She seeks out her only sibling, and discovers that their nightmares are shared and that life's intimacies are now met with fear and trepidation. When Sabina and Franco, her boyfriend, are surprised with news about their future, Sabina is forced to face her past. La bocca del lupo Call Number: HQ I8 B6 Region 4. Charts the life and relationship of Enzo and Mary, a couple living in the slums of the Italian city of Genoa.
The unlikely romance begins in prison, where Enzo, a macho hardman serving a long stretch for shooting a police officer, meets Mary Monaco, a transsexual inmate serving time for prostitution, who works in the laundry repairing clothes. Falling for each other very quickly, Mary promises to wait for Enzo once she gets out of prison. When she is released, Mary finds a home for them to share, but in the meantime, she becomes addicted to heroin. La carne Call Number: PN Divorced piano player Paolo meets and falls in love with a most beauteously busty woman, Francesca, who uses her special powers to turn the man into her sex slave.
While he is completely taken by his desire for her, she eventually gets bored and decides to leave him. Unfortunately for Francesca, Paolo loves her and has no intention of letting her go. Then he follows her through a forest to a weird hotel where a feminist convention is being held. He is so unnerved by the vociferous hostility of the militants that he hides in the mansion of a female killer who has wooed and won a thousand hearts.
In the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear incident, Mariko becomes unable to sleep. She therefore decides to move to Sicily to stay with Rocco. There she discovers that she is able to sleep again, but only when driven around at night, nurtured by the lights of the unknown city. The day thus becomes a new invigorating domain for her, an opportunity to rediscover and reinterpret the signs and meanings of her life through her skills of photography.
La commare secca Call Number: PQ E C6 The brutalized corpse of a prostitute is found in a Roman park, along the banks of the Tiber River. The police round up and interrogate a handful of possible suspects who were in the park that night. Each has to explain why he is there. One by one, each account brings them closer to the killer. C67 A young Italian boy, the son of a brutal kidnapper, is the only survivor when his family is killed by a rival gang.
The boy flees, pursued by the police and the killers, and searches for a new life with a loving family unlike his own and an end to his family's history of criminal behavior. La doppia ora Call Number: PQ A12 D6 Guido, a former cop, is a veteran of the speed-dating scene in Turin. But, much to his surprise, he meets Sonia, a chambermaid at a hotel. The two hit it off, and a passionate romance develops. After they leave the city for a romantic getaway in the country, things suddenly take a dark turn. A74 L3 Simple story of an unemployed man and his family living in war devastated Rome.
The father finds a job pasting up posters and signs, work requiring a bicycle on which to get around. When his bicycle is stolen the father and his son are forced to steal one in desperation and are caught. This version includes the original U. La giusta distanza Call Number: PN G Region 2. Giovanni, a late adolescent with a flair for journalistic correspondence, attaches himself to a big city paper and agrees to cover events that transpire in his Po River Valley hamlet.
Meanwhile, the arrival in town of teacher Mara turns more than a few heads, including Giovanni's and that of Hassan, a local immigrant mechanic from Tunisia. Mara herself just happens to be single, but finds a dearth of acceptable suitors in the community, except for Guido, a bus driver; problem is, he's already romantically involved with another. Mara then finds Hassan spying through her window one night; she manages to overlook this, however, and then--on an ill-advised note--begins a romance with the mechanic, without recognizing the extent of what she's getting herself into.
O K7 Region 2. Set in s Naples, bullied nine year-old Peppino is watching the world around him as his extended dysfunctional family change. Psychedelic flower power and hippie love is threatening the old traditional southern Italian family. Dad is having an affair and Mum has taken to her bed with depression. Super-mod brother and sister Titina and Salvatore take the boy under their wings, introducing him to demonstrations and love-ins, whilst caped superhero Gennaro visits Peppino even after being knocked down and killed by the number 12 bus.
R M3 The Lark Farm tackles the Armenian genocide. The story concerns the Avakian clan. An Armenian family living an affluent lifestyle and periodically shuttling back and forth between their two comfortable homes, the Avakians feel convinced that the rising tide of Turkish hostility on the horizon means little to them and will scarcely affect their day to day. Indeed, the Avakians ignore the warning signs, and set about preparing for a family reunion with the impending visit of two well-to-do sons - landowner Aram, who resides in Turkey, and Assadour, a physician living in Venice.
