merely destructive sacrifice and the sacrifice of the funerary meal cf. Unbounded rage can be vented in a life-affirming form through -. Karl Meuli demonstrated the extent and inner necessity of the connection between funerals and competitive contests remains to say that an agon can accompany not only a it BSH 8oz, pl.
Bones unburnt had been depositedin clay vessels? Reiner, Die rituelleTotenklage Griechen der r91g ; E. ARWzz rt24,1, 7z The Greek agon of historical times was a sacrificialfestival. In Rome, was followed by a ritual batthe ancientslcrifice of the October-Horse would pretend to tle betweentwo groups. Similarly,the Macedonians at fight a battle after the dog-sacrifice their Festivalof Purification,the Xindika. This willingness is primarily shown by offering food in the form of libations, 1ood.
Milk, honey,oil, and wine, the preciouscommodities of a society familiar with dearth and hunger, were poured away irretrievably; similarly, grain was mashed into pap so it could drain into the ground. In southern regions, even water is a precious commodity and henceplayed a part in somelibations. Like the sacrificial ritual, libation would have occurred outside the confines of everyday reality.
There would have been a procession,then the restrained attitude of prayer, and finally the ecstaticcry ritrolu74 at the moment by No of the libation. By renouncing personalprofit, man can uplift himself; by humbling himself in spite '? Marsmythos Latte 7tg-2r; U. Scholz, Studienzum altitalischen altrdmischen r97o ; on the fight for the head see Festus r9o L. On the Xandika see Nilsson r9o7 4c,cf, who correctly compares the Platanistas-fightof the Spartan ephebes 4o6 Paus. Usenet the first to collect the ancient evidence for ritual combat ARW 7 lrgoal, a3 : K.
The mock-battle among the Hittites H. Ehelolf, SBBerlinlrg:5l,o;A. Werke OS6o ,rz9. Seealso Lucr. Arexander Greatactedin. Now, human culture needs continuity: to be able to go on, there h"as be to an authority-recognized through the course Jf generations. Man,s neoteny,the lon-gperiod of time he spendsin the irocess of learning, forged a new relationship betweenyoung and old, aboveall between son and father, in which the catastropheof death becameespecially disturbing and.
And the v-eryelementsthat funerals took over from hunting and sacrificialritual were the ones able to mend the rift, transformingdeath into killing, celebrationinto an eruption of aggression followed by reparation. A swing of t"he pendulum transformed symbolic parricide into an obliga-tionto worship one,s ancestors' Thus, fathers, chiefs, and kingJ have the most magnificent funerals;and a pile of stones, the moriument left by collective stoning, will grow until it becomesa pyramid.
Among the Greeks,ruleis characteristicatty expectedtheir vassalgto participatein funerals as a sign of royalty; the spartans demanded it of the Messenians,the Corinthians of the Megarians. Baumann, paideuma rgSo , r9z; and,cf. Schmidt, Nlb y e8y , t6g-ss; Baudy r98oj rasf. Inversely, the Greeks set a funerary monument at almost every place of sacrifice, a tomb that may or may not have been real: the hero had, then, his place at sacrifice beside the recipient god, the sacrificial pit beside the altar, the chthonic aspect beside the Olympian.
By joining together to honor the dead, the survivors, and especially the young, would have been initiated, integrated into the continuity of the society, and educated in the tradition all at once. The rituals of sacrifice, funeral, and initiation are so closely related that they can be interpreted through the same myths and may even partially overlap. The myth tells of death and destruction, while in sacrifice an animal is killed. By encountering death as symbolized in word and ritual, succeeding generations are molded into successors. The cult was active till the end of antiquity, and Plutarch was obviously an eyewitness: just before dawn, a procession was formed leading from the center of town to the outside, from the marketplace to the cemetery.
The atmosphere was aggressive and warlike; a trumpeter gave the signal for war.
But the wagons were loaded with myrtle branches and wreaths; a black bull trotted along in the middle of the procession. The young men carried amphoras with wine and milk, jugs of oil and salves. The archon of the city brought up the rear. As head of the civil authorities, he would normally have been forbidden to carry weapons and would always have worn white robes. But on the day of the sacrifice he was dressed in a purple mantle and was carrying a sword in his belt. Something extraordinary had replaced the everyday order, and bloodshed was imminent.
The archon himself brought a water jug from the Bouleuterion. Thus, the procession 3lJust as "blood is purified through blood," so funerary sacrifice with an agon counts as expiation for killing: Fldt. Clytaemnestra alone celebrates the Day of Death in open triumph, with sacrifices Soph.
Sometimes it is indeed the dead enemy who becomes a hero: Hdt. No slaveswere permitted: the archon himself drew water from a nearby well, then washed and anointed rising up from the gravesof the dead. The myrtle branches the-steles and wreaths were also evidently used to decoratethe steles. These monumentshad been set up over the men who fell in battle, and thev were treatedlike guestsof honor in the sacred ceremony.
