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Not only does Justine fail to get the justice she deserved by doing as Godwin wanted but the rest of the people at the trial, the judges, failed completely in this first duty as well. They did not seek to understand the magnitude of their actions nor did they attempt to be clear in their sentiments. Instead they allowed someone to force her into guilt and did not allow for anything but their decided upon story of events. The judges and all the other people are far guiltier than Justine ever was for their failure to fulfill one of their two duties.

As for the second duty of tranquility once more the ones truly guilty of not fulfilling this duty are the judges and others who deemed Justine guilty. While instead the priest instead forced her into submission with angry words. Had they only fulfilled that duty of tranquility and seen the situation with a calmer and more objective perspective this situation could have perhaps been avoided.

Instead they failed and in doing failed in serving justice. Ultimately if they had fulfilled their duties as Godwin would have wanted then perhaps Justine would have gotten the justice she was meant to represent. It should be a be a peaceful event where wealth is distributed among everyone equally. An event where all social classes have a conversation, have a mutual understanding of what everyone wants, and unite. And through this men will sympathize with each other and therefore a revolution would be a tranquil and orderly phenomenon.

By definition or mutual understanding, Justice is fair behavior and treatment, it is moral righteousness. During revolutions people seek justice and do things in the name of justice, good or bad. Now replace Justine with the word Justice in this quote. Justice is a servant. Ignorance and the sacrafice of human dignity is not part of justice, like in England or France where people were murdered and it was extremely chaotic and unjust.

Again replace Justine with the word justice. Justice is innocent. The evil things like murder that people do in the name of justice actually have nothing to do with justice and it is just a way to defend their actions. This again, goes back to people using justice as a tool to justify and not take responsibility for their wrong doings during revolution. I remind you that all of this is happening because Victor Frankenstein decided to bring to life, a creature, which killed his brother, which indirectly killed Justine.

Victor did what William Godwin thinks people should not do. Its advocates should be penetrated with universal good-will. Justine begins to abandon her dedication to reason in her studies, tranquility in her demeanor, and truth in her statements and so society begins to see her as a wretched below human individual accusing her of murdering William. I confessed, that I might obtain absolution; but now that falsehood lies heavier at my heart than all my other sins… In an evil hour I subscribed to a lie; and now only am I truly miserable.

In a truly equal society, there is no variance in class, in politics, in character, and most importantly in ideas. Moreover, we should seek to achieve the highest order of equality of opportunity and to preserve the dignity of all human beings, but we as a society should not expect nor desire the homogenous equality of outcome which Godwin seems to idealize as his final goal.

Ultimately, the idea that subscribing to an easy to follow, simple ideology in order to solve nuanced inequalities within a society is reckless, irrational, and untenable. Despite her innocence, shortly after her conviction, she confessed to have murdered William knowing that it would end in her execution. What could I do? Here, she makes it clear that she felt alone during her moments of conviction because although there really was no solid evidence that proved her guilty, once blamed, Justine was labeled the murder by the entire town without any hesitation.

It was during her time of weakness that the law took advantage of her in order to obtain a confession; even if it meant manipulating her into believing she truly was a demented murderer. By this he means the suffering that was allowed to go on during the revolution in France would be surprising to those who would normally be opposed to violence and an uprising.

Yet, this individual tortured Justine because they needed an murder and would stop at nothing spill their blood in an execution; even if that person was innocent. William Godwin in the excerpt from his book Enquiry Concerning Political Justice , writes about the common and basic axiom of embracing the good and bad in life. Its advocates should be penetrated with universal good will. Justine through her trial and conviction seems to embrace her decision. She is innocent of a highly serious crime and sentenced to death, yet she does not let that taint her convictions.

Even though her death is not just, she remains true to herself and her true sentiments. In contrast to Burke, it is insinuated that there is beauty in being vocal and disagreeing with the tenets of the ruling society instead of submitting to their rules and beliefs. And what can equal the weakness of mind produced by servile flattery, and the vapid pleasures that neither hope nor fear seasoned? One cannot be complacent and stand by the actions of government or other high members of society when they, along with others in their community, are personally affected by their laws and unjust practices.

Justine, unfortunately, submits to the latter philosophy when she confesses that she murdered William, even though she did not and makes her conviction and execution certain. The dedication no doubt gave fuel to the conservative critics who objected to the morality of the novel. While the preface was presented anonymously, it became known that Percy had written it, contributing to the idea that he had penned the novel itself. His preface also draws a Godwinian moral from the novel: "Treat a person ill, and he will become wicked.

They believed that "wicked" behavior was absolutely and without exception blameworthy and should be censured and punished. Mary uses the Introduction to clarify the identity of the book's author because there had been some speculation that her husband, Percy, had written it. Beyond pride of authorship, survival no doubt had something to do with her decision. Percy had died in While Mary would work on editing and publishing his poems, she had her own literary ambitions. Establishing herself as the true creator of Frankenstein could help convince publishers to bring out other works of hers in the future.

