Humour, as a mirror of society, invites us to think and each cartoon is a reflection exercise. Participating as international jury member at the World Press Cartoon, the largest and most important event dedicated to press cartoons, has been a big responsibility, a hard working and difficult task, and also an unforgettable experience that has allowed me to fill my soul with imagination and poetry, and confirm what I have always thought: good cartoons are a social counterweight to power in all its manifestations.
The Grand Prize awarded to Greek cartoonist Michael Kountouris is a symbol of the crisis ravaging in Europe and of the inability of its leaders, rather more concerned about the banks and large corporations than saving people. Imperfections that do exist and will always exist in the world ensure work for cartoonists, and the World Press Cartoon will handle the rewarding of the most significant. Hail the cartoonists and the World Press Cartoon! Like travelling through the time. Evaluate the works from Sintra World Press Cartoon is like travelling through the time.
For three days, you look back at all the key people and main events of the past year. But you don't leave Sintra with a confused mind because the huge talent of Graphic Humour is the capability to write history in a comical but clear way. The facts and the opinions of the authors travel fast through pencils, brushes and colours. And while entertaining, they help people reflect. It is a great art that is supported and nourished here and a merit the organizers of this event have to be thanked for. I think that the jury has been able to work well.
Rules and evaluation criteria were clear: the combination of graphic quality, message clearness and, obviously sense of humour. Less obvious was the identification of the winners because works short-listed were all excellent. I heartily thank the organization committee because, to be here, for me has meant a lot; an honour, a privilege, an occasion to discuss, to share views, and above all a great pleasure.
Marilena Nardi was born in in Chiampo, near Vicenza Italy. After getting a degree in Art in and in Sculpture in , she started teaching. Attracted also by humour graphic art, Nardi has participated in hundreds of exhibitions of cartoon and illustration in Italy and around the world. She has been awarded a large number of prizes. The path to an agreement about the end result. In Sintra, just before the first jury meeting, I contemplated for a moment in front of the bronze sculpture depicting Olga Cadaval, who gave her name to the large, beautiful building, where the restoration of the exhibition halls was going on.
I tried to read her face. The Marchioness looked both gentle and stern. Well, then it may be so! The formal procedure for jury was completely straightforward. It was nice to feel the colleagues concentration and focusing on the procedure. I learned a lot from the argumentation from the members of the jury. It was so objective and professional, leaving the prestige total aside. Yet, when I look back, it feels a bit mysterious that the jury, despite the differences after the initial choice, without real conflicts, reached such an agreement about the end result. Perhaps there is something for politicians to get to Sintra and study?
Riber Hansson, Riber for art signature, changed profession at the age of 40 from engineer to newspaper artist.
His works also appear regularly in several international media and many of his works have been on show in exhibitions. Selected drawings are collected in books. Riber had 14 one-man exhibitions and has contributed to more than 40 collective ones. Three books with his own editorial cartoons and other five in co-authorship. The list could be extended by his book-covers and illustrations for more than 20 books for children and adults. A unique form of expression understood in any place, anywhere. It has been a huge honour to have received the invitation to join the jury of the World Press Cartoon, as the Saloon is highly respected worldwide.
The experience of being a part of this jury was unique, since we are able work with some of the most recognized illustration and cartoon professionals, exchanging experiences in a warm and welcoming environment. It is extremely interesting to see that all the assessed works are of the highest level, thus showing how the work of humour has been done in a serious and professional way.
Another curious thing is seeing how humour and cartoons are universal languages: although the works have been sent from the widest variety of countries all over the world, they use a unique form of expression, understood anywhere and in any language. Ricardo Antunes was born in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in Since , he has been working as an illustrator, graphic designer and publisher, always in his own studio.
Besides illustration, he is also devoted to the arts, particularly to watercolours, and has taken part in several exhibitions. For three days, we have assessed cartoons as a result of a first short list selection from amongst the nearly we had received. We have socialised, discussed, argued fiercely over our favourite drawings, voted again and again I did enjoy being a member of the jury for the World Press Cartoon, because of I have met very nice people and I have seen many funny, beautiful and genial drawings.
It is a difficult choice because many are very good, others are good, some others a little less good and a few others are almost good. What about bad ones? There are a few but, then, that also happens in the best families. Therefore, I am very proud to have played a part in the World Press Cartoon, and I got a pin that I have already attached to my jacket lapel Fernando Puig Rosado was born on the 1st April So did the Spanish Republic on 14 April.
Fernando Puig Rosado started drawing when he was 3 years-old a field nature scene. Since then he has not stopped: at school, he was expelled because of a drawing; at college, he was expelled because of several of his drawings; at University Medical Faculty , he was expelled because of a comic strip; at army service, he was punished because of a caricature he had drawn of a captain; while in Spain, he had to seek exile abroad because of a caricature of Franco And in spite of all this, he has not understood that drawing brings bad fortune and goes on and on drawing, even at his already advanced age.
