Unaweza kusoma vitabu vilivyonunuliwa kwenye Google Play kwa kutumia kivinjari wavuti cha kompyuta yako. Tafadhali fuata maagizo ya kina katika Kituo cha usaidizi ili uweze kuhamishia faili kwenye Visomaji pepe vinavyotumika. Vitabu Pepe vinavyofanana na hiki. Angalia zingine. Horten A Monogram Close-up Book. David Myhra PhD. Great information and bonus color photographs of the copy manufactured by the History channel to test the aerodynamics of the all-wing design.
Available for purchase at: www. Kitabu cha 2. The trouble with conventional aircraft is that they need runways, long expensive concrete runways so that they can take-off and land. Project Orbiter begun. Spacecraft Bus : Explorer. Spacecraft : Explorer A. In a meeting, Dr. Wernher von Braun, Frederick C. Fred L. Whipple, Dr. Fred Singer, and Commander George W. Hoover agreed that a Redstone rocket with a Loki cluster as the second stage could launch a satellite into a mile orbit without major new developments.
Project Orbiter was a later outgrowth of this proposal and resulted in the launching of Explorer I on January 31, Von Braun proposes launch of US satellite. Payload : Explorer A. Program : Explorer. Class : Earth. Type : Magnetosphere satellite. Man in Space televised. Walt Disney's weekly television series aired the first of three programs related to spaceflight.
Man and the Moon televised. Wernher von Braun becomes a US citizen. Launch Vehicle : Vanguard.
Vanguard selected to launch first US satellite. Program : Vanguard. Spacecraft : Vanguard 1. Redstone recommended as satellite launcher. Research and development Policy Council DOD unanimously recommended that the time-risk factor in the scientific satellite program be brought to the attention of the Secretary of the Defense for determination as to whether a Redstone backup program was indicated.
ABMA established. Army proposes Redstone satellite launch. Army informed the OSD that a Jupiter missile could be fired in an effort to orbit a small satellite in January Launch Vehicle : Saturn I. Studies of a large clustered-engine booster -. Program : Apollo. The U. During , approximately 50, man-hours were expended in this effort. Von Braun promises first US satellite in 60 days. Promises launch in 60 days. Medaris says Eisenhower enunciates science policy.
Related Persons : Eisenhower , von Braun. President Eisenhower in major address on science and security announced that scientists had solved the problem of ballistic missile reentry and showed the nose cone of an Army Jupiter-C missile which was intact after a flight through space. He announced the creation of the office of Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and the appointment of James R. Killian, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to the new post. Von Braun ordered to launch satellite. Related Persons : McElroy , von Braun.
This order, in effect, resumed the Orbiter project that had been eliminated from the IGY satellite planning program on September 9, Von Braun was to modify two Jupiter-C missiles modified Redstones and attempt to place an artificial earth satellite in orbit by March Mars and Beyond televised. It treated a mass audience to Von Braun's plans for a manned expedition to Mars.. Saturn I first proposed.
First mention of 1,, lbf booster Saturn I. Explorer 1 -. Mass : 5. Agency : US Army. Decay Date : Apogee : 1, km 1, mi. Perigee : km mi. Inclination : Period : Explorer I, the first U. Van Allen and resulted in the discovery of the radiation belt around the earth. Failed Stage : 4. Explorer 2 -. Explorer 3 -. Apogee : 2, km 1, mi. Radiation, micrometeoroid data. Explorer 4 -. Payload : Explorer B. Mass : 8. Spacecraft : Explorer B. Apogee : 1, km mi. Mapped project Argus radiation. Saturn I initial contract. ARPA Order 14 described the project: "Initiate a development program to provide a large space vehicle booster of approximately 1.
The immediate goal of this program is to demonstrate a full-scale captive dynamic firing by the end of calendar year Second Stage ignited in wrong direction.. Failed Stage : 2. Explorer 5 -. Payload : Explorer C. Mass : 17 kg 37 lb. Spacecraft : Explorer C. Redstone Arsenal begins Saturn I design studies. Saturn design studies authorized to proceed at Redstone Arsenal for development of 1. Juno V project objective changed to multistage carrier vehicle -.
Program : Horizon. Following a Memorandum of Agreement between Maj. John B. The objective of ARPA Order 14 was changed from booster feasibility demonstration to "the development of a reliable high performance booster to serve as the first stage of a multistage carrier vehicle capable of performing advanced missions. Negotiations for Redstone and Jupiter launch vehicles for Mercury project. Spacecraft : Mercury. Personnel from the Langley Research Center visited the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to open negotiations for procuring Redstone and Jupiter launch vehicles for manned satellite projects..
Redstone and Jupiter launch vehicle use on Mercury discussed. Space Task Group officials visited the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to determine the feasibility of using the Jupiter launch vehicle for the intermediate phase of Project Mercury, to discuss the Redstone program, and to discuss the cost for Redstone and Jupiter launch vehicles. Related Persons : Glennan , von Braun. Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Class : Manned.