Lo and behold, these illusions come crashing down when a Turkish military regiment crops up at the house, annihilates every male member of the family and forces the ladies to trek off into the Syrian desert, where they will be left to rot. Meanwhile, a handsome Turkish officer falls for Aram's daughter and makes an aggressive attempt to deliver her and her family from certain death, even as the circumstances surrounding him attest to the astounding difficulty of this goal. M44 A family saga set in Rome from through that details the lives of two brothers, Nicola and Matteo Carati, who go their separate ways after attempting to rescue a young girl, Giorgia from an abusive sanitarium.
Set against the backdrop of contemporary Italian history, the film follows the characters through such major historical incidents as the flooding of Florence in , the terrorist activities of the Red Brigades, mental asylum reforms, the student protests of , Italy's elimination from the World Cup at the hands of Korea and its subsequent victory in , and Tangentopoli and the consequent death of anti-mob judge Giovanni Falcone.
La pazza gioia Call Number: PQ I79 P3 Beatrice is a motor-mouthed fantasist, a self-styled billionaire countess who likes to believe she's on intimate terms with world leaders. Donatella is a tattooed introvert, a fragile young woman locked in her own mystery. They are both patients at [Tuscany's] Villa Biondi, a progressive but secure psychiatric clinic. La pelle Call Number: PQ A P4 This film looks at the aftermath of the German occupation of Italy during World War II and the equally difficult results of life during the Allied liberation.
La pivellina Call Number: PN P58 A tale of people at the margins of society who open their hearts to a stranger. In a run-down park on the outskirts of Rome, a two-year-old girl is discovered and taken in by a family of circus performers. A note from a desperate mother reveals little about who she is or why she was left. As the bond grows between the girl and her surrogate family, this film becomes a revealing and soulful portrait of courage and discrimination, and of loss and togetherness. La prima cosa bella Call Number: PQ I P7 Follows a strong and optimistic mother raising her two children against all odds.
Throughout grief and pain she teaches her family to remain open and loving and to cherish the little joys in life. La ragazza del lago Call Number: PT O R3 When a beautiful young girl is found murdered in an idyllic northern Italy village, Inspector Giovanni Sanzio is called in from the capital to investigate.
But in a small town where nobody is what they seem, anyone could be capable of homicide and everyone may be hiding a dark secret La sapienza Call Number: PN S27 Alexandre decides to set off for Italy with the idea of completing his draft of a book on Borromini, and his wife Alienor comes along. Once there, they meet Goffredo, who is set to embark in architectural studies, and Lavinia, who is suffering from a nervous disorder.
Alienor decides to stay to help Lavinia, and Alexandre continues on his travels with Goffredo. This separation for husband and wife will be the start of an inner journey for them both. A S3 It's a story of the desperate search for one of Vigata's most upstanding citizens - a man who vanishes right after his appearance in the annual Passion Play. South collides with North as a local Sicilian carabiniere teams up with a Neapolitan police officer to unlock the mystery of his disappearance. Irena is a mysterious Ukrainian woman with a secret who works her way into the lives of an Italian, affluent young family.
She stops at nothing to become the couple's trusted maid and beloved nanny to their fragile young daughter. But deep cracks underneath Irena's dedication soon become apparent as her horrific past and chilling obsession are revealed. When a judge and his bodyguards are brutally murdered by the Mafia, four reluctant young cops are assigned to protect the new prosecutor where the only thing that lies ahead of them is more danger. Based on a true story. La siciliana ribelle Call Number: PN Dramatic retelling of the story of Rita Atria, a year-old Sicilian girl whose father and brother were both Mafia members and victims who breaks the vow of silence that enshrouds that world, and gives evidence to famed anti-Mafia judge Paolo Borsellino.
Her days are numbered from that moment on. She has only nine months to live. La solitudine dei numeri primi Call Number: PQ I57 S6 Region 2. Primary numbers can only be divided by one or by themselves. They are solitary numbers and are incomprehensible to others. Alice and Mattia are both "primary numbers", both persecuted by tragedies which have marked their childhoods: a skiing accident in the case of Alice, which has led to a defect in one leg; the loss of a twin sister in the case of Mattia.
When as teenagers they meet in the school corridor, they recognize each other's pain. As they grow up their destinies interweave and they form a special bond, until Mattia, having graduated in Physics, decides to accept a job abroad. The two separate for many years and only a sequence of events will bring them back together, bringing back to the surface a number of emotions never confessed. Set in modern day Rome. Valeria, a lonely interpreter, becomes obsessed with a man named Massimo, a doctor who lives in her apartment building. However, when Massimo moves to Turin, Valeria follows him, only to discover that he is involved with an older woman.