My many sincere thanks to the WPC organisers for: 1 Having the good taste to invite me to join the jury; 2 Giving us such a warm welcome; 3 Speaking French a rare quality that should be shared by all human beings ; 4 Their kindness and patience needed to tolerate our hesitations ; 5 The omnipresence of laughter and smiles as required by cartoons , but also within the most rigorous respect for the contest regulations.
I do thank them also for having definitely convinced me through the quality and intelligence of the works on display, that humour drawings — above all, the ones with no words — are indeed the most incisive universal means of philosophic-political criticism as well as of meditation about how a better world can be built. And, lastly, for having confirmed that most of these drawings would — and, one day, will — have their place in a museum on par with some of the most classic works in art history, no doubt!
All of this leaves us at least with the expectation of the necessary creation of a particular museum for Press Drawings, something that would allow these truly masterpieces will not fall into oblivion. This word is not an exaggeration. For three days, we deliberated on many excellent works of art, and at times it was very difficult to choose one over another. Viewing the various types of expression spread out on three or four long tables inspired me — not only to try new things and strive to be better at my own work — but I was inspired by the passion of the individual artists whose work was laid out in front of me.
This is an art form that I adore, and am always happy when in the presence artwork that is practiced well. And I love seeing how different artists from different countries view the events that have transpired over the past year. As I am American, for me to see this kind of international artwork I need to seek it out — it is not as readily available in the US, which I feel is very unfortunate. Our deliberations were for the most part quite smooth.
When we disagreed, we did so passionately but always with an attentive ear to our fellow jurors. And I felt this was reciprocal among the members of the jury. I believe World Press Cartoon is an important organization because it brings to light the vitality and significance of an art that may be in danger of disappearing. I sincerely hope not. Art that expresses opinion, skill, analysis and passion, and does so in an instant, is art that desperately needs to be recognized and allowed to flourish.
When she first began selling to The New Yorker in , she was the youngest and one of only three cartoonists who were women. She conceived of and is editor for World Ink, a site of international cartoons from contributors around the globe on dscriber. She is a charter member of an international project, Cartooning for Peace, helping to promote understanding around the world through humor.
Her website is lizadonnelly. She lives in New York. After having participated several times and being selected and published several times in the catalogue, I was invited to be a member of the jury, so to have a look in the kitchen of Sintra, the World Press Cartoon. That means: excellent catalogue, great prize money, great trophies, excellent and very heavy catalogue, invitation and stay for winners. Well… What else does a cartoonist want to be respected?! This year, once again, a worldwide collection was presented to the 5 jury members — high quality, difficult to make a choice.
Finally, the international jury Spain, France, USA, Holland and Portugal has chosen the very best, all printed in this impressive catalogue. This meeting of the jury members took 3 days. Yes, humour is a serious business! The Dutch artist Peter Nieuwendijk born in Amsterdam, is an autodidact and exhibits since His work is in possession of private collectors, museums, galleries and various art promotion institutes. As cartoonist he participated in more than 50 different cartoon festivals all over.
His cartoon works were times selected for international festival-catalogues and he is both an author and composer of 29 cartoon books, 6 Art books and 3 Poetry books.
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Peter Nieuwendijk organized or directed 21 cartoon festivals in Holland and has been invited more than 50 times as jury-member around the world. The organization of the WPC is excellent. The regulation is strict and the quality of competition excellent. The jury decisions were made without quarrel. From time to time, however, there was some intense debate among the jury members, since each one aimed to promote the drawings they considered better.
We were five at judging, in Sintra. Totally different one from the others, as well for culture, as for the artistic experience. From the very beginning it appeared that we were like living in the antipodes. Discussions and attempts to convince. For some, also the mood to be convinced. But each juror already spotted his favourites, the works that did talk more to him.
The same works, however, would remain mute for one or more of the jury members. At that point, someone simply must give up! On the artistic skills we all agreed: an author that participates to an artistic competition of this level should be superior at the techniques and, beyond that, be creative. The style and the aesthetic approach, instead, are personal criteria.
And, at the end, it was difficult for me to accept the elimination of some works and the promotion of others. I believe that, as it frequently happens, the winners were the works that succeeded to establish a democrat compromise among the jury members. And it is quite fair that the final result is this one. We had three laborious days in Sintra. The responsibility of the task hit me hard. I am more used to be judged, not to judge. The esteem and the invitation from Antonio are a great honour. Finally, I must declare that the brilliance of Ralph Steadman struck down me deeply.
Those who still consider the graphic humour a smaller art, certainly did not see enough. Thanks to all. Alessandro Gatto. What a great honour to have been invited as a judge for the World Press Cartoon competition! It was fascinating to see the various ideas and aesthetics from the many different countries represented in the competition, particularly the work that was a product of some of the more challenging political climates.
Some themes were expressed a number of different ways. For example we saw a few images each of Julian Assange and Wikileaks, the paedophilia rampant in the Catholic church and also the religious subjugation of women in some cultures. Ultimately the choices we made were difficult. How does one judge one piece of art to be better than another? We discussed the clarity of the idea, the merit of the drawing or computer rendering and the final deliverance of the idea as an image. Ultimately I think we democratically chose some very good representations of what happened in the world in Anita Kunz.