In the time of Thucydides,robeswere alsobrought for the dead and presumably laid upon the stelesbefore being birned, for we know that a pyre was built in the center-though Fausanias also mentions an altar and statue of Zeus Eleutherios. After this, he calledthe fallen warriors to supper, to "take theii iitK of blood ai.
The remaining participantspresumably ate their fill or ine meat, but Plutarchdoesnot say. T-he archon mix a krater of wine from the amphoras that were brought arong, and, in ail rikelihood, poured it over the pyre, which had by riow burned to the ground. He did so, as he announced, ,,for the men who died for the freedom of the Hellenes.
Both battle and burial were reenactedin the bloody ritual. Death and victory alike were presentin the act of killing. The ritual celebratingthe defeatof the persians is therefore not a creation of the historicaievent but, rather, a traditional form assimilatingthat event. A unique occurrence was thereby given unisisnfficance and transfoimed into an enduring obiig"ationthat ,t nsted through centuries. UU libations see Serv. Deonna, Deux itudes de symborisme religieux U ,2r On the con1rary, would play There is no socialorder without a sexualorder; but, involvei in ritual.
Rump-presentation an invitationto mate inhibiiing an aggressiveresponsefrom the stronger of suLmission in how correspondingbehavior..
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Steinmet zer, Die babylonischen Kudutru t9zz ' l4-r' X. Separationand bonding are thus two aspectsof a single situation. Sexuality defines the specificallymale role just as much as does hunting and warring behavior. It does so, first, in the and educativeimpulses of societyin which women play expectations part, and, second, in the psychologicalmakeup that the no small male developed in this context.
Hunting is, of course, fueled in part by the powers of aggression,which had their original function in mating fights. That is to say,from the very start it included an underand male sexualityare current of sexualmotivation. Male aggression bound up with one another, stimulated simultaneouslyand closely almostalways inhibited together. The actions of bangingnand stabbing, thrusting and piercing thus all becomeambivalentin deed just as they do in language.
There is no need to enumerate the ubiquitous military metaphors for the sexualorgans and activity. In ancient literature the Centonuptialis by Ausonius takes pride of place, consisting as it does of nothing but patched together so as to describea deVergilian battle sequences flowering in great detail. Whether it be a stick or a club, a spearor a sword, a gun or a cannon, as a symbol of masculinitythe weapon has with the sexualorgans beenequivalentto and almost interchangeable from Stone Age drawings'to modern advertising. Thus, when enthusiastic, aggressivetension reachesits peak, particularlyat the moment of success, may suddenly turn sexual.
If it an opponent is defeated,this tension strikesinto a vacuum and must find release some other way. Thereforein hunting rituals, sacrifice, in warlike fighting, and even in funerary cult, there are frequent periods of license during which sexual impulses stimulated earlier can express themselvesfreely. For hunting as "making love to the animal" among modern primitives, seeG.
African hunters fear that the dying animal's revenge could affect their masculinity-they cover their genitals and perceivethe symbolic castrationin initiation as an anticipatory sacrifice to their prey: L. Ethnographie z fi , roo. When leaving office, the Boeotianpolemarchswere said wife of Ares. Thus, whaiwould otherwise have ended in death becamethe start of a happy marriage.
It is the ambivalencein the confrontationbetweenwarrior and virgin that makes both pictorial and narrative accountsso thrilling. In a si-ila. Such prohibitions correspondto the pattern at the beginning and the act of killing is sexthe end oi sacrificialritual. Preciselybecause is frequently a Part of preparing for ually charged, sexualabstinence TForexample,Men. Adonia ; Epif. Tauropolia ' 8Xen. Myths frequently tell of shocking exceptions:Atalanta with Melanion, Apollod. The backgroundis Poseidonand Aigeus in the sanctuaryof Athena, Hyg. Schmdkel,"Heilige Hochzeit und S. Morgenlandes Fiohes Lied," Abh.
And yet, Aphrodite triumphs in his fall, and her temple In standsbesidehis sanctuaryand grave. Beforean agon, which was itself also a sacrificial festival, athleteshad to go on a vegetariandiet and abstainfrom sex; victory and sacrificeat the altar were frequently followed, according to mythic fantasy,by a wedding festival. And just as the realm of the extraordinary-the experience of hunting, sacrifice,and death-is sexualized,so the everyday order is desexualizedbythe tool of civilization, that is, by ritual.
In all human societies,even among "primitives," there is some kind of sexualtabu, though observers foreign culturesmay at first notice of only the violation of tabus that they share. Above all, the prohibition againstincest is universally recognizedby mankind and is the basis t'Paus. Barret,Euripides W. For Hippolytus as a vegetarianand Orphic see Eur. Barret ad loc. Aberglaubens , dt lY The necessary break between the hunter and the alluring woman is alio manifested through the potiphar motif in the myth of Peleus Hes.