Type : Manned space station. Initally proposed using 15 Juno V Saturn I boosters to assemble , kg payload in earth orbit for direct landing on moon.. Military and NASA consider future launch vehicles -. Representatives of Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military services, and NASA met to consider the development of future launch vehicle systems. Agreement was reached on the principle of developing a small number of versatile launch vehicle systems of different thrust capabilities, the reliability of which could be expected to be improved through use by both the military services and NASA.
Von Braun predicted manned circumlunar flight within ten years -. Related Persons : Glennan , Silverstein , von Braun. In a staff report of the House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, Wernher von Braun of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency predicted manned circumlunar flight within the next eight to ten years and a manned lunar landing and return mission a few years thereafter. Administrator T. Dryden, Abe Silverstein, John P. Hagen, and Homer E. Newell, all of NASA, also foresaw manned circumlunar flight within the decade as well as instrumented probes soft-landed on the moon.
Roy K. Knutson, Chairman of the Corporate Space Committee, NAA, projected a manned lunar landing expedition for the early 's with extensive unmanned instrumented soft lunar landings during the last half of the 's. Redstones ordered for Mercury suborbital launches. Eight Redstone and two Jupiter launch vehicles for Mercury -. Booster name changed from Juno V to Saturn -.
Related Persons : Johnson, Roy , von Braun. The Army proposed that the name of the large clustered-engine booster be changed from Juno V to Saturn, since Saturn was the next planet after Jupiter. Roy W. Early agreement required on Saturn upper stages -. Johnson expected to reach agreement with NASA the following week. He agreed that AOMC would participate in the overall upper stage planning to ensure compatibility of the booster and upper stages.
Redstone and Jupiter flight phases of Project Mercury. During the course of the meeting the following points became firm: 1 Space Task Group was the overall manager and technical director of this phase of the program, 2 ABMA was responsible for the launch vehicle until spacecraft separation, 3 ABMA was responsible for the Redstone launch vehicle recovery this phase of the program was later eliminated since benefits from recovering the launch vehicle would have been insignificant , 4 Space Task Group was responsible for the spacecraft flight after separation, 5 McDonnell was responsible for the adapters for the Mercury-Redstone configuration, and 6 ABMA would build adapters for the Mercury-Jupiter configuration.
Because many points could only be settled by detailed design studies, it was decided to establish several working panels for later meetings. Army task force to plan a manned lunar outpost -. Related Persons : Medaris , von Braun. An Army task force was formed to develop a plan for establishing a manned lunar outpost by the quickest practical means.
The effort was called Project Horizon. The first phase of the project was to make a limited feasibility study, with estimated time and costs. The task force worked under the direction of Maj. The report was completed on June 8. Unmanned Lunar Soft Landing Vehicle -. Spacecraft : Surveyor. Construction begins of the first Saturn launch complex -.
Project Horizon Phase I report -. The Project Horizon Phase I report was completed. In it, a U. The guiding philosophy of the report was one of "enlightened conservatism of technical approach. Additional Details : here LV Family : Saturn I. Launch Vehicle : Saturn C Lunar mission studies under way at the Army -.
LV Family : Jupiter. Jupiter launch vehicles in Project Mercury canceled -. The order for Jupiter launch vehicles in support of Project Mercury was canceled because the same or better data could be obtained from Atlas flights.. After a meeting with officials concerned with the missile and space program, President Dwight D. The transfer, subject to congressional approval, would include the Saturn development program. Related Persons : Eisenhower , Glennan , von Braun. It was submitted to President Dwight D. Keith Glennan on December Engineering and cost study for a new Saturn configuration -.
Army Ballistic Missile Agency mission possibilities -. These included an engineering satellite, an orbital return capsule, a space crew training vehicle, a manned orbital laboratory, a manned circumlunar vehicle, and a manned lunar landing and return vehicle. He described the current Saturn configurations, including the "C" launch vehicle to be operational in The Saturn C larger than the C-1 would be able to boost 85, pounds into earth orbit and 25, pounds into an escape trajectory. Saturn upper stage study. NASA team completed study design of upper stages of Saturn launch vehicle..
Launch Vehicle : Saturn V. NASA approval of Saturn development program -. Related Persons : Silverstein , von Braun. A research and development plan of ten vehicles was approved. The C-1 configuration would include the S-1 stage eight H-1 engines clustered, producing 1.
Super booster program to be accelerated -. President Dwight D. Keith Glennan "to make a study, to be completed at the earliest date practicable, of the possible need for additional funds for the balance of FY and for FY to accelerate the super booster program for which your agency recently was given technical and management responsibility.
Lunar Program Based on Saturn Systems -. Spacecraft : Apollo Lunar Landing. Study issued by Huntsville of lunar landing alternatives using Saturn systems. Vought study on modular approach to lunar landing. The President's decision had been made on October 21, Marshall Space Flight Center. Proposed advanced manned spacecraft program presented to von Braun -. During the ensuing discussion, the merits of a completely automatic circumlunar mission were compared with those of a manually operated mission.