Letters 1—4 Summary Letter 1 Robert Walton, preparing to explore the North Pole, relates the progress of planning for his expedition in a letter dated December 11, 17—, to his sister Margaret Saville, in London. Walton has made it to St. Petersburgh, Russia, and he describes his excitement about being the first to reach the Pole, solve scientific mysteries, and benefit humanity. Six years before he started training for the arduous journey by serving on whale boats to the North Sea and enduring great physical hardships. As a result, Walton feels entitled to success. Letter 2 In his letter of March 28, from Archangel, Russia, Walton describes securing a ship and hiring sailors, but he is lonely, writing, "I have no friend, Margaret.

He hopes a friend will help him learn, feeling self-conscious because he is self-educated, and yearns for someone to celebrate his victories and soothe his defeats. He keenly anticipates the future, describing a "trembling sensation, half pleasurable and half fearful," that fills him as he considers what is to come. Letter 3 In a very brief letter from July 7, Walton writes that the ship is well under way and is nearing the North Pole. He and the crew have occasionally seen sheets of ice float by, and they have weathered two wind storms and a broken mast, but nothing significant has happened.

He reassures his sister that he will "not rashly encounter danger. On July 31 his ship got stuck in the ice floes. That same day Walton and his crew saw the strangest thing: a "gigantic" figure of a man traveling by dogsled on the ice floes. The next morning they found another man, this one of normal size, also on a dogsled. Although the man was close to death, he would not agree to come aboard Walton's ship until Walton verified that they were traveling to the North Pole.

A few days later, when the stranger had recovered sufficiently to speak, he told Walton and Walton's lieutenant that he has been chasing someone also traveling by dogsled. The stranger got excited when Walton said he thinks they saw such a man. Walton is delighted to have found a possible friend, though the man's "spirit had been broken by misery. They talk about the business of the ship, Walton's goal to reach the North Pole, Walton's childhood, and Walton's desire for a friend.

The stranger tells Walton, "But I—I have lost every thing, and cannot begin life anew. Analysis The connection to Paradise Lost continues in the letters. Some critics have noted that both St. Petersburgh and Archangel, the places Walton uses to prepare for his voyage, are biblical allusions or references. Petersburgh was named after St. Peter, one of the chief apostles of Jesus; an archangel is the highest rank of angel.

If Victor Frankenstein can also be seen as Adam created , fallen mortal man, then Walton is an angel who takes care of Frankenstein as he is dying. Walton's four letters have several purposes in the novel. First, they serve as a frame narrative. This literary device is just what its name suggests: a frame in which the main story is set. People select a frame to set off the picture it encloses; in the same way, authors create frame narratives to underscore the main story they surround.

In Frankenstein Walton's story offers parallels to Victor's. Both men are exceedingly ambitious and driven to leave their mark on the world. However, in this frame the men's stories turn out very differently, as the novel's ending reveals. Walton's fate contrasts to Victor's. This makes Walton a foil, or contrast, to Victor.

His need for human companionship contrasts with Victor's frequent failures to stay in touch with his family. His scientific idealism and curiosity parallel Victor's, but the decisions he makes at the end show more caution than Victor showed. Second, the letters give Frankenstein a veneer of realism, although the novel is the wildest fiction.

Without Walton's conversations with Frankenstein and especially with the Monster, Frankenstein's wild story would not have any verifiable proof. Third, the letters introduce Walton, who reflects the emotionalism, individualism, and imagination prized among those in the romantic movement. Other factors also link Walton to romanticism. In his second letter, Walton tells his sister he will "kill no albatross," an allusion to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.

His ship was locked in the ice. The crew spotted an albatross, a large seabird, thought to be a good luck symbol. However, the old sailor then a young man shot the bird, sending a curse down on the ship. As a result, the ship was stranded in the ocean, and everyone but the old sailor died of thirst. As punishment, the old sailor must travel the globe to share his story to teach people to respect all of God's creatures. While Walton vows not to commit the old sailor's crime, he plays this part, in a way. He bears the burden of telling Frankenstein's story, although he did not commit the crime.

The North Pole, as with any exotic location, held great interest to readers, but especially to romantics, who celebrated nature. The region held mystery , which explains Walton's conviction that the Pole holds more than "frost and desolation," as he says. That Walton is self-educated connects him to Mary Shelley. It also links him to Victor and the Monster, as readers learn over the course of the novel. Victor educated himself about alchemy; the Monster reads classics to learn more about humankind.