From to she was one of two artists chosen by Rolling Stone magazine to produce a monthly illustrated History of Rock 'n Roll end paper. She has also illustrated more than fifty book jacket covers. Anita frequently teaches workshops and lectures at universities and institutions internationally including the Smithsonian and the Corcoran in Washington DC. Anita Kunz has been named one of the fifty most influential women in Canada by the National Post newspaper.
She has recently been appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest civilian honour, and has received an honorary doctorate from the Ontario College of Art and Design in Toronto. Passa a colaborar regularmente na revista Vif, em Janeiro de , depois no Plus Magazine. The moment the ultimate winner had been chosen, my heart went out to all the other contestants and doubt filled my mind.
For three days the jury had been allowed to play God. It is a difficult job making choices. The lingering doubt is back and although we attempted to be fair and we have not cheated, we may all be wrong. Life is about making choices and we are used to that because most of the time it is unofficial, but when the intention of choice is official the experience takes on a gravity of its own.
One person only will be incredibly happy and richer by 20, Euros after our deliberations. Only one will receive this Grand Prix, the overall winner! First we judged the Caricature Category. Some of these entries were later assigned to the Editorial Cartoon section because they had some social or political element. Clumsy ability was easily recognized and often the attempt was removed altogether from the contest. Disqualification was also visited upon those who did not supply evidence of publication or lack of an original. In these days of computer generated imagery, the original would have been created inside the computer and only saw the light of day as a printout.
Therefore I missed the tactile experience of an actual original and I wonder if computer generated art should be in its own category altogether. Unfortunately, it would appear that, today, most imagery is processed through electronic digits. Although I hope not, the days of the original image exhibition may be numbered.
Though I use a computer myself I try to resist the temptation of using it to create my own work. I must see wet ink on real paper or the experience is merely illusory. Ralph Steadman was born in He started as a cartoonist and through the years diversified into many fields of creativity. With American writer Hunter S. He is also a printmaker. His prints include a series of etchings on writers from William Shakespeare to William Burroughs.
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In he wrote the libretto for an eco-oratorio called "Plague and the Moonflower" which has been performed in five cathedrals in the UK and was the subject of a BBC 2 film in He has traveled the world's vineyards and distilleries for Oddbins, which culminated in his two prize-winning books, "The Grapes of Ralph" and "Still Life With Bottle".
He has an Honorary D. Litt from the University of Kent. By changing all members of the jury every year — so as to avoid establishing a single look on the works from different editions — we take on a measured risk given the quality of the elements that have made up our juries. The cumulative experience allows us to conduct the work up and until the quality demand target that we aim at, zigzagging and overtaking the obstacles that inevitably arise from members interaction who, in their majority, do not know each other personally.
Five sensibilities, five cultures, five origins and one common taste: the press graphic humour. In this edition, the jury one Colombian, one Frenchman, one Canadian, one Israeli and the resident Portuguese has once again produced a session of great vitality and plural opinion. Following several hours of analysis, hesitations, persuasion campaigns, discussions, lots of humour and regulations voting, white smoke has, at last, emerged signalling the winners.
By the end of the same year he began to work for the weekly Expresso where he still continues to publish his works. He has been a jury member for cartoons competitions in Portugal, Brazil and Greece. Antonio works also on Graphic Design, Sculpture and Numismatics. For three days, taking part in the jury has been an interesting experience through rigorous and methodical selection work, we have assessed a wide range of works from all the corners of the globe, all of them of the highest standards. Much more difficult than selecting the winning works, it has been leaving out so many works of the highest quality as this contest gathers the very best of press humourists.
Elena Maria Ospina, Colombian painter, illustrator and caricaturist has began her work as illustrator for the daily El Espectador. She has worked for 20 years on creating and illustrating innumerable editorial and publicity projects in America and Spain. She has been awarded several international and national contest prizes and honourable mentions in graphic humour and illustration.
At artistic level, she has taken part in individual and collective exhibitions and part of her work is published in books, newspapers and magazines. Presently, she lives in Madrid and develops illustration projects for Spain and Latin America. Sometimes, a passion in itself. We assemble for three days of work, debate and voting. In conformity with this object, the author relates the history of the Institute, endeavours to prove its utility, takes that opportunity of expressing his opinion on the object of poetry in general, and concludes with laying down the principles of Castilian prosody.
The whole work probably exiatt in mannscript in Spanish libraries. The difference between science and art was not more clearly per- ceived by the Marquis of Villena than by the other poets and men of learning of his age; and to dis- tinguish the Castilian forms of romantic poetry from the Limosin, did not appear to him necessary. Thus, while his labours contributed to heighten the respect in which poetiy and liberal pursuits were held, they had only an indirect influence on the improvement of Castilian poetry. After the death of the Marquis of Villena, his pupil, Don Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, Marquis of Santa Juliana, or Santillana, appears at the head of the brilliant society of poets who adorned the court of John Whenever a Marquis of SantQlana is mentioned in the history of Spanish literature, without any more particular description, it is thifi nobleman that is meant.