Partheniosro; "Plut. For sexualabstinencebeforewar seeI Sam. Smith r89g. A, Schol. Mockery plays a specialrole here. Man cannot afford to exposehimsocietyas out of control and helpless,"the beast self in an aggressive sexualacwith two biiks. Of course,this order will be violated again and again, only to be reinstituted. The older generationdies out and the younger one takes an its place. Here, too, sacrificialritual is the meansof reestablishing order of the extraordinary.
Even marriage, as initiation, is the product of sacrificial rites. Above all, the bride must suffer the male act. Defloration turns into sacrificemainly becauseof the exclusivelyhuman phenomenon of sheddingblood in first intercourse. The bride's alienationand anxiety can be easedthrough temporary ritual substitutes. In Rome, for example,a spear was used to part the bride's hair, a spear that had dripped with blood and had calleda rpor6 ,oca, killed men.
Mead, lnternat. SocialSciences 0S68 , rr5-zz with lit. Reparationsfollowed the wedding "sacrifice,"just as they db in After the fact, the husbandbrought gifts and started a normal sacrifice. The rituals do not mitigate the transition; rather, they stressit by creatinginhibitions and guilt. Before completion, she was seized by Hades , the god of the underworld , who took her to his underworld kingdom.
Distraught, Demeter searched high and low for her daughter. Because of her distress, and in an effort to coerce Zeus to allow the return of her daughter, she caused a terrible drought in which the people suffered and starved, depriving the gods of sacrifice and worship.
Kleine Schriften: No. 3 : Mystica, Orphica, Pythagorica
As a result, Zeus relented and allowed Persephone to return to her mother. According to the myth, during her search Demeter traveled long distances and had many minor adventures along the way. In one she taught the secrets of agriculture to Triptolemus. Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone.
However, it was a rule of the Fates that whoever consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Before Persephone was released to Hermes, who had been sent to retrieve her, Hades tricked her into eating pomegranate seeds, either six or four according to the telling which forced her to return to the underworld for some months each year. She was obliged to remain with Hades for six or four months one month per seed and lived above ground with her mother for the rest of the year. This left a long period of time when Demeter was unhappy due to Persephone's absence, neglecting to cultivate the earth.
When Persephone returned to the surface, Demeter became joyful and cared for the earth again. If one supposes that Persephone stayed with Hades for four months and Demeter eight months, corresponding to eight months of growth and abundance to be followed by four months of no productivity,  the parallel with the Mediterranean climate of ancient Greece can be seen. The four months during which Persephone is with Hades correspond to the dry Greek summer, a period during which plants are threatened with drought. This reading of the ritual, however, does not square with the central foundation document of the mystery, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter line , where Persephone is explicitly said to return in the spring of the year, not the fall: "This was the day [of Persephone's return], at the very beginning of bountiful springtime.
Her rebirth is symbolic of the rebirth of all plant life and the symbol of eternity of life that flows from the generations that spring from each other. The Eleusinian Mysteries are believed to be of considerable antiquity. Some findings in the temple Eleusinion in Attica suggest that their basis was an old agrarian cult. In the Homeric Hymn is mentioned the palace of the king Keleos. One line of thought by modern scholars has been that the Mysteries were intended "to elevate man above the human sphere into the divine and to assure his redemption by making him a god and so conferring immortality upon him".
Such cults include the mysteries of Isis and Osiris in Egypt, the Adoniac of Syrian cults, the Persian mysteries, and the Phrygian Cabeirian mysteries. Some scholars argued that the Eleusinian cult was a continuation of a Minoan cult,  and that Demeter was a poppy goddess who brought the poppy from Crete to Eleusis. The megaron of Despoina at Lycosura is quite similar with the Telesterion of Eleusis,  and Demeter is united with the god Poseidon , bearing a daughter, the unnamable Despoina the mistress. At Eleusis inscriptions refer to "the Goddesses" accompanied by the agricultural god Triptolemos probably son of Ge and Oceanus ,  and "the God and the Goddess" Persephone and Plouton accompanied by Eubuleus who probably led the way back from the underworld.
HENRICHS, Albert Maximinus
The main theme was the ascent of Persephone and the reunion with her mother Demeter. The people looking both to the sky and the earth shouted in a magical rhyme "rain and conceive". In a ritual, a child was initiated from the hearth the divine fire. The name pais child appears in the Mycenean inscriptions,  It was the ritual of the "divine child" who originally was Ploutos.