Valeria eventually meets the other woman and the two form a close relationship, one that evolves into a love triangle with Massimo at the center of it. Tragedy hits the family of a psychiatrist and they struggle with anger and grief until an unexpected visitor forces them to confront their feelings. She follows him on the road "la strada" and helps him during his shows. She meets "The Fool", a funambulist. La terra trema Call Number: PQ V5 T4 In the poor Sicilian village of Aci Trezza the fisherman have been exploited for generations.
Tired of the endless cycle of poverty, a young soldier returns home from war and convinces his family to strike out on their own. Tragically, his plan to change the system is met with a cruel blow that pushes them even further under water. La tigre e la neve Call Number: PQ E T5 Soon after the start of hostilities in Iraq, Attilio heads to Baghdad when he learns from his friend that the woman he loves has been critically injured in a bomb explosion. Attilio does everything in his power to save her, risking his own life amidst the chaos of war.
La visita Call Number: PN V Pina takes out an ad in the personal column hoping to find a man to take her away from the tiny Italian village where she lives. For months now she has been trying to find the right one--a man with a solid career, a family in mind, and plenty of stamina. Adolfo, a successful businessman from Rome, replies to Pina's ad, and the couple arrange to meet in the village where Pina lives. Incorporating flashbacks from both of their lives, the complexity of their characters is slowly revealed and when the two finally meet, Pina quickly concludes that Adolfo is the one.
V58 A charming but bumbling waiter who's gifted with a colorful imagination and an irresistible sense of humor has won the heart of the woman he loves and has created a beautiful life for his young family. Then that life is threatened by World War II. Gianni is reunited with Paolo, the year-old son he has never seen, a son he abandoned at birth.
The reunion is not Gianni's idea, but that of Paolo's doctor who hopes the connection will benefit the troubled boy. Gianni experiences a Pandora's box in Paolo, full of shocks and wonders, but the key to one's house are oftern found in the keys to one's heart. A24 M3 Following the fatal collapse of a tenement building, an investigation reveals that profits from municipal developments are going to city council members and developers in backroom negotiations. Le notti bianche Call Number: PG B5 N6 Region 2. Set in Livorno in the s, Mario, a shy young man, meets a mysterious girl, Natalie, sobbing on a canal bridge.
She tells him she loves a sailor who left on a long journey and promised to return in one year. The year is up and he hasn't arrived. Mario falls in love with her and has just persuaded her that the sailor will never return Q38 With little dialogue, this film is a meditation on the mysterious cycles of life. Set in Italy's mountainous region of Calabria, it traces the path of one goat herder's soul as it passes from human to animal to vegetable to mineral.
Working as both a spiritual investigation and a documentary of Calabrian life, the film's surface hides a complex understanding of humanity. L83 Antonio, a youngish chauffeur who is a model of professional promptness and courtesy. He also possesses a vivid inner world dominated by images of other worlds and other planets.
A chance near-accident introduces him to Maria , a struggling single mother trying desperately to keep her frozen foods store afloat and to keep her daughter from being taken away from her by the child's grasping grandparents. Even though Maria is extremely suspicious of Antonio's intentions, the two form a slow tentative relationship. When he learns Maria's dire circumstances, he selflessly tries to intercede at the expense of his own career.
Antonio makes quiet deals with the sleazy gangster whom Maria owes money, drives the crime boss around on his various errands, and eventually participates in some of his shady dealings. L25 Region 2. Yussouf is an African artist who is promised a job by his uncle in Italy. Unable to find his uncle once he gets there, Yussouf ends up in Castel Volturno, a city of African immigrants. There, he discovers the day-to-day struggles these people face, their mistreatment, and exploitation. He is also unfortunate enough to witness the activities of the criminal Camorra, a deadly Naples-based Mafia.
Mafioso Call Number: PQ Z45 M3 Nino is an auto-factory foreman who takes his wife and two daughters from industrial Milan to the antiquated, rural Sicily to visit his family and get back in touch with his roots. Nino gets more than he bargained for when he discovers some harsh truths about his ancestors and himself.
Manuale d'amore 3 Call Number: PQ H M3 Region 4. Examines three different couples united in their quest for love: Roberto, an ambitious lawyer is going to marry Sara. His whole life is perfectly planned out. Things get complicated when he meets Micol, a woman from a small village in Tuscany. Fabio, a famous anchorman, has been the perfect husband for 25 years. A one-night stand with Eliana proves to be more than what he bargained when she refuses to leave. Adrian, an American art history professor, has been living the loner life in Rome since divorcing his wife years ago. His limited and tranquil existence is disturbed when he meets his doorman's daughter.