He was bom in thie year His elevated rank and great fortune, joined to the military and political talents by which he was distinguished from youth upwards, placed him in a situatito in which he was called upon to perform a principal part among the nobles of Castile. He died in the year Two poems, in which he has best succeeded in realizing these objects, are also the most cdebrated of his works.
On this poem, which does not discover much ingenuity of invention, the Marquis of Santillana probably expended all his stock of learning. He cites as many deities and ancient authors, as the nature of his work will permit him to notice. Perdimos a Homero que mucho honorana este sacro monte do nos habitamos perdimos a Ovidio el que coronamos del arbol laureo que muchos amava Perdimos Horacio que nos invocava en todos exordios de su poesia assi disminuye la nuestra valia que autiguos tiempos tanto prosperava.
It must be regarded as the earliest didactic poem in the Spanish language, unless that title be given to any series of moral maxims in verse. Biblioteca de mortal cantar, fuente meliflua de magna eloquencia, infunde tu grande y sacra prudencia en mi, porque yo pueda tu planto esplicar. A tiempo a la hora suso memorado, assi como nino que sacan de cuna, no se falsamente, o si por fortuna, me vi todo solo al pie de un collado, Salvatico espesso lexano a poblado agreste desierto y tan espantable, que temo verguenza, no siendo culpable, quando por extenso lo aure recontado.
No vi la carrera de gentes cnrsada, ni rastro exercido por do me guiasse. Assi como sombra o sueno son nuestros dias contados : — Y si fueron prorogados por sus lagrimas alganos desto no vemos ningunos por nuestros negros pecados. Abrid abrid vuestros ojos, gentios, mirad a mi, quanto vistes, qnanto vi, fantasmas fueron y antojos. Con trabajos con enojos iisurpe tal seiioria, que si foe no era mia mas endevidos despojots. Agora pues ved aqui, quanto valen mis riquezas tierras villas fortolezas tras qUien mi tiempo perdi. In this way the Gozate is repeated through a series of stanzas.
The greater part deserve to be better known, but many of them are unintelligible to foreigners. He could scarcely have imbibed this opinion from Dante. In Spain, as well as in Italy and France, it seems to have issued forth from the monkish cells, when endeavours were made to unite poetry with phi- losophy, and to make Uie poetic art the symbol of knowledge, in order to ensure to it estimation among the learned. But he imagined he was laying down a principle which would ennoble it, when, according to his theory, he held allegory to be indis- pensable.
Without scruple, therefore, he confounded the Castilian and Limosin poetry together in one mass. Respecting the origin of the former, he entered into no investigation. Juan de Mena, who is by some writers, styled the Spanish Ennius, ranks, as a poet, in a somewhat higher scale than the Marquis of Santillana, though he was less favoured by fortune, and was not dis- tinguished by so many various merits as tlie latter.
He was bom in Cordova, about the year His own incKnation, however, prompted Mm to devote himself to phi- losophy, and particularly to the study of ancient literature and history. From Cordova he went to the University of Salamanca. But in order more nearly to approach the source of ancient literature, he under- took a journey to Rome, where he isealously prosecuted his studies.
Enriched with knowledge, he returned to his native country, and immediately attracted the notice of the Marquis of Santillana, and shortly after of king John. Both received him into their literary circles with distinguished approbation. The Marquis of Santillana attached himself with more friendship to Juan de Mena than to any other poet who enjoyed the favour of the king, although their pditical opinions did not always coincide.
The king nominated him one of the historiographers, who, according to the arrangement which had subsisted since the time of Alphonso X. Juan de Mena lived in high favour at the court of John II. He died in , at Guadalaxara, in New Castile, being then about forty-five years of age. The Marquis of San- tillana erected a monument to his memory. But no Italian poet, save Dante, appears to have produced any remarkable impression on him. Sonnets were still in favour throughout the whole of Italy, but Juan de Mena continued faith- ful to the old forms of the Castilian poetry, perhaps from a feeling of national pride.
He certainly did not imitate the sonnet; and even from Dante himself, he copied neither metrical form nor style. The poem itself was probably too long to be included in that collection. But with all its merits, which have been highly extdkd by some authors, and which are certainly by no means trivial, it can only be regarded as a mere specimen of gothic art.
His intention was, to embrace every age, to immortalize great virtues, to stigmatize with oppro- brium great vices, and to represent in striking colours the irresistible power of destiny. The centre wheel turns them round. While the wheel of the present is revolving with all the existing human race, it is controlled astrcdogicallj in its motion by the seven orders or circles of the seven planets under the influence of which men are bom. Whether or not these circles are perceptible onthe wliecl itself, is not clearly stated.
Que ante su gesto es loco quien osa Otras beldades loar de mayores. This grotesque composition is interspersed with individual passages of great interest and beauty, though none of the traits call to mind similar traits in Dante. The most glowing passages of the Ijnric, didactic, and narrative class, are those in which Juan de Mena gives utterance to the language of Spanish patriotism. Que los Africanos, los hechos del Cid? Ni que feroces menos en la lid Entrassen los nuestros que los Agenores? Micntra morian y mientra matavan De parle del ag'oa ya creceii las oiul.