Finally, the letters introduce one of the novel's primary themes: human companionship. Walton is bitterly lonely and isolated, craving a friend. He tries to blunt the edge of that loneliness in writing his sister. When Victor appears, Walton quickly warms to him, seeing the chance to form a friendship. Chapter 1 Summary Here Victor Frankenstein begins his story and takes over the narration. He recounts his early years.

Victor traces his family background, birth, and childhood, explaining that his ancestors and father were active, distinguished members of the community in Geneva, Switzerland. Victor's father, Alphonse, helped a merchant friend of his, Beaufort, who had fallen on hard times. When Beaufort died, Alphonse helped his daughter Caroline. Although Alphonse was considerably older than Caroline, they married two years after Beaufort's death. Their union was happy, and Victor was their first child. When Victor was four, the Frankensteins took in Elizabeth Lavenza, the daughter of Alphonse's deceased sister, and adopted her as their own child.

She and Victor grew up as close friends. Frankenstein decided that Elizabeth and Victor should marry when they reach adulthood. Victor and Elizabeth had a delightful childhood, adored by their loving, intelligent, indulgent parents. Even from childhood, Victor showed a scientific curiosity. When he was nine, Victor met Henry Clerval, a schoolmate. Although Henry was outgoing and interested in chivalry and romance, while Victor was introspective and interested in science, the two boys soon bonded and became lifelong best friends. Victor had two brothers; Ernest is six years younger than Victor, and William was an infant when Victor reached Victor started reading the works of Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, and Albertus Magnus when he was This reading sparked his deep love of learning.

Two years later, at 15, he saw an electrical storm, which develops his interest in electricity Analysis As Victor narrates the story of his childhood, he introduces some of the novel's most important concerns: One is the role of women in the early 19th century.

Caroline Frankenstein and Elizabeth Lavenza are both passive figures, taken care of by men. Alphonse rescues Caroline, an orphan, from poverty and loneliness, and the husband and wife later do the same for Elizabeth. Given Mary Shelley's background as the daughter of the foremost feminist of the era, this portrait of passive women who must be cared for by men is surprising.

In contrast, her acute awareness of the pain of a child losing a parent colors these plot points. The two women's circumstances also introduce the tenuousness of human connections, which can be quickly lost through death, another issue that connects the Monster to the human characters.

The chapter highlights the importance of education. Alphonse saw to the education of his children and exposed Victor to many disciplines and to the works of established, renowned authors. Victor thus learned as Mary Shelley had done, largely in the library of his father. Later, the Monster will also absorb knowledge by reading a treasure trove of books, and as we saw in the first letters, Walton is self- taught as well. Victor notes that his father did not give him much guidance in his learning, though, and suggests that this lack of supervision or discussion helped lead him to make his later mistake of making the Monster.

This chapter also lays the groundwork for Frankenstein's creation of the Monster, making his invention of the Monster seem logical and even possible. These were alchemists, ancient scientists who tried to find the "philosopher's stone," a substance that would turn inexpensive compounds such as mercury into gold or silver, extend life, create life, and achieve immortality.

Obviously, their alchemical work has long been discredited. Victor also notes that he reads books that concern "the raising of ghosts or devils," a possibility that excites him. Finally, Victor's interest in electricity foreshadows the way he will bring the Monster to life. These details also make Victor's later obsession with his creation understandable. That Victor's mother wanted him to marry Elizabeth, a cousin in this edition, is not so unusual for the time. It may seem strange that two children raised as siblings would marry, but they did not, of course, share the same parents.

Elizabeth was adopted. It is notable, though, that Mary Shelley changed Elizabeth's status in the edition, making her no relation to Alphonse Frankenstein when she is taken into the home. This might have been meant to blunt any possible criticism that could be leveled at their relationship. Chapter 2 Summary When Victor was 17 years old, his parents decided that he should attend the University of Ingolstadt in Germany. Before he could enroll, however, Elizabeth became ill with scarlet fever.

While taking care of Elizabeth, Caroline contracted the disease and died. On her deathbed, Caroline asked Elizabeth to promise to care for the younger children.

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She also made Victor and Elizabeth promise to marry. After recovering from his mother's death, Victor headed off to college. There, he says, he will be alone to "form my own friends, and be my own protector. Krempe and M. Krempe, who teaches natural philosophy, had a "repulsive countenance" and was critical of the time Victor wasted studying the alchemists. Waldman, in contrast, was kindly and supportive. With Waldman as his mentor, Victor decided to study chemistry.

Analysis Victor's comment that at university he was "alone" continues the theme of human companionship. While he admits to the need to make friends, Victor is perfectly content to be alone; he believes he is "totally unfitted for the company of strangers. Monster and Walton, Victor's foil. In this duality, Victor and the Monster can be seen as doubles, two halves of the same person, in this regard as they were as creator and created: the introvert and the extrovert, the one desiring to be left alone and the other craving companionship, although the Monster, like Victor, is unfitted for company.