In the Homeric hymn the ritual is connected with the myth of the agricultural god Triptolemos. The idea of immortality didn't exist in the mysteries at the beginning, but the initiated believed that they would have a better fate in the underworld. Death remained a reality, but at the same time a new beginning like the plant which grows from the buried seed. An armless and legless deity grows out of the ground, and her head turns to a large flower. According to Mylonas , the lesser mysteries were held "as a rule once a year in the early spring in the month of flowers, the Anthesterion ," while "the Greater Mysteries were held once a year and every fourth year they were celebrated with special splendor in what was known as the penteteris.
The initiates were not even admitted to the epopteia [Greater Mysteries] in the same year, but only in September of the following year. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, King Celeus is said to have been one of the first people to learn the secret rites and mysteries of her cult.
He was also one of her original priests, along with Diocles , Eumolpos , Polyxeinus and Triptolemus , Celeus' son, who had supposedly learned agriculture from Demeter. Under Peisistratos of Athens, the Eleusinian Mysteries became pan-Hellenic , and pilgrims flocked from Greece and beyond to participate. Around BC, the state took over control of the Mysteries; they were controlled by two families, the Eumolpidae and the Kerykes. This led to a vast increase in the number of initiates. The only requirements for membership were freedom from "blood guilt" [ citation needed ] , meaning never having committed murder, and not being a "barbarian" being unable to speak Greek.
Men, women and even slaves were allowed initiation. Among the participants were probably also influential personalities such as Sokrates , Plato , Aristotle , Sophocles , Plutarch and Cicero. The outline below is only a capsule summary; much of the concrete information about the Eleusinian Mysteries was never written down. For example, only initiates knew what the kiste , a sacred chest, and the calathus , a lidded basket, contained.
Hippolytus of Rome , one of the Church Fathers writing in the early 3rd century AD, discloses in Refutation of All Heresies that "the Athenians, while initiating people into the Eleusinian rites, likewise display to those who are being admitted to the highest grade at these mysteries, the mighty, and marvellous, and most perfect secret suitable for one initiated into the highest mystic truths: an ear of grain in silence reaped.
There were two Eleusinian Mysteries, the Greater and the Lesser. According to Thomas Taylor , "the dramatic shows of the Lesser Mysteries occultly signified the miseries of the soul while in subjection to the body, so those of the Greater obscurely intimated, by mystic and splendid visions, the felicity of the soul both here and hereafter, when purified from the defilements of a material nature and constantly elevated to the realities of intellectual [spiritual] vision.
The Lesser Mysteries took place in the month of Anthesteria under the direction of Athens' archon basileus. In order to qualify for initiation, participants would sacrifice a piglet to Demeter and Persephone, and then ritually purify themselves in the river Illisos. Upon completion of the Lesser Mysteries, participants were deemed mystai "initiates" worthy of witnessing the Greater Mysteries. The Greater Mysteries took place in Boedromion — the third month of the Attic calendar , falling in late summer around September — and lasted ten days.
The first act on the 14th of Boedromion was the bringing of the sacred objects from Eleusis to the Eleusinion , a temple at the base of the Acropolis of Athens. The "Seawards initiates" halade mystai began in Athens on 16th Boedromion with the celebrants washing themselves in the sea at Phaleron. On the 17th, the participants began the Epidauria, a festival for Asklepios named after his main sanctuary at Epidauros.
At a certain spot along the way, they shouted obscenities in commemoration of Iambe or Baubo , an old woman who, by cracking dirty jokes, had made Demeter smile as she mourned the loss of her daughter. Upon reaching Eleusis, there was an all-night vigil pannychis according to Mylonas  and Kerenyi. At some point, initiates had a special drink of barley and pennyroyal , called kykeon , which has led to speculation about its chemicals perhaps having psychotropic effects. On the 20th and 21st of Boedromion, initiates entered a great hall called Telesterion ; in the center stood the Anaktoron "palace" , which only the hierophants could enter, where sacred objects were stored.
Before mystai could enter the Telesterion, they would recite, "I have fasted, I have drunk the kykeon , I have taken from the kiste "box" and after working it have put it back in the calathus "open basket". Combined these three elements were known as the aporrheta "unrepeatables" ; the penalty for divulging them was death. Athenagoras of Athens , Cicero , and other ancient writers cite that it was for this crime among others that Diagoras was condemned to death in Athens;   the tragic playwright Aeschylus was allegedly tried for revealing secrets of the Mysteries in some of his plays, but was acquitted.
Some hold that the priests were the ones to reveal the visions of the holy night, consisting of a fire that represented the possibility of life after death, and various sacred objects. Others hold this explanation to be insufficient to account for the power and longevity of the Mysteries, and that the experiences must have been internal and mediated by a powerful psychoactive ingredient contained in the kykeon drink.
See " entheogenic theories " below. Following this section of the Mysteries was the Pannychis, an all-night feast  accompanied by dancing and merriment. The dances took place in the Rharian Field , rumored to be the first spot where grain grew.