But one organism's garbage is another's gold,and all that rotting dead stuffultimately provides the energy that nourishes usand most of life on Earth,as it passes through the food web. Now that's some food for thought. Esses tornam-se detrito,a base da chamada cadeia alimentar castanha,que se parece mais com isto. Muitos dos animais que comemosalimentam-se diretamente de detritos— o porco, as aves, os cogumelos, o mariscoou o peixe-gato e outros peixes de fundo —ou de subprodutos animais. Eis algo para Se ve el cielo. De haber tenido otra historia, otro contexto, otra suerte. Porque nadie, nadie, puede elegir el lugar donde nace.
Y entonces yo dije para empezar este taller yo necesito alguna herramienta que tengamos todos. Y esa herramienta era el lenguaje. Muchos no manejaban la letra cursiva, apenas una imprenta. Entonces empezamos a buscar poemas cortos, muy cortos, pero muy potentes. Y a ellos infierno les sobra. Les sobra infierno. Todo esto que dicen, que no duermen nunca. Esto destila miedo. Todo esto no escrito.
Uno quiere celebrar y hacer una fiesta. Eso fue a fines de Hicimos una segunda apuesta y escribimos otro libro. Y encuadernaron otro libro. Todos por igual. Abre puertas. Inventa un espejo, que es el poema. Ellos se reconocen, se miran en el poema y escriben desde lo que son y son desde lo que escriben.
As gaivotas passam a voar e acreditas que tens o mar ali ao lado. Essa ferramenta era a linguagem. Inferno de sobra. Tudo isto que dizem, que nunca dormem, isso destila medo. Queremos celebrar e fazer uma festa. Isto passou-se em finais de Fizemos uma segunda aposta e escrevemos outro livro. E encadernaram outro livro. Na altura do curso, esse inferno amado que temos, todos damos. A poesia faz isso. Abre portas. A poesia funciona como um espelho.
Para mim, a poesia e a literatura mudaram a minha vida. Muito obrigado! Aplausos CD: Obrigada! Crabs wave their claws at each other to signal that they're healthyand ready to mate. Cuttlefish use pigmented skin cells called chromatophoresto create patterns on their skin that act as camouflageor warnings to rivals. Honeybees perform complex dancesto let other bees know the location and quality of a food source. All of these animals have impressive communication systems,but do they have language?
To answer that question,we can look at four specific qualities that are often associated with language:discreteness,grammar,productivity,and displacement. Discreteness means that there is a set of individual units,such as sounds or words,that can be combined to communicate new ideas,like a set of refrigerator poetry magnets you can rearrangeto create different phrases.
Grammar provides a system of rulesthat tells you how to combine those individual units. Productivity is the ability to use languageto create an infinite number of messages. And displacement is the ability to talk about thingsthat aren't right in front of you,such as past, future, or fictional events. So, does animal communication exhibit any of these qualities? For crabs and cuttlefish, the answer is no.
They don't combine their signals in creative ways. Those signals also don't have to be in a grammatical order,and they only communicate current conditions,like, "I am healthy," or "I am poisonous.
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Bees use the moves, angle, duration, and intensity of their waggle danceto describe the location and richness of a food source. That source is outside the hive,so they exhibit the property of displacement. They share that language trait with prairie dogs,which live in towns of thousands,and are hunted by coyotes, hawks, badgers, snakes, and humans. Their alarms calls indicate the predator's size, shape, speed,and, even for human predators, what the person is wearingand if he's carrying a gun. Great apes, like chimps and gorillas, are great communicators, too.
Some have even learned a modified sign language. A chimpanzee named Washoe demonstrated discretenessby combining multiple signs into original phrases,like, "Please open. In doing so, she displayed displacement,though it's worth noting that the apes in both of these exampleswere using a human communication system,not one that appeared naturally in the wild. There are many other examples of sophisticated animal communication,such as in dolphins,which use whistles to identify age, location, names, and gender.