Las aguas crescidas les ya defeodiau Tornar a las fastas que denlro dexavan. King John, as may naturally be sup- posed, is in Juan de Mena's Labyrinth complimented on every suitable occasion. A genealogy of the kings of Spain forms the conclusion of the poem ; and thus were the Spaniards made to feel a kind of national interest for the. Miralo, miralo en platica alguna, Con ojos humildes, no tanto feroces! They are con- tained in the Cancumero general. In the course of tiuB vroik further notice will be taken of these songs, together with other ama- tory poems of the same period.
Del hombre se halla ser gran enemigo, porque lo hiere do nunca sospecha, y donde mas plaze menos aprovecha tanta pon9ona derrama consign. To collect biographical notices of the other poets and writers of verse who enjoyed the favour of king John II. As to poetic value, the writings of aU those authors are in the main the same; and it may therefore be presumed that it will prove more instructive to consider works so nearly related to each other, under the comprehensive view of general criticism.
A few notices, however, of men worthy of more particular remembrance, may precede the critical comparison of their works. Que entre voluntad se halla Y Razon, que nos accusa. As a poet, he studied to combine the peculiar tone of moral and spiritual poetry with that of the old ro- mances. His Representation of the Four Cardinal Virtues, dedicated to the Marquis of Santillana, which consists of sixty-four strophes or couplets, is versified in redondillas, as are also his Ave Maria, his Pater" nosteir, and his other spiritual songs.
Rodriguez del Padron seems likewise to have been held in some esteem at the court of John II. His family name is not known, and as little are the dates of his birth and death, but he is named after the place of his nativity, the little town El Padron in Galicia. It is remarkable that in his poetry he dropped his Gralician idiom and adopted the Castilian. Besides the reputation he obtained by his poetic productions, which are chiefly love songs, he is celebrated for his fiiendship with the Galician poet Macias, who will be further mentioned in the history of Portuguese poetry.
He became a monk, and terminated his life in that convent. Alonzo de Santa Maria, called also Alonzo de Car- tagena, wrote love songs, probably in his youth, and then devoted himself to spiritual affairs. He died Archbishop of Burgos, in the year Both owed the consideration they enjoyed no less to their poetical works than to their high and pure Castilian descent. The Bachellor de la Torre, of whom nothing further is known than what his own songs express, lived at the same period.
Between the works of the above poets, all of whidi are to be found in the Cancumero general, and the other poems contained in the same collection, whether their authors lived in the first or the second half of the fifteenth century, there is a very striking resemblance. No other remains of Spanish poetry, belonging to the same age, are sufiSiciently important to be brought into comparison with this national treasure. Of the Ramancero general some further ac- count must hereafter be given. Alphonso de Baena, who himself wrote in verse, jxepared a cdlectimi of old lyric pieces, under the title of Cancumero de Poetas Amtiguos.
This collection, though still preserved in the library of the Escurial, was never printed;! It is not very probable that Alphonso de Baena's collec- tion was the origin of that which subsequently appeared under the title of the CancUmero general. Of this celebrated collection it is merely known that it was originally produced by Fernando del Castillo, at the commencement of the sixteenth century, and within a short period frequently augmented and reprinted.
Fer- nando del Castillo began his collection with the poets of the age of John II.
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He did not, however, take the trouble to carry on the series in chronological order through the jfifteenth century. He placesr the sjHritual poems before the rest. He then gives the works, of several poets of the reign of John II. After, however, the works are thus apparently given, other poems follow under particular heads, partly by the same and partly by diiferent authors, whose names are sometimes mentioned and sometimes not: there are also a few Italian sonnets, and some coplas in" the Valencian language.
In proportion as the coUection extended, the additions were always inserted at the end of the book. In the oldest editions the number of poets mentioned amounts to one hundred and thirty- six. The Spiritual Songs, Obras de DeweianJ at the head of the collection, probably will not fulfil the expec- tations which may be formed respecting them. It is natural to presume that in a nation so poetically in- clined, and in an age when, for the most part, nature was followed without reference to the rules of art, the poets could not fail to' view Christianity on, its poetic side.
But the scholastic forms of the existing theology crushed the genius of poetry; and the unpoetic side of Christianity, because it was the most learned, was alone deemed worthy the strains of the Spanish poets of the fifteenth century. They likewise seldom ventured to give scope to the fancy in devotional verses, because the nation was accustomed to the most implicit faith in every dogma of the church, and the recognition of the sacredness of literal interpretation was identified with orthodoxy, long before the terrors of the inquisition and its burning piles were known.
This rigid orthodoxy of the Spanish christians was a consequence of their war of five hundred years duration with the Moors. The reader will have enongfa in the first stanza: — Enantes, que cnlpa fuesso cansada,. Tu, Virgen benigna, ya y ves delante. Tan lexoB del crimen y del semejante. Que los mareantes guia. Oomez Manrique with commendable frankness addressed a didactic poem on the Duties of Sovereigns Regimiento de Prinapes in redondillas, to Queen Isabella and her husband Ferdinand of Arragon ; but however valuable the truths which he wished to impart to the royal pair, he could only express them in versified prose.