His tragedy is the clash between his desire for human companionship and his rejection by humans. Chapter 3 Summary For two years Victor was a dedicated and determined chemistry student, working hard and making speedy progress. He says, "In M. Waldman I found a true friend. Victor was especially interested in studying the human body and the question of from "whence After much hard work, he had a breakthrough, "discovering the cause of generation of life.

But Victor realized that acquiring such knowledge is extremely dangerous. His unbounded ambition has cost him his happiness, and he cautions his audience, Walton, to beware of "becoming greater than [your] nature will allow. He was sure that this new species would celebrate him as its creator and look upon him as a father; he set a long-term goal of "renew[ing] life" in the dead.

He spent the entire summer at work, ignoring everyone at school and the beauty of nature, becoming ill, and not even answering letters from his family back home in Geneva. Analysis Victor Frankenstein's realization that he has overstepped his bounds parallels the story of Faust, a famous literary figure. Faust was a brilliant scholar who made a pact with the Devil, trading his soul for unlimited knowledge and worldly delights. In some versions, Faust goes to hell; in others, Faust is saved. The Faust legend has come to symbolize someone who foolishly and disastrously gives up his or her integrity and morality to gain power and success.

This is what happens to Victor, because in assuming the power of creating life, the power that belongs only to God, Victor will cause disasters for his family and closest friend. Victor uses his intelligence in a way that results in evil rather than for good, and tragedy ensues. All this lies ahead, of course. For the present, Victor tells Walton that he will not reveal the secret of reanimation that he discovered, hinting at dark and tragic events that he will relate later in his tale, building suspense for what will follow.

In his flashback, Victor is arrogant about his power, too, another sin. He believes that the new species he creates will be grateful to him and others will celebrate him as well. In effect, Victor is setting himself up as a god. Since this entire section is a flashback, Victor is speaking on Walton's ship. He is close to death, which he realizes.

Therefore, he is able to look back on his life and realize his error and its consequences. That is why Victor warns Walton not to make the same mistake that he did, not to acquire too much knowledge and become "greater than his nature will allow. Chapter 4 Summary Victor relates to Walton his success.

He brought the Monster to life in November. The process by which the Monster was animated is not described in the book. Rather than being delighted at his success, as he had proudly anticipated, Victor was horrified. He intended to make a "beautiful" creature, but the Monster was "a catastrophe. Physically and mentally exhausted, he finally collapsed into In a nightmare, he kissed Elizabeth, who then died and transformed into Victor's dead mother. The Monster came to his bed, and Victor ran off.

All night he paced in the courtyard "in the greatest agitation. The Monster had fled, to Victor's enormous relief. Victor had a nervous breakdown, becoming "lifeless" in a fit, and Henry nursed him back to health through the winter, as Victor "raved incessantly" about the Monster, and into the spring. In addition, Henry convinced Victor to write to his father, reassuring him that he is fine.

Henry also told Victor he had brought a letter from Elizabeth. The first line quoted, "Like one who, on a lonely road," continues the theme of human companionship. All the lines describe how Victor is acting as he hurries on "with irregular steps. Shelley does not describe the scientific process Victor uses to make the Monster come alive; she is not concerned with the process which, of course, does not exist , only with the results.

Describing the process would slow the narrative and reduce suspense; it could also explain how to replicate Victor's discovery, which Victor wants to prevent. Significantly, Victor does not name his creation. He refers to it as the "wretch" and the "creature. By denying his creation a name, Victor is denying it an identity. It is therefore ironic that in popular usage, the Monster is identified using Victor's last name.

The Monster becomes him. Chapter 5 Summary As the flashback continues, Victor relates that Henry gave him Elizabeth's letter, which was filled with family news and events, including information about Justine Moritz, who had moved into the Frankenstein house when she was 12 because her mother rejected her.

Justine, whose behavior and appearance Elizabeth saw as similar to Caroline Frankenstein's, was working as a servant in the household, and Elizabeth reminded Victor that he always enjoyed Justine's company. Elizabeth related that, while Victor was at school, Justine's mother forced her to return home to take care of her and treated the girl poorly.

When Justine's mother died, Justine returned to the Frankenstein home and resumed her duties.


Elizabeth also described their youngest brother, William, a charming child. The letter cheered Victor greatly, and he wrote back. Recovered from his breakdown, Victor introduced Henry to his professors, who all praise him lavishly. However, Victor found hat he had developed a violent hatred of chemistry—he cannot even look at his laboratory instruments—so he joined Henry in his study of languages and "the works of the orientalists. At that time, Victor and Henry took a two-week vacation, a walking tour of Ingolstadt, and delighted in the beauty of nature and the comfort it offers.