They can also understand some grammarin a gestural language researchers use to communicate with them. However, grammar is not seen in the dolphin's natural communication. While these communication systemsmay have some of the qualities of language we've identified,none display all four. Even Washoe and Coco's impressive abilities are still outpacedby the language skills of most three-year-old humans.
And animals' topics of conversation are usually limited. Bees talk about food,prairie dogs talk about predators,and crabs talk about themselves. Human language stands alonedue to the powerful combination of grammar and productivity,on top of discreteness and displacement. The human brain can take a finite number of elementsand create an infinite number of messages.
We can craft and understand complex sentences,as well as words that have never been spoken before. We can use language to communicate about an endless range of subjects,talk about imaginary things,and even lie. Research continues to reveal more and more about animal communication. It may turn out that human language and animal communicationaren't entirely different but exist on a continuum. After all, we are all animals. Podemos construir e entender frases complexas,assim como palavras que nunca antes foram ditas.
Afinal, somos todos animais. A rise in sea leveldecreasing snow and ice cover in the northern hemisphereand a decline in sea ice in the Arctic. If emissions continue unchecked then further warming of 2. Even at the low end. This would have serious implications for human societiesand the natural world.
For more information about climate change from leading science academies,please visitroyalsociety. Maiores quantidades de gases de estufa na atmosferasignificam que mais calor fica preso a aquecer a Terra. I've been leading polar expeditions for most of my adult life, and last month, my teammate Tarka L'Herpiniere and I finished the most ambitious expedition I've ever attempted.
In fact, it feels like I've been transported straight here from four months in the middle of nowhere, mostly grunting and swearing, straight to the TED stage. So you can imagine that's a transition that hasn't been entirely seamless. One of the interesting side effects seems to be that my short-term memory is entirely shot.
So I've had to write some notes to avoid too much grunting and swearing in the next 17 minutes. This is the first talk I've given about this expedition, and while we weren't sequencing genomes or building space telescopes, this is a story about giving everything we had to achieve something that hadn't been done before. So I hope in that you might find some food for thought. It's a fascinating place. It's a huge place. It's twice the size of Australia, a continent that is the same size as China and India put together.
My husband and I did Antarctica with Lindblad for our anniversary. In the process, we broke the record for the longest human-powered polar journey in history by more than miles. Applause For those of you from the Bay Area, it was the same as walking from here to San Francisco, then turning around and walking back again. So as camping trips go, it was a long one, and one I've seen summarized most succinctly here on the hallowed pages of Business Insider Malaysia. Of the nine people in history that had attempted this journey before us, none had made it to the pole and back, and five had died in the process.
He led the last team to attempt this expedition. Scott and his rival Sir Ernest Shackleton, over the space of a decade, both led expeditions battling to become the first to reach the South Pole, to chart and map the interior of Antarctica, a place we knew less about, at the time, than the surface of the moon, because we could see the moon through telescopes.
Antarctica was, for the most part, a century ago, uncharted. Scott's last expedition, the Terra Nova Expedition in , started as a giant siege-style approach. He had a big team using ponies, using dogs, using petrol-driven tractors, dropping multiple, pre-positioned depots of food and fuel through which Scott's final team of five would travel to the Pole, where they would turn around and ski back to the coast again on foot. Scott and his final team of five arrived at the South Pole in January to find they had been beaten to it by a Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen, who rode on dogsled.
Scott's team ended up on foot. And for more than a century this journey has remained unfinished. Scott's team of five died on the return journey. And for the last decade, I've been asking myself why that is. How come this has remained the high-water mark? Scott's team covered 1, miles on foot. No one's come close to that ever since. So this is the high-water mark of human endurance, human endeavor, human athletic achievement in arguably the harshest climate on Earth.
It was as if the marathon record has remained unbroken since And of course some strange and predictable combination of curiosity, stubbornness, and probably hubris led me to thinking I might be the man to try to finish the job. Our sledges weighed kilos, or pounds each at the start, the same weights that the weakest of Scott's ponies pulled. Early on, we averaged 0.