Si esto contradiran Algunos con ambicion, Testigos se les daran. Uno sera Roboanj Hijo del rey Solomon, t A new edition of Jorge Manrique's Coplas, with glosses or poetic paraphrases by various authors, appeared at Madrid in The following are the two first strophes, and the rhythmic structure of the rest is not less beautiful. Recuerde el alma dormida, avive el seso y despierte contemplando come se pasa la vida, come se viene la muerte tan callando : - quan presto se va el placer, como despues de acordado da dolor, como a nuestro parescer qualquiera tiempo pasado fue mejor.
To extend and spin out a theme as long as possible, though only to seize a new modification of the old ideas or phrases, was, in their opinion, essential to the truth and sincerity of their poetic effusions of the heart. From the desire perhaps of relieving their monotony, by some sort of variety the authors have indulged in even more witticisms and plays of words than the Italians, but they also sought to infuse a more emphatic spirit into their compositions than the latter.
Or:— Cuydar me hace cuydado Lo que cuydar no devria, Y cuydando en lo passado Por mi no passa alegria. Such plays of words are to be found throughout the whole Cancionero. Since the age of Petrdrch, this sjorit had appeared in dassicdi perfection iti Italy. The contmually recurring picture of the contest between reason and passion is a peculiar characteristic of these songs. The rigidly moral Spaniard was, however, anxious to be wise even in the midst of his foUy. But this obtrusion of wisdom in its improper place, frequently gives an unpoetic harshness to the lyric poetry of Spain, in spite of all the softness of its melody.
It would be no un- profitable or useless task to pursue this comparison stiU further. But the limited extent of this work can afford space for only a few notices and examples. How successful the Spanish poets of the fifteenth century were in gay and graceful love songs, when guided only by their own feelings, is manifest from some of the compositions of Juan de Mena; but the SPANISH I. Ill charm vanisfaes the instant the poet begins to display his skill and erudition. Muy mas dara que la lana sola una en el mundo tos nacistes, tan genttl, que no vecwtes ni tnvistes competidora niagnna, Desde ninez en la cuna cobrastes fama, beldad, con tanta graciosidad, que vos doto la fortuna.
Quanto bien dixo Petrarcha, por Tos ]o prefetizo. Mi vivir lo va Ilorando vuestro mal conocimiento. Assi que por sola vos yo de. Por do mis cuytas agora Yuestras seran desde aqui, pnes por vos a vos perdi, y por T08 a Dioff, senora, y mas a mi. Aso yre triste, que alegre me halle pues tantos peligros me tienen en medio, que llore, que ria, que grite, que calle, ni tengo, ni quiero, ni espero remedio?
He divided this strange kind of will into nine lessons, ledones. The ideas are very extravagant, but the exe- cution is vigorous, and in many parts not unpoetic. Love is here a hell, in which the thoughts bum. Que tn beldad fne qnerer! Mas a ti que a mi me qoiero.
Tu beldad fue mensagero de morir en ta poder. Alii sospiro los dias, qae morir no puede laego alii las lagrimas mias fortalezen mas en faego. But such was not the case. Y pues mi Tentura quiso mis pensamientos tomar 4;iego6, vanos, no quiero otro paraiso, sino mi ahna dexar en ius mtmot. They have always a sententious or an epigramatic turn. The number of lines is generally twelve, which are divided into two parts. The first four lines comprehend the idea on which the song is founded. And this idea is developed or applied in the eight following lines.
The Cancionero general contains one hundred and fifty-six of these little songs, some of which are the best poems in the whole book. For this , advantage they are probably indebted to their con- ventional form, which confined the romantic verbosity within narrow bounds. These little songs were to the Spaniards of the fifteenth century, what the epigram had been to the Greeks, and what the madrigal was to the Italians and French.
Like the latter, they are generally devoted to some theme of gallantry; and though they do not possess so high a poKsh, yet the interest excited by the truth with which they paint the character of the age, and their ingenious simplicity, entitles them to be ranked among the sweetest blossoms of the ancient spirit of romance.
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The idea which forms the subject of the ViUancico, is sometimes contained in two, but more commonly in three lines. The developement, or appli- cation, may be completed in one short stanza, but often extends to several similar stanzas. These stanzas always include seven Unes. It was, perhaps, by way of irony that the name Villancico was originally applied to productions of this kind; for the spiritual mottets, which are sung during high mass on Christmas eve, are also called Villandcos. At least no satisfactory etymology has yet been found for the name. The Candanero general contains fifty-four Villancicos, and among them are some which possess inimitable grace and delicacy.
Que sentistes aquel dia, quando mi senora vistes, que perdistes alegria, y descando despedistes, como a mi nunca bolvistes. The musician sdects as his. A poem of this kind was called a gloss. By this operation the connection of the glossed poem was broken, and the comparison of the poetic glosses to musical variations is therefore not in all respects exactly just.
As a proof of this, we may quote the commencement of a gloss of the RosafretcOf see p. No porque os uviesse errado, con pensamiento de errar, mas si me days por culpado, pues publico mi pecado deveys me de perdonar. Sin vos, y sin Dios y mi. Glosa de Don Jorge Manrique. Assi que triste naci, pues que pudiera olvidaros, yo soy el que por amaros esto desque os conoci sin Dios y sin vos y mi. With the exception of the narrative romances, the Romancero may be considered merely as a continuation of the.