Analysis Justine serves as another foil to the Monster. Like the Monster, she is rejected by her parent a mother, in this case. However, unlike the Monster, she finds a family in the Frankenstein home, where she works as a servant but is treated well. In a similar way, Henry is a foil to Victor, as Henry's cheerful, open nature stands in contrast to Victor's more brooding, closed self-absorption.

Further, Henry is hearty and well, while Victor is often frail and ill, haunted by his creation.

Knoepflmacher, "Aggression of Daughters"

This chapter also brings in elements of romanticism and the theme of connection to nature. Victor says, "A serene sky and verdant fields filled me with ecstasy. The present season was indeed divine; the flowers of spring bloomed in the hedges His joy in nature is a contrast to the horror and anguish he feels over the Monster. Chapter 6 Summary Victor's relation continues. His happy mood abruptly ended back in Ingolstadt on receiving a letter from his father, informing him of the tragic news that his brother William had been strangled.

The police cannot find the locket that Elizabeth had given William. That locket contained a miniature portrait of their mother, Caroline Frankenstein. Victor's father implored him to come home at once. Victor left Ingolstadt, but, "dreading a thousand nameless evils," he lingered in Lausanne for two days, where he was brought to tears by seeing the beauty of Mont Blanc.

Arriving in Geneva, he found the city gates closed, forcing him to wait outside the city overnight. He "resolved to visit the spot where" William died. On his journey, Victor realized that he had not been home for almost six years. Watching a "beautiful yet terrific storm," Victor saw "in the gloom a figure which stole from behind a clump of trees.

Victor suspects the Monster has murdered William. Victor went home the next morning. He cried with his brother Ernest, who explained that since the missing locket was found in Justine's possession, she was assumed to be the murderer and was being tried that day. Victor assured Ernest, their father, and Elizabeth upon whose beauty and womanhood Victor comments that Justine was innocent, but he cannot explain his reasons for asserting this because doing so would reveal his creation of the Monster.

Analysis Two years have passed since Victor created the monster and saw him, lulling him into a false sense of security that the monster has fled for good and Victor's secret is safe. William's murder, however, smashes that security and propels the plot forward. It can be no coincidence that Victor's brother is the victim; it is clearly the work of the Monster, getting revenge for being rejected by his maker. The fact that Victor sees the Monster at the murder scene, near the Frankensteins' home, reinforces this point. The lightning that reveals that the figure is definitely the Monster recalls Victor's interest in electricity and its apparent connection to bringing the creature to life.

It also adds to the eerie gothic mood. The lightning evokes light, a symbol of learning and knowledge. Lightning comes during powerful storms, and that association foreshadows an ominous future for Victor due to the Monster's presence. Of course, the storm also parallels Victor's grief: he weeps over the death of William with Ernest, and the sky weeps as well.

Victor calls the storm William's "funeral dirge. Only a monster or fiend, something capable of evil, could do so. Victor's pause in Lausanne reinforces him as a romantic, seeking solace in nature. On this occasion, though, it does not work. While the two days there calm him, the sight on Mont Blanc and its nearby lake, rather than bringing comfort, makes him feel worse. He wonders if they are meant to "prognosticate peace, or to mock at [his] unhappiness. Victor, terribly agitated, rationalized that he does not confess to the truth because he wasn't in Geneva when the crime took place and he thought no one would believe his wild tale.

Justine, in contrast, was calm. The testimony presented in court made it appear that Justine was indeed guilty. Justine told the court that she was innocent and relayed her accounting of the events of the evening that William was killed. However, since she had no proof to persuade the court of her assertion, she hoped that her good reputation would suffice. Elizabeth tried to convince the court that Justine could not Nothing she said can shake the belief in Justine's guilt.

Victor "rushed out of the court in agony" before the verdict, saying Justine's "tortures did not equal mine"; he can't sleep that night. The following day, he learned the court had found Justine guilty and sentenced her to death by hanging. Victor then learned Justine confessed, which he told Elizabeth. This news upset Elizabeth deeply.

Before the sentence was carried out, Justine told Elizabeth and Victor that she had confessed to the crime even though she was innocent, because her priest threatened her with excommunication if she did not. She believed that a confession, even a false one, would help her obtain salvation. She faced her death calmly, comforting Victor and Elizabeth.

Victor felt "despair" and "agony" and calls himself the "true murderer. Victor was devastated, as two members of his family will have now died because of the monster he created. Analysis Justine's fate is an example of the passive role of women in the early 19th century. She is docile and submissive, quietly marching to an unjust death and unready to challenge the court's decision or her priest's advice to submit a false confession.

Elizabeth's words on Justine's behalf at the trial are ignored, another example of the little regard with which women were held. Only Victor, a man, has the power to prevent Justine's death, and he chooses not to exercise that power. He is also self-absorbed enough to consider his suffering worse than Justine's, and Shelley does present him as far more agitated than her. Justine's death will move Victor's situation one step deeper on his downward path. Perhaps he could have ignored the death of one family member, but the deaths of two clearly indicate that the Monster is determined to enact his revenge on his creator.