Maternity blues Call Number: PQ E M3 Region 2. In a moment of madness Clara has killed her baby. Found not bearing liability for her acts by the court, she is sent to a carceral psychiatric hospital. There, she shares a room with women who, like her, committed an act from which there is no going back. Clara and her roommates try to go on living with the weight of their sins on their shoulders, but consolation escapes their minds. Matrimonio all'italiana Call Number: PQ I48 M3 Domenico first meets year-old Filumena in a Neapolitan brothel in the second World War.
After the war they become lovers on and off for 22 years. Domenico eventually rents an apartment for Filumena and even lets her run his shop but is always chasing other women. When Domenico chooses to marry a young cashier instead of her, Filumena is furious, and resorts to a series of wild ruses to win back his hand. Mediterraneo Call Number: PQ O M4 In , a small group of misfit Italian soldiers is sent to a tiny Greek island in the Agean for four months of lookout duty. Their relief ship is torpedoed and their radio destroyed. As they lose all touch with the world outside, they are absorbed into the life of the idyllic island.
Mia madre Call Number: PN M52 Margherita is a film director who quickly finds out that her lead Hollywood actor is rather difficult to work with. If his demands weren't enough, her mother's health has recently declined and Margherita struggles to find the balance and harmony between work and family life. Mine vaganti Call Number: PQ O M5 Region 2. Tommaso is about to reveal to his large, frenetic Italian family that he's gay. But he's beaten to the punch by his older brother, who is promptly disinherited by their furious father.
E M5 Set during Italy's violent political period of the s. Two brothers, Accio and Manrico, attempt to distance themselves from each other by joining opposing political parties, but our ultimately tied to each other by their working-class family. A9 M5 Region 4. An Italian orphan, with the aid of a miraculous dove, combats power and wealth and succeeds in bringing happiness to the inhabitants of a Milanese hobo camp. Comedy, satire, and realism are combined in this fantasy about the social conceits of man. A7 N43 The River Po dominates the region of Ferrara with its seasons, its power and its mystery.
It nourishes the close-knit fishing communities who live on its banks, and it also hides their secrets. Secrets that are sometimes uncovered by people like police inspector Franco Soneri. A N6 Timoteo is a successful surgeon and permissive father whose teenage daughter, Angela, has just had a life-threatening motorbike accident. Sitting in the hospital, wondering if his daughter will survive, Timoteo remembers back to a day 15 years earlier when his car broke down on a remote country road in the rain and a young woman, Italia, invited him into her home only to have him force himself upon her.
Timoteo then returned home to his wife, Elsa. But unable to get Italia out of his mind, Timoteo returned again and again to her. They began to develop genuine feelings for each other. Elsa is reluctant to have children, despite Timoteo's wishes, so when he learns that Italia is pregnant, he has to decide to between his family and Italia.
Nostri ragazzi Call Number: PT O25 N6 A story about two brothers and their wives, and the relationships between them and their two high-school age children. When the kids get into serious trouble, tensions between the brothers and their families escalate. Will the parents protect their children, or will they force them to face the consequences of their crime?
R55 N6 Region 2. Explore the classic problems teenagers face when passing from adolescence to adult age. Set in the summer of , on the brink of his exams, Luca Molinari, a graduating student, insults his literature teacher, Antonio Martinelli, in a final act of rebellion.
This act backfires when Martinelli states that he will be part of the judging panel in their grueling oral exam. At a party the same evening, Luca falls in love with Martinelli's daughter, Claudia. Notte prima degli esami oggi Call Number: PQ A sequel to Notte prima degli esami, this movie is about the same high school teenagers from the original film, but transplants them from the s to the Italy of Novecento Call Number: PQ E N6 A portrait of two friends, both born on January 1, the son of a socialist farmer and the son of a fascist landowner.
The two men pass through the upheavals of the modern world, as their personal conflicts become an allegory of the political turmoil of 20th century Italy. O7 O4 A dark and riveting retelling of the classic Greek tragedy, 'Oedipus Rex'. Unknown to himself, Oedipus kills his father and marries his mother. When the truth is discovered, he puts out his eyes and Oedipus wanders the streets until he is found by his daughter, Antigone, a common blind beggar.