The poetry of the lyric pieces contained in it, which are extremely numerous, is both in spirit and metrical form, precisely the same as that which appears in the Can- cionero, but more polished in manner and language. The title of romance indicates no essential difference. The narrative romances, which occupy the greater portion of the Romancero, have, in some measure, been characterized in this history in treating of the old romances of the same class; for most of them, particu- larly those of the historical kind, differ little from the more ancient.
But a considerable portion of compo- sitions of every class have been contributed to the Romancero by poets of the sixteenth century. The ks. In a history of literature, it therefore becomes necessary to speak of the Romancero as a whole; and for this purpose, the present is perhaps the most convenient opportunity; for, even at the period when this collection was produced, the poets who wrote romances in the old national style, merely improved that style without essentially altering it Among the historical romances, contamed in the Romancero, those in which anecdotes of the Moorish war, or the heroic and gallant adventures of Moorish knights, are poetically treated, seem, for the most part, to belong to the latter half of the fifteenth centuiy.
All these romances relate to the civil wars of Granada, the last Moorish principality in Spain. The civil dis- sensions of Castile retarded for upwards of half a century the conquest of Granada, which was at length effected in the year , by the united power of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Arragon. During this last period of the conflict between the Christians and the Mahometans of Spain, the former became more intimately acquainted with the history of the latter.
As the last blow for the deliverance of the Peninsula was now about to be struck, all that related to the Moors was doubly interesting to the Castilians. It has been several times printed. The edition which I have now before me Lisboa , seems to be one of the latest. On the title page the author styles himself, Ginez Perez de Hita, and on that page also appear the words, Aora nuevamente sacado de un lihro Arabigo, The German cntic Blankenburgh, is of opinion, that there is no more reason for supposing this work to be a translation from the Arabic, than that Don Quixote was derived from a similar source.
But the word sacado on the title page, by no means indicates that it is a translation. The author has evidently derived much of his information, such for instance, as the genealogical register uf the families, from Moorish sources. He has probably availed himself of an Arabic work to write a half true and half fabulous history of Granada, and to intersperse it with favourite romances. From the French words on the margin, it is obvious that the book must have been used in Paris in the seventeenth century, for learning the Spanish language. In the poetry of the age of John II. Many of the most beautiful narrative pieces in the Romancero general are properly pastoral romances.
Mira los hermosos ojos, y el labio en sangre tenido de los cristalinos dientes adornado y ofendido: no se mira el hello rostro, por presuncion que ha tenido, mas porque le mueve a ello el desprecio de su amigo. Hala dexado el cruel, sin averlo merecido. Si el agna de mi alegria enturbia la de mis ojos, y le ofrecen mis despojos al alma en mi fantasia, sospecbas son, que algun dia tiempo y amor desharan. Turbias van las aguas madre, turbias van, mas ellas se aclarardn. Si fatiga el pensamiento, y se enturbia la memoria, juntar la passada gloria con el presente tormento, si esparzidos por el viento mis tristes suspiros van.
Turbias yan las aguas madre turbias yan, mas ellas se aclarardn. Of all the collections, bearing the common title of Bomancero general, only two are quoted by authors; one was edited by Miguel de Madrigal, in the Qae se case on don Pelote con una dama sin dote, Bien pede ser.
Mas que no de algvnos dias por nn pan sos damerias. No puede ser. Que pida a nn galan Minguilla cinco puBlos de servilla. Bien pnede ser.
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No pnede ser. Que la binda en el sermon de niil snspiroe sin son, Bien pvede ser. Mas que no los de a mi cnenta, porque sepan do se assienta, No pnede ser. Que ande la bella casada bien vestida, y mal zelada, Bien pnede ser. Mas que el bueno del marido no sepa quien da el vestido. Those, however, who may think it unimportant to enquire how many of these anonymous poems, which have for ages delighted the Spanish public, were pro- duced in the fifteenth or sixteenth century, and who may merely wish to see a selection of the best Spanish poems in the old national style, have only to turn to the Ramimcero general.
Many of the narrative ro- mances which it contains, vie, in romantic simplicity, with those of apparently older date in other collections, and exceed them in elegance; and still more do a num- ber of the songs in the Ramancero surpass those in the Caricionero general. The preface is subscribed by the bookseller, who seems to have compiled this work himself. The iodos on the title page must not be literally understood. But the Spanish booksellers began at an early period to give boasting tUks to their publications. The poets themselves, it is true, do not seem to have attached much value to fame.
All that now remains to be stated respecting the poetic literature of the Spaniards during the fifteenth century, must be comprehended in a notice of their first essays in dramatic poetry. In lieu of those poetic works which are styled ilra- matic in the true sense of the word, and which after- wards formed the most brilliant portion of Spanish poetry, the Spaniards of the fifteenth centuiy possessed merely spiritual or temporal farces, written in the style which prevailed in the middle , ages, and which can scarcely be said to bdong to literature.