Victor is torn by grief and guilt, horrified at what he has wrought. Adding to that sense of horror is the fact that Justine has been linked by Elizabeth to Victor's mother. Her death is as though he has killed his mother again. Justine's false confession serves as a counterpoint to Victor's secret truth. She humbly and willingly confesses her guilt to a crime she did not commit in hopes of gaining salvation.

He shamefully harbors the truth of his own real crime, punishing himself with shame and guilt and removing any hope of relieving himself of their burden. Justine's calm, stoic acceptance of her fate contrasts with Victor's fevered agitation—an agitation that will only grow worse in future chapters as more tragedy strikes. Chapter 8 Summary As Victor explains to Walton, his mood sank even lower, as he was "seized by remorse and the sense of guilt, which hurried me away to a hell of intense tortures, such as no language can describe. The Frankensteins traveled to Belrive, where Victor secretly sailed the lake at night and thought about killing himself.

Victor believed the Monster determined to "commit some signal crime" of "enormity," and his hatred of "this fiend" became violent. Elizabeth, also grieving, attempted to comfort him, but Victor believed himself to be the true murderer. Hoping to cheer and relieve Victor, his father suggested they take a trip to the valley of Chamounix, a familiar place from Victor's childhood.

Victor recognized the "wonderful and sublime" beauty of the Alps, including "the supreme and magnificent Mont Blanc," and enjoyed the physical exertion. But he could not shake his feelings of remorse and gloom. The chapter ends with him awake at night while his family sleeps, watching a storm with lightning playing above Mont Blanc. Analysis Victor says that "solitude was my only consolation—deep, dark, deathlike solitude. Victor can rejoin society at any time he chooses, and the care others show for him is evidenced by his father's idea of traveling in nature to restore his spirits and by Elizabeth's attempts to talk him into a better mood.

The Monster, in sharp contrast, has no one who loves him, no one who likes him, and no one who can ever bear to look at him. Details in this chapter reflect both the theme of connection to nature and the gothic genre. Victor's descriptions of the scenes they see show the romantics' love of nature. He describes "immense mountains and precipices overhanging us" and "the magnificent and astonishing character" of the valley and the "sublime of the mighty Alps.

The sublime was nature untamed, what moderns call "wild nature. In the poem, he celebrates the mountain as a symbol of grandeur but also of freedom. Finally, the gothic mood is reinforced by the "ruined castles" they also see, as well as by the storm that Victor watches that night. Despite the restorative power of nature, he is so troubled he cannot shake the ominous future that overhangs him. Chapter 9 Summary Victor explains that he and the others spent a day in nature, near the Arve River, and Victor's "grief" was "subdued and tranquillized. Moved by the "solitary grandeur" of the scene, Victor quotes to Walton the last eight lines of Percy's poem "Mutability.

Looking at the magnificent scene of Montanvert, a glacier, and Mont Blanc, he felt "something like joy. Victor violently rejected the Monster, calling him "Devil" and saying, "Begone, vile insect! Or rather, stay, that I may trample you to dust! Nevertheless, the Monster convinced Victor to hear what he has to say.


The Monster said to him, "I ought to be thy Adam; but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed. Finally, Victor agreed to hear him out. Victor realized that "for the first time, also, I felt what the duties of a creator towards his creature were, and that I ought to render him happy before I complained of his wickedness.

They went to the Monster's hut so the Monster could tell his story. Analysis The Monster's plea that he should be Adam but instead is the "fallen angel" is an allusion to both Genesis and Milton's retelling of it in Paradise Lost. According to the Bible, Adam is the first human God created. The "fallen angel" is Lucifer, the angel God cast out after he tried to seize control of heaven. Adam" , but instead he has become Victor's greatest failure.

Of course, the Monster is not like Adam until he has a mate, as Adam had. Equating himself with Adam, then, foreshadows his demand that Victor make a mate for him. He calls himself a "fallen angel," but that is Lucifer Satan , who challenged God and thus fell from heaven. The Monster initially does nothing wrong, but Victor punishes him. Victor is God. The Monster is suggesting that Victor should have cared for him as God does for all his creations.

Thus, the fault lies with Victor, not with the Monster, for all of the evil the Monster has done. Victor, in feeling "for the first time He is always held back, though, by his horror at the Monster. A harmonious relationship between the two is impossible. Earlier in the novel, Victor feared the Monster because of his hideous appearance. He is now aware of the Monster's great strength and stamina. The fact that the Monster speaks and alludes to Paradise Lost shows that he has acquired language and great learning, both of which make him a far more formidable foe than his mere brute strength and endurance did.