Perhaps the reason no one had attempted this journey until now, in more than a century, was that no one had been quite stupid enough to try. And while I can't claim we were exploring in the genuine Edwardian sense of the word — we weren't naming any mountains or mapping any uncharted valleys — I think we were stepping into uncharted territory in a human sense. Certainly, if in the future we learn there is an area of the human brain that lights up when one curses oneself, I won't be at all surprised.
We didn't go indoors for nearly four months.
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We didn't see a sunset either. It was hour daylight. Living conditions were quite spartan. I changed my underwear three times in days and Tarka and I shared 30 square feet on the canvas. Though we did have some technology that Scott could never have imagined. And we blogged live every evening from the tent via a laptop and a custom-made satellite transmitter, all of which were solar-powered: we had a flexible photovoltaic panel over the tent. And the writing was important to me.
As a kid, I was inspired by the literature of adventure and exploration, and I think we've all seen here this week the importance and the power of storytelling. The lowest wind chill we experienced was in the s, and we had zero visibility, what's called white-out, for much of our journey. We traveled up and down one of the largest and most dangerous glaciers in the world, the Beardmore glacier. It's miles long; most of its surface is what's called blue ice. You can see it's a beautiful, shimmering steel-hard blue surface covered with thousands and thousands of crevasses, these deep cracks in the glacial ice up to feet deep.
Planes can't land here, so we were at the most risk, technically, when we had the slimmest chance of being rescued. They have an airstrip, they have a canteen, they have hot showers, they have a post office, a tourist shop, a basketball court that doubles as a movie theater. So it's a bit different these days, and there are also acres of junk.
I think it's a marvelous thing that humans can exist days of the year with hamburgers and hot showers and movie theaters, but it does seem to produce a lot of empty cardboard boxes. You can see on the left of this photograph, several square acres of junk waiting to be flown out from the South Pole. But there is also a pole at the South Pole, and we got there on foot, unassisted, unsupported, by the hardest route, miles in record time, dragging more weight than anyone in history.
And if we'd stopped there and flown home, which would have been the eminently sensible thing to do, then my talk would end here and it would end something like this. High on the Antarctic plateau, over 10, feet, it's very windy, very cold, very dry, we were exhausted. We'd covered 35 marathons, we were only halfway, and we had a safety net, of course, of ski planes and satellite phones and live, hour tracking beacons that didn't exist for Scott, but in hindsight, rather than making our lives easier, the safety net actually allowed us to cut things very fine indeed, to sail very close to our absolute limits as human beings.
And it is an exquisite form of torture to exhaust yourself to the point of starvation day after day while dragging a sledge full of food. We had, before we'd got to the Pole, two weeks of almost permanent headwind, which slowed us down. As a result, we'd had several days of eating half rations. We had a finite amount of food in the sledges to make this journey, so we were trying to string that out by reducing our intake to half the calories we should have been eating.
As a result, we both became increasingly hypoglycemic — we had low blood sugar levels day after day — and increasingly susceptible to the extreme cold. Tarka took this photo of me one evening after I'd nearly passed out with hypothermia. We both had repeated bouts of hypothermia, something I hadn't experienced before, and it was very humbling indeed. As much as you might like to think, as I do, that you're the kind of person who doesn't quit, that you'll go down swinging, hypothermia doesn't leave you much choice.
You become utterly incapacitated. It's like being a drunk toddler. You become pathetic. I remember just wanting to lie down and quit. It was a peculiar, peculiar feeling, and a real surprise to me to be debilitated to that degree. We'd laid 10 depots of food, literally burying food and fuel, for our return journey — the fuel was for a cooker so you could melt snow to get water — and I was forced to make the decision to call for a resupply flight, a ski plane carrying eight days of food to tide us over that gap. They took 12 hours to reach us from the other side of Antarctica.