Further discussions were scheduled. Assembly of the first Saturn flight booster began -. Saturn C-1 first stage completed test series -. The Saturn C-1 first stage successfully completed its first series of static tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center with a second firing of all eight H-1 engines.. Briefing on the Apollo and Saturn programs -.
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Related Persons : Faget , von Braun. Maxime A. Saturn I static firing. First of new series of static firings of Saturn considered only 50 percent successful in 2-second test at MSFC.. Manned lunar landing discussed with Space Exploration Program Council -. Another outcome of the discussion was an agreement that NASA should have an orbital rendezvous program which could stand alone as well as being a part of the manned lunar program. A task group was named to define the elements of the program insofar as possible. Members of the group were George M. Low, Chairman, Eldon W. Hall, A.
Mayo, Ernest O. Pearson, Jr. Faget of STG; and H. Koelle of Marshall Space Flight Center.
Wernher von Braun
This group became known as the Low Committee. Saturn C-1 changed to a two-stage configuration -. Wernher von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center, proposed that the Saturn C-1 launch vehicle be changed from a three-stage to a two-stage configuration to meet Apollo program schedules. The planned third stage S-V would be dropped.. Saturn first stage recovery system study -.
Current Saturn launch vehicle configurations announced -. The current Saturn launch vehicle configurations were announced: C S-I stage eight H-1 engines, 1. Configuration changes for the Saturn C-1 launch vehicles -. These included: Elimination of third-stage development, since two stages could put more than ten tons into earth orbit. Use of six LR 15,pound Centaur engines second-stage thrust thus increased from 70, to 90, pounds. Redesign of the first stage S-1 to offer more safety for manned missions.
Plans were also presented to accelerate the development of the Saturn C- 2, and a recommendation was made that a prime contractor be selected to work on the second stage S-II of the C Mercury MR-3A cancelled -. Call Sign : Freedom 7. Crew : Shepard. Backup Crew : Grissom. Payload : Mercury SC7. It was only men who had a passion for rocket flight Others had more heavenly goals On the other hand, German Army Ordinance in the late s and early s was thinking of a modern long-range cannon-type device which could propel an artillery shell for 50, 60 miles and more Army Ordinance had had one ultra long-range cannon during the last few years of World War One which could launch a shell up to fifty miles distance.
This ultra long range gun was known as the Paris Cannon Pariskanone and was destroyed post-war as spelled out in the Treaty of Versailles. They were not allowed tanks and its artillery was limited to cannon no larger than mm which was no more than light artillery.
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Yet, by the late s many of the high-ranking Army Ordinance officers were men who had once been assigned to the ultra long-range cannon such as the Paris Cannon as young officers during the Great War. Now, as high-ranking officers, they were looking for modern day versions of a big gun. According to Dornberger :. I had been a heavy gunner. It could fire a 8. My idea of a first big rocket was something that would send a ton 2, pounds of high explosive over miles In the late s, Army Ordinance was seriously thinking of how they might hurl up to 2, pounds of high explosive at an enemy city one hundred sixty miles distant.
Could such a heavy shell be propelled by some form of a rocket once it left its cannon barrel to give it the ultra range desired? Or, for example, could 2, pounds of high explosives be placed in the nose of a rocket and launched against an enemy city? It seemed a do-able proposition. In the late s movie maker Fritz Lang was demonstrating how people, riding in the nose of a rocket, could be landed on the Moon. General Becker and Oberst Dornberger believed that it should be possible to substitute the people for 2, pounds of high explosives and launch it not to the Moon, as Fritz Lang had successfully demonstrated in his movie, but at cities or more miles away?
It would be the marriage of these two interests, amateur rocketeers and Army Ordinance, into a singular goal-minded pursuit of researching and developing a rocket capable of carry 2, pounds of explosives to cities filled with enemy citizens. Rocket development became a closed subject Their goal, according to Walter Dornberger , was to turn the rocket into a practical weapon of war.
To learn the basic principles of liquid fuel rockets Army Ordinance in issued a contract with Dr. Paul Heylandt owner of the Paul Heylandt Chemical Werk of Berlin-Brietz to design and construct a bi-fuel liquid rocket motor of [20 kilograms] thrust. Walter Riedel of Heylandt had designed and built rocket motors for the late daredevil Max Valier between and which had powered his experimental autos, ice sleds, even rocket-powered railroad sleds.
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The rocketeers experienced set backs and accidents. Chemist Dr. Wahmke and two of his assistants would die in March when a bi-fuel liquid rocket motor exploded as they were seeking to premix alcohol with hydrogen peroxide. Three rocket test stands were constructed at Kummersdorf with monies provided by General Becker. It was known as the A-1 and it weighed pounds [ kilograms].
It was followed by the A-2 which was designed to produce 2, pounds [1, kilograms] of thrust. Following the A-1 and A-2 rocket missiles, Walter Dornberger wrote a report outlining how rockets could be utilized in military roles. These applications included:. They had outgrown the facilities. But thanks to Generaloberst von Fritsch , the rocketeers had been promised in , an entirely new rocket experimental facility in a remote area of northern Germany.