O73 Living on the outskirts of society, an orange thief and some other country-wise ruffians steal fruit for sustenance and the sheer excitement of courting danger. After the thief ends up in jail, his life takes a turn when his bunkmate promises him a deal.
Ossessione Call Number: PS A O8 The story of the ill-fated love between Gino, a virile drifter, who arrives by chance at a roadside restaurant and filling station, and Giovanna, the wife of the man who owns the place. Gino leaves, only to return because he can't get her out of his blood. They kill her husband but his death haunts the guilt-ridden Gino. E39 P3 The story of a son's development under an oppressive father. Gavino lives in solitude as an illiterate Sardinian shepherd. Finally he revolts against his father and his own illiteracy, studies and earns a degree and finds his identity through his newly-found ability to communicate.
P When a harried housewife is accidentally left behind while on vacation with her family, she decides to take a holiday of her own in Venice. She becomes charmed by the city and her newfound freedom. She decides to extend her stay, finding a job in a flower shop, renting a room from a wistful waiter, and rediscovers her love for playing the accordion. But her solo journey does not sit well with her tyrannical husband, who hires an amateur detective to bring her back home. P36 Ascending to the papacy in , Paul VI initiated a dialogue among religions but also stirred up a continuing controversy with his strong positions on contraception and abortion.
Pasqualino settebellezze Call Number: PN The defense of honor, a strong value in Neapolitan society, and his effects on the life of everyman Pasquale Frafuso. Perfetti sconosciuti Call Number: PN During a dinner party, seven friends decide to play a dangerous game. The attendees place their cellphones on the table and agree to make all texts and calls public in an attempt to prove that they have nothing to hide.
Rapid fire and wildly entertaining, this film poses the question: how well do we really know those close to us? Pinocchio Call Number: PQ L4 P5 The journey begins when the wooden puppet named Pinocchio comes to life! Then the curious Pinocchio opens the door to one adventure after another despite guidance from the Blue Fairy and his father, Gepetto. P73 A middle-aged man living with his elderly mother finds the best way to pay for their debts is to take care of the building manager's mother during the biggest festival of the year.
Soon he finds himself with not two but four mothers to keep fed and happy. Preferisco il paradiso Call Number: BX F33 P7 One of the most popular saints of all time, St. Philip Neri was widely known for his great charity, deep prayer life, and tremendous humor. Hoping to join St. Ignatius of Loyola's new order of Jeuits and be a missionary to India, Philip was instead guided by Providence to seek out the poor and abandoned youth of Rome to catechize them in the faith and help them find a better life.
He bacame the founder of the religious congregation, the Oratory, that worked with the youth and also labored to re-evangelize a decadent Rome. Primo amore Call Number: PN Vittorio is looking for a woman who matches his ideal. Through a classified ad he meets Sonia, a sweet, pleasant, intelligent girl. However, she weighs pounds -- which according to Vittorio is way too much. A goldsmith by trade, Vittorio is obsessed with the desire to shape Sonia's body and mind as he does gold with fire. Almost imperceptibly Sonia becomes a passive participant and the relationship grows into a reciprocal masochistic game.
When the two lovers isolate themselves in a country house in the Veneto hills, they dangerously lose touch with reality and the rest of the world. T Q3 Region 2. One night during a sailing trip through the Mediterranean, the only son of a wealthy Italian entrepreneur falls overboard. Although given up for dead, Sandro has been rescued by a fishing boat carrying illegal immigrants to Italian shores.
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Reality Call Number: PQ H R4 Luciano is a charming and affable fishmonger whose unexpected and sudden obsession with being a contestant on the reality show "Big brother" leads him down a rabbit hole of skewed perceptions and paranoia. So overcome by his dream of being on reality TV, Luciano's own reality begins to spiral out of control.
Respiro Call Number: PN Grazia is a carefree mother of three, who soon becomes the focus of her neighbors' gossip. While her fellow Lampedusians work and live hard - oblivious to their native paradise - Grazia alone is courageous enough to blissfully embrace life's treasures. Her wild, sensual and free-spirited behavior reflects the unrivaled beauty of her heavenly seaside village. She is not understood or accepted by the social conventions of the town, nor its strict tribal rules. Brings to light the network of true affection inside the family.