Victor rightly fears the Monster's intelligence and cunning. Chapter 10 Summary The narrative voice shifts, as now the Monster is telling the story—which is, really, Walton's recounting of Victor's retelling of the Monster's story. The Monster's story continues through Chapter He returns Victor to the day of his creation, saying he first awoke to find himself "desolate" and became aware of light and darkness, hunger and thirst. He was in a forest. The next day, he was "cold" and guided by a "gentle light," the moon, he "found a huge cloak.

He was overjoyed to find a fire to warm him; soon, he realized how to maintain the fire and use it to cook food. He spent much of his time foraging for food to relieve his constant hunger. On one search for food, the Monster found an old man living in a small hut, chased the man off, and stole his breakfast.

He set off again and arrived that evening at a village, where the people recoiled at his appearance and chased him away. The Monster next arrived at a small hovel, a squalid shed attached to the back of a cottage. Happy to have shelter, the Monster stole bread and a cup and then realized that he could see into the cottage and so spy on its inhabitants.

These are the De Lacey family—a father who is blind, as the Monster realizes in Chapter 11, and his children, Felix and Agatha—who treat each other with great love and kindness. The Monster saw the old man play music and the young man read. Analysis The kindly way the De Lacey family interacts contrasts to the hatred the Monster faces.

The De Laceys' love for each other increases the Monster's misery, as he sees what he is missing. They enact the positive aspects of humankind, serving as a kind of ideal and model the Monster can aspire to. That the names Felix and Agatha mean "luck" and "good," respectively, adds more luster to their existence. Seeing the old man embrace his daughter, Agatha, the Monster says, "I felt sensations of a peculiar and over-powering nature: they were a mixture of pain and pleasure, such as I had never before experienced Indeed, even Victor, his father and creator, actively wants the Monster to die.

Thus, the theme of human companionship is clearly evident here.

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In his story, the Monster reveals a powerful and sensitive personality completely at odds with his monstrous appearance and the terms—"wretch," "fiend," "demon," and "devil"—that Victor constantly uses to refer to him. Readers may feel great pity for the Monster, a sensitive soul cast out of society. That Victor retells the Monster's account honestly and with no attempts to excuse himself does cast the creator in a somewhat sympathetic light. He grants the Monster a certain dignity of equal treatment in this regard. The Monster's story also provides insight into one way of envisioning the first human.

The Monster becomes aware of himself with no socialization or training; he is like John Locke's tabula rasa, or blank slate. He must learn on his own, as Adam had to; neither had a parent available to provide instruction or guidance. There are some differences, though. Adam, living in Eden, clothed himself and Eve after they ate of the forbidden fruit and realized their nakedness. The Monster seeks clothing because he is cold. He, unlike Adam, is not a sinner at this point.

He is like a child, innocent and free of sin or guilt. Chapter 11 Summary The Monster was especially impressed by the gentle way the De Lacey family members treated each other, but he noticed they are not as happy as he had first assumed. It took the Monster a while to realize the cause of their sadness: they are very poor.

Moved by their plight, the Monster stopped stealing their food and anonymously gathered wood for them, relieving them of this burdensome chore. The Monster learned that language exists and then, slowly, learned to start to speak French by listening to the family speak it. This continued for the winter, during which time the Monster also "ardently longed to comprehend" writing. The Monster also caught his first glimpse of himself, reflected in a pool, and was shocked at his grotesque appearance.

As the weather improved with the coming of spring, the Monster continued secretly assisting the De Laceys and decided that he might be able to make the De Lacey family happy again—and that they would then accept and "love" him. He practiced speaking and found his mood lifting, saying, "My spirits were elevated by the enchanting appearance of nature Once he comes to understand their situation, he helps the De Laceys in every way he can and even dreams of restoring them to total happiness, showing his innate kindness and compassion.

The Monster shows himself to be more humane, more full of compassion, than Victor, his human creator. Who is the real monster? The Monster's thirst to learn ennobles him. Watching the De Laceys converse, he realizes that language is the key to distinct humans connecting with one another. He calls language a "godlike science," the vehicle for forging human bonds.

His pursuit of knowledge contrasts with Victor's and Walton's. They both pursue knowledge to push the limits of science and to gain fame for themselves. The Monster seeks the ability to speak so that he can connect to other creatures. He wants to learn to read to open new realms of understanding, to improve himself, not to enhance his status. The Monster's happiness when spring comes underscores the romantics' belief in the power of nature and the link between nature and people's moods.

He celebrates nature's glory when he cannot celebrate his own. This provides a further connection between him and Victor, who also finds joy and peace in nature. The Monster, like his creator, is a romantic. Chapter 12 Summary One day, the Monster saw a beautiful young lady arrive at the cottage, to Felix's great delight. She is Safie, the woman Felix loves. Safie does not speak French, so Felix used a book called Ruins of Empires by the Comte de Volney to teach her the language. From listening to their lessons over two months, the Monster learned to speak and read French too; he also learned about world history and mused on the nature of humanity.