And I sound like a bit of a fraud standing here now with a sort of belly. I've put on 30 pounds in the last three weeks. Being that hungry has left an interesting mental scar, which is that I've been hoovering up every hotel buffet that I can find. Laughter But we were genuinely quite hungry, and in quite a bad way.
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I don't regret calling for that plane for a second, because I'm still standing here alive, with all digits intact, telling this story. But getting external assistance like that was never part of the plan, and it's something my ego is still struggling with. This was the biggest dream I've ever had, and it was so nearly perfect. We still had miles to go downhill on very slippery rock-hard blue ice. They needed repairing almost every hour. To give you an idea of scale, this is looking down towards the mouth of the Beardmore Glacier.
You could fit the entirety of Manhattan in the gap on the horizon. That's 20 miles between Mount Hope and Mount Kiffin. I've never felt as small as I did in Antarctica. When we got down to the mouth of the glacier, we found fresh snow had obscured the dozens of deep crevasses. One of Shackleton's men described crossing this sort of terrain as like walking over the glass roof of a railway station. We fell through more times than I can remember, usually just putting a ski or a boot through the snow. Occasionally we went in all the way up to our armpits, but thankfully never deeper than that.
You can see the ice in the foreground and the sort of rubbly rock behind that.
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Behind us lay an unbroken ski trail of nearly 1, miles. We'd made the longest ever polar journey on foot, something I'd been dreaming of doing for a decade. As I said, there are very few superficial signs that I've been away. I've put on 30 pounds. I've got some very faint, probably covered in makeup now, frostbite scars. I've got one on my nose, one on each cheek, from where the goggles are, but inside I am a very different person indeed.
If I'm honest, Antarctica challenged me and humbled me so deeply that I'm not sure I'll ever be able to put it into words. I'm still struggling to piece together my thoughts. That I'm standing here telling this story is proof that we all can accomplish great things, through ambition, through passion, through sheer stubbornness, by refusing to quit, that if you dream something hard enough, as Sting said, it does indeed come to pass. But I'm also standing here saying, you know what, that cliche about the journey being more important than the destination? There's something in that.
The closer I got to my finish line, that rubbly, rocky coast of Ross Island, the more I started to realize that the biggest lesson that this very long, very hard walk might be teaching me is that happiness is not a finish line, that for us humans, the perfection that so many of us seem to dream of might not ever be truly attainable, and that if we can't feel content here, today, now, on our journeys amidst the mess and the striving that we all inhabit, the open loops, the half-finished to-do lists, the could-do-better-next-times, then we might never feel it.
Right now, I am very happy just recovering and in front of hotel buffets. But as Bob Hope put it, I feel very humble, but I think I have the strength of character to fight it. Laughter Thank you. Na verdade, parece que fui transportado diretamente para aqui depois de quatro meses no meio do nada, sobretudo a resmungar e a praguejar, diretamente para o palco TED. A equipa de cinco de Scott morreu na viagem de volta. Foi como se o recorde da maratona se tivesse mantido desde Havia luz do sol durante 24 horas.
Antes de chegarmos ao Polo, tivemos duas semanas de vento quase permanente, o que nos atrasou. O Tarka tirou-me esta foto numa tarde depois de eu quase ter desmaiado com hipotermia. Foi uma coisa muito humilhante. Ficamos completamente incapacitados. Precisavam de ser arranjados quase a toda a hora. Ganhei 14 kg. Tenho cicatrizes muito leves das queimaduras do frio bem maquilhadas. Estou a tentar juntar os meus pensamentos. Risos Obrigado. We've all been there. Todos passamos por isso.
Il transforme toujours tout en positif. Je peux. Je peux faire. Regarder pousser les fleurs. Vraiment tous les jours! Pas du tout. Transforma sempre tudo em positivo. Fala-me da natureza. Ver as flores crescerem. De todos os dias! Dedicado por el autor. En rama. Grabado sobre dibujo de Alfio Grifasi. Buen estado.
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Dos libros que hacen que la memoria brote a traves de una forma breve.