Ricordati di me Call Number: PN With his passions reawakened by a long lost love, Carlo's affair threatens to tear apart his entire family. Unfulfilled desires and ambitions which have worn Carlo and his wife down now resurface when a crisis makes them realize the importance of family. R5 R5 Filmed on location in Italy, it tells the beautiful story of young Rita who fell in love and married a handsome knight from a violent family, whom she eventually succeeded in reforming, but then lost him to murder, and also lost their two sons to illness before she lived as an Augustinian nun for forty years.
She is renowned for her prayer life, her role as a peacemaker, her service to the sick, and her stigmata. Countless miracles are attributed to her intercession and she is known as the patron of hopeless situations. Rocco e i suoi fratelli Call Number: PQ E84 R6 Region 4. The story of four Italian brothers and their mother who leave their country home and move to Milan with hopes of improving their bitter fortune. The family is thrown into chaos when two of the brothers are torn apart by their love for the same woman and their struggles to succeed in a viciously competitive world.
Roma Call Number: PN Set in Rome, Federico Fellini reminisces about his childhood, living in the Italian countryside. In school Fellini studies the history of ancient Rome and is eventually exposed to the real thing, arriving in Rome during the beginning of World War II. Once there, through a series of chance encounters, Fellini reinterprets Rome's modern city life with that of Italy's history as a whole. O64 The loyalties of an impoverished mother-to-be and a parish priest are tested by the German forces which occupy their homeland during World War II.
Romanzo di una strage Call Number: PN R Region 2. On December 12, , a huge bomb planted in a bank in Milan killed 17 people, a shocking crime that the Italian police first blamed on anarchists. This drama taken from real-life events chronicles the successive twists in the Piazza Fontana story. O S2 Saturno contro Call Number: PN This film focuses on contemporary and somethings trying to make sense of their lives in an age in which the old certainties have disappeared.
Lorenzo and Davide make their lives together within a circle that includes married couple, Antonio and Angelica; Nerval and her policeman husband, Roberto; Davide's ex, Sergio; and a new arrival to the group, Paolo. When tragedy strikes, the boundaries and divisions among friends, acquaintances and even lovers become brutally apparent. S In English. O'Flaherty devotes all his time and energy to hiding refugees and Allied POWs from the Nazis, building a network of hundreds of people to help him with his efforts. Colonel Kappler, the local gestapo chief, learns of O'Flaherty's activities.
The priest has diplomatic immunity because of his Vatican post, but Kappler orders that he be captured or killed if seen outside the Vatican walls. Pope Pius XII remains aloof insisting on the church's neutrality. Working closely with a brave widow of an aristocrat, O'Flaherty uses disguises to slip in and out of the Vatican, continuing his dangerous mission until Rome is liberated, and saving thousands of innocent people from death.
In post-World War II Rome, Italy, Giuseppe and Pasquale, hoping to escape the harsh reality of poverty and violence, work on the street shining the shoes of American troops. But when the boys are falsely accused of a crime, they are sent to a brutal state juvenile detention center.
Senso Call Number: PQ S4 In Venice, during the spring of , it is the last month of the Austrian occupation of the Veneto. The Italian government has forged a pact with Prussia, and another war of liberation in the ongoing Risorgimento is imminent. Countess Livia Serpieri, unloved by her collaborator-husband but sympathetic to the cause of freedom espoused by her patriotic cousin Roberto, meets Austrian officer Franz Mahler as she begs him to call off a duel with Roberto.
She falls in love with the officer, the country marches to revolution, and her dedication to the cause wilts under her desire and obsession. Mesmerized by him, she betrays not only her husband and cousin, but the revolution, too, with tragic results. Siena Call Number: DG S5 S5 In English. The city of Siena, located in Tuscany, is referred to by some as the "Italian metropolis of the Gothic period.
O S5 Region 2. Nello is an out-of-work former trade unionist who has been sent to run a cooperative of mental patients who were released from Italy's psychiatric hospitals when the government closed the hospitals down under the 's Basaglia Law. Nello doesn't like the over-medicated clients' way of life at the cooperative and he seeks to find a more beneficial life for them and possibly learn a profession to suit their capabilities.
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Terraferma Call Number: PN T Region 2. On Linosa, an island near Sicily, fishermen are punished for saving illegal immigrants from the sea and, back on shore, letting them go, because this amounts to facilitating illegal immigration. Therefore a local, Filippo, does not allow them on his boat. Several die, and Filippo changes his mind about the matter: he helps a family consisting of a mother, a boy and a newborn baby, to get to the Italian mainland. L61 Enzo, a lonely and misanthropic small time crook, uses the superpowers gained after falling in the Tiber River to chase down a crazy gangster called "The Gypsy.
Tickets Call Number: PN T53 In this anthology film, an elderly businessman finds solace and a new insight into life when he meets a younger woman who arranges his train ticket after his flight is canceled. A young man is torn between an older woman who controls him and a younger one that attracts him. And three Scottish youths on their way to the football match of their dreams are forced to open their eyes and see the bigger picture when they meet an Albanian family. In each case, the train journey changes the course of all their lives.
P T A story about the lives and dreams of three brothers reunited in their small home town on the occasion of the funeral of their mother. In the sunlight of the Italian countryside, they face their connection to each other and to themselves. I7 T9 Two segments: In the first one Felice, a baritone who has had to give up his career because of a heart condition and now works as an accountant at the Opera, inexplicably spends his nights laughing in his sleep.
When his best friend, a cripple, takes his life and his wife abandons him Felice decides to die himself. In the second segment two kidnappings in Sicily, the second of which took place a century before the present one, are compared. T86 In English. Josephine was born in in Sudan. As a child of 7 or 8, she was taken away by Arab slave traders and given the name "Bakhita," meaning fortunate, and then sold no less than five times between and She was subjected to beatings which left deep scars on her body.
Finally in she was purchased by an Italian Consulate agent, Calisto Legnani, who was much kinder to her. Legnani returned to Italy in , taking Josephine with him. There she was entrusted to the care of the Michieli family in Venice. It is here that she discovered the faith and learned that God, not man, is the true Master of every human being. When the Michielis came to take her back to Sudan, she chose to remain there, and her new life began. Uccellacci e uccellini Call Number: PQ A48 U3 The two men are soon moved back years in time, changed into monks, and sent by St.
Francis to convert the hawks and the sparrows to Christianity. Umberto D. Call Number: PQ A9 U4 Follow Umberto D. Alone, except for his dog, Flike, Umberto strives to maintain his dignity while trying to survive in a city where traditional human kindness seems to have lost out to the forces of modernization. Un giorno perfetto Call Number: PQ A98 G5 Region 2. A high-profile Italian politician is desperately seeking re-election, whilst attempting to fend off corruption charges and hold his crumbling family life together.
Meanwhile, the politician's bodyguard, separated from his wife and family, begins to reach a psychological breaking point and embarks on a course of action fueled by depression and jealous anger. Un giorno speciale Call Number: PQ I G5 Region 2. Gina and Marco are living in the suburbs of Rome.
The two meet on a very special day: their first day at work. Gina is about to realize her dream of becoming an actress, while Marco for the first time has found an opportunity that allows him to start dreaming: a job in a car rental company as a driver. They get to know each other since his first duty is to drive Gina to an appointment, and given a delay, they have to share the whole day. This journey will take them from the periphery to the center of the city. Uomini contro Call Number: PN U59 Set on the Italian-Austrian front during World War I, a disastrous Italian attack upon Austrian positions leads to a mutiny among the decimated Italian troops.
Verso nord Call Number: PN V47 In southern Italy, Rollo, a nearly mute, large, muscular young man, is part of a crime gang. He wants to go on "an escort," to smuggle a ten-year-old Moroccan boy into Switzerland where adoptive parents supposedly await him. The third person on this road trip is Mauro, a middle-aged nurse brought into the deal by his boss, a hospital physician, to make a quick buck.
They head for Cannobio on what should be a one-day trip, but complications soon arise. Car trouble, a Bulgarian prostitute and her daughter, the boy's constant desire to play soccer, and Rollo's flashbacks to a troubled and violent childhood combine to challenge them in a world without conscience. Verso sera Call Number: PN V In French. Professor Ludovico Bruschi is an elderly Communist whose desire is that of living in an orderly and socially just State.
But disorder is just about to break into his life, first of all in the shape of his granddaughter Papere and then in that of Papere's mother Stella, his son's companion. The relationship between Oliviero, Bruschi's son, and Stella has come to an end perhaps because of the extreme youth of the two lovers. Now Professor Bruschi is obliged to come to terms with the gloomy, ignorant, offended Stella whose head is full of false and destructive ideals and who disturbs his way of living out daily life.
The professor loses his patience and Stella leaves. He looks for her and finds her in hospital with a broken leg. The two of them begin to grow close and then, without realizing it, they come to love each other immensely. Stella's leg gets better and she goes off to look for new relationships, new experiences, while the Professor goes on waiting for her: and all this in the presence of Papere, too young to understand. Viaggio sola Call Number: PQ O V5 Irene is a critic of luxury hotels around the world. But while her lifestyle affords the freedom to jet around the globe at a moment's notice, Irene longs for personal fulfillment to match her professional life of luxury.