He also longed for "friends and relations," for another "being resembling" him, and for interaction with others. Analysis Again, the Monster's situation parallels Victor's, as they both seek education and then come to realize that knowledge changes a person. Knowledge is desirable, but too much knowledge or knowledge used unwisely brings misery, as Victor's abuse of science to exceed the powers of humanity shows.

More knowledge also makes the Monster unhappy, when he learns about what he does not have. Knowledge used for good, however, is beneficial, as is shown by the Monster helping the De Laceys or as in the appreciation of Victor's improvements to the scientific instruments at Ingolstadt. Speaking through the Monster, Shelley explores the mixture of good and evil in everyone and in humanity as a whole. Both Victor and the Monster are set apart from humanity: the Monster by his hideous appearance and Victor by his monstrous creation, the effort of keeping it secret, and the tragedy it causes.

The link between the Monster and his creator is central to Frankenstein. Part of the impact of the novel is the fact that Victor never realizes how similar he and his Monster really are, which in this chapter is shown by the Monster's thirst for knowledge, paralleling Victor's, and recognition that knowledge sometimes can bring pain as well as pleasure.

Mention of Ruins of Empires is significant. The book was a radical denunciation of the religious and political status quo in the world and was published two years into the French Revolution. It protests the tyranny of hierarchies and demands their destruction. Godwin knew the work; a friend of his made the first English translation.

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Percy Shelley knew it as well, and it influenced his political thought. Safie's arrival and reception provide a contrast to the Monster. She is accepted, in part because she is beautiful. Victor rejected the Monster because he is hideous and the De Laceys will in a few chapters do the same. This differential treatment exemplifies the injustice of humankind that the Comte de Volney describes on an individual scale.

Some years before, they were wealthy and distinguished in Paris, France, but the family was ruined by Safie's father, a Turkish merchant. Running afoul of the French government, Safie's father was unjustly jailed and sentenced to death. Felix, present at the trial by chance, decided to help the merchant. Felix went to the prison, where he met the beautiful Safie. Felix refused the merchant's offer of both money and marriage to Safie in return for his rescue, although he hoped to marry Safie anyway.

The Monster cites letters between Felix and Safie in his possession that will corroborate the story he is relating and says he will show them to Victor. The Monster then returns to the narrative of the De Laceys' story. The night before the execution of the merchant was scheduled to take place, Felix helped him escape from prison; after those two and Sadie escaped to Italy, Felix and Sadie's relationship grew.

However, Felix's involvement in the escape was uncovered by authorities, and M. De Lacey and Agatha were imprisoned for five months. Felix hurried home to Paris, leaving Safie in a convent, but his family was ruined, their fortune confiscated by the government and their reputation shattered. The De Laceys had to leave France for Germany. The Turkish merchant betrayed Felix by ordering Safie home to Turkey, but she managed to escape to return to Felix, which explained her arrival at the cottage. Analysis The Turkish merchant suffers an unjust punishment—imprisonment and a death sentence.

The De Lacey family suffers an unjust punishment—the loss of their money, land, and reputation. The Monster suffers an unjust punishment—the loss of all human companionship and comfort. In addition, all are outsiders: the merchant because of his nationality, the De Laceys because of their exile, and the Monster because of his appearance. Felix's courage in helping the merchant contrasts Victor's cowardice in not helping Justine; Felix's sympathy for Safie contrasts Victor's deep loathing of the Monster. The offer of Safie to Felix in marriage in return for her father's freedom is another example of female powerlessness.

Like Victor's mother had once been, like Elizabeth and Justine had been as children, Safie is at the mercy of a dominant male. Felix is unusual in being "too delicate to accept" that offer and in hoping they can develop love. That desire parallels the reality for Victor and Elizabeth, but it also contrasts with the Monster, who wants to be given a mate but never is. The Monster's stated intention to show Victor the Felix-Sadie letters reinforces the idea of evidence and proof set up in the Walton framing story. He wants to be believed; it is important to him to be seen as credible.

Chapter 14 Summary Continuing his narration, the Monster relates that one evening he found a suitcase of books Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, Sorrows of Werter that he read and thought about deeply. He was especially moved by Milton's Paradise Lost, which he read as accurate history rather than a work of imagination. He contrasted himself with Adam; when he thought about the love the De Laceys showed for each other, he identified with Satan and felt envious.

He also read some of Victor's journal tracing the Monster's formation; he had it because it was "in the pocket of the dress which [he] had taken from [Victor's] laboratory. The Monster again compares himself to Adam, but he has "no Eve" and his creator has "abandoned" him.

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Autumn's bleakness meant he was no longer soothed by nature.