There, as has abeady been observed, the Marquis de Villena devoted his learning and inventive talents to the drama. A singular union of pastoral and satirical poetry first gave birth to a species of dramatic poem in the Castilian language. In the reign of John II. It is impossible to account for the whim which induced him to throw his rhymes into the form of a dialogue, and to select shepherds for his inter- locutors.
The work extends to thirty-two coplas, and critics have sometimes classed it among the eclogues, and sometimes among the first satirical productions of the Spanish poets. This singular composition is usually mentioned under the title of Mingo Rebulgo, from the names of the two shepherds who carry on the dialogue. Supposing pastoral poetry to have been in vogue at that period in Spain, and par- ticularly at the court of John II. This ingenious man who was bom in Sala- manca during the reign of Queen Isabella, though in what year is not precisely known, was equally cele- brated as a poet and musician.
He travelled to Jeru- salem in company with the Marquis de Torifa, and this journey could not fail to store his mind witli many new ideas. He lived for some time at Rome in the quality of chapel-master, or musical director to Pope Leo; who, it is well known, afforded great encourage- ment to dramatic amusements. He converted Virgil's eclogues into romances, in which he displayed singular simplicity, and applies to his patrons, Ferdinand and Isabella, the duke and duchess of Alba, and others, the compliments which Virgil addressed to the emperor Augustus. Accident had introduced into Spain a mixture of pastoral poetry with the drama, and Juan de la Enzina wrote sacred and profane eclogues, in the form of dialogues, which were represented before distinguished audiences on Christmas eve, during the carnival, and on other festivals.
They are, however, entirely lost to literature. One of tiis compositions, styled an echo, or a soug, id which the rhyme ia repeated in the following word, with the effect of an echo, is inserted in the Caucionero general, ns being something peculiar. The old collection, entitled, Candoncro de lodas las obras de Juan del Emina, certainly contains poems far superior to any already mentioned, though perhaps they do not rise abore the poetry of his age. Velasquez quotes an edition pnblisbed in , which Dieze regards as a curiosity.
Indeed one of the greatest literary curio- sities in existence, is an old folio edition, probably the first of the Caneionero of Juan de la Enzina, prinlfd at Seville, in gothic characters, in the year , by two Germans named Pegnitser and Herbst, at the expense of two merchants. The copy to which I have referred, which is probably the only oue in Germany, is alao mentioned in Dieze's supplement to Velasquez; it belongs to the Ducal library at Wolfe nbiittel. Notwithstanding the gothic cha- racters, the print is so clear and neat, that in this respect alone it is highly interesting to bibliographists.
Juan de la Enzina's songs occupy the greater part of the volume. One of hem, namely — an Apology for Women, f Contra lot que dicenmal de MugeretJ is remarkable for poetic truth and pleasing versification. In tliis Apology for the fair sex, the author, among olher things, says: Piadosaa en dolerse De todo ageno dolor. Con muy sana fe y amor. Ellas nos dan ocasion. It was probably commenced in the reign of Ferdinand and Isaljella; though some authors assign this singular production of popular descriptive talent and well meant plainness to the age of John II.
Ellas noR hacen andar Las vestidaras polidas, Los pundonores guardar, Y, por honra procorary Tener en poco las vidas. His imitations of VirgiPs eclogues have the same metrical form as many of his other poems. The first eclogue commences with the following graceful strophe : — Tityro, tu sin cuidado Que te estas so aqueste haya, Bien tendido y rellanado. Ay, carillo! Taues tu tu caramillo. No hay que en cordoja te trayga. His sacred and profane pastoral dramas are merely eclogues in a style similar to the above, only that they are written in the dialogue form, and with remarkable lightness.
The last, which is of the profane class, commences thus : — Gil. Ha, Mingo, que das de atrus? Pasa, pasa, aca delante! A horas que no se espante, Como tu, tu primo Bras. Asmo, que tu pavor has. No estes revellado! DA me a Dios, que estoy asmado. No me mandes entrar mas. Either he or his precursor entitled the work a tragi-comedy.
It consists of twenty-one acts, and consequently its vast length renders it unfit for theatrical representation. This production may be regarded as original in a cer- tain sense, for there existed no work of the same kind which the author could have chosen as his model.
But in a higher and truly critical point of view, it possesses as little originality as real poetic merit. Na- tural description and moral precept seem to have formed the great object of both authors. They both aimed at exhibiting a series of dramatic lessons to warn youth against the seductive arts of base agents employed to pro- mote intrigues. Currency and addition of Tax VAT depend on your shipping address. Premodern military history bibliography new publications, — in A Cumulative Bibliography of Medieval Military History and Technology, Update Author: K.
Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Contact Sales. The collection includes all the 16th century books in the Library of the United Mennonite Congregation in Amsterdam, now housed in the Amsterdam University Library. The Catholic Reformation.
The Catholic Reformation Including French Diocesan Catechisms There is no longer any question today of reducing the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to just the Counter-Reformation. The latter unquestionable existed, but constituted only a chapter - and not the best one - in a very profound transformation of the Catholic Church.