With a potential romance on her doorstep, can Irene chart her own path to happiness? Vincere Call Number: PN This unusual and offbeat historical drama rests on a little-known conceit. Though seldom discussed in history books and reportedly undisclosed for half a century , fascist dictator Benito Mussolini conceived an illegitimate son by a woman named Ida Dalser -- a son Mussolini allowed to be born, acknowledged, and then promptly denied for the duration of his life.
I43 V5 Set in the nineteenth century on a small island near Sicily, a woman takes on a masculine identity in order to maintain her relationship with another woman in a small community with very traditional views on gender roles. N V5 As the national election approaches, Enrico Oliveri has plummeted in the polls and his supporters and adversaries alike begin to acknowledge his impending downfall. Unwilling to face the failure of his party and his nation, Oliveri vanishes. In a desperate move, the party leadership seeks out Oliveri's look-alike twin brother, Giovanni Ernani, a prolific author and philosopher who is freshly released from an insane asylum.
M The film centers on a family of beekeepers living in stark isolation in the Tuscan countryside. The dynamic of their overcrowded household is disrupted by the simultaneous arrival of a silently troubled teenage boy taken in as a farmhand and a reality TV show intent on showcasing the family. Both intrusions are of particular interest to the eldest daughter, who is struggling to find her footing in the world with an adolescent sense of wonder and confusion.
The story of growing up and falling in love in the Mafia-ridden city of Palermo. Seen through the eyes of Arturo, a child brought up in a fascinating yet terrifying city, the story spans twenty years of life filled with passion and laughter. I42 A small mountain village in the Occitaine Alps is gradually dying out, its income and the livelihood of its aging population only maintained by the summer tourist season. Into this small, tight knit and conservative community comes a French shepherd, bringing his young family, his goats and his entrepreneurial skills as cheese-maker.
Initially he is welcomed, if not with open arms, then at least with the sense that his arrival could reinvigorate village life. But the newcomer's experiences start to turn sour as misunderstandings multiply and the villagers begin to resent the intrusion his family and business cause to their oh so quiet lives.
the last chronicle of barset Manual
B55 Describes the stereotypical roles and the personal struggles classic Afro-Italian and African diasporic actors face in Italian films and television programs, despite the racial diversity of modern-day Italy. C66 In English. Journeying back to the dawn of Italian theater, this program unmasks the intriguing and often underappreciated tradition known as commedia dell' arte.
Viewers will discover the history of Italian masked theater, the origins of commedia dell' arte and its various iterations, and the nature of its performers' improvised style. The program explains how the tradition's inspired characters, Pantalone, Colombina, Pulchinella, and many others, evolved and rose to prominence in the hearts and minds of 16th, 17th, and 18th-century audiences. It also illustrates how Italian masked troupes influenced countless other cultures as they performed across Europe, thus shaping the theatrical sensibility of western society as a whole.
C66 disc In English. D36 v. A presentation of the history of popular dance forms. This first of two segments features dance forms, period costumes and dance music from the 15th through 19th centuries from the courts of Italy, France, England and the grand ballrooms of America.
D35 In English. Dante first saw Beatrice in when he was nine years old, and she became the inspiration for his later poetic works. His best known work is the perennial classic, The Divine Comedy -- the poet's imaginary journey to hell and purgatory. This film, like each of the biographical profiles in this series, weaves together excerpts from the personal writings of the individual, dramatic artwork, expert commentary, and a narration focusing on the relevance of each pioneer to contemporary times.
D43 disc In English. This program examines the ancient battles that altered the course of history and shaped the modern world, providing a comprehensive account of the leaders and military tactics that changed history. Visit locations around the world to discover what is known of these historical encounters. Witness recreations of the battles of Rome, Cannae, Marathon, Thermopylae, and follow some of the greatest warriors of all time, including Hannibal, Spartacus, and Attila the Hun.
B53 D4 In English. Within the icy slopes of Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, there exists a secret waterworld. In this program, scientists travel into these previously unexplored recesses to learn why, in , one of Mont Blanc's hidden lakes burst forth, enveloping the villages below and killing unsuspecting people. D47 Travels to Italy to discover more about its burgeoning contemporary art scene. Meet artist Patrick Tuttofuoco, who uses architecture as inspiration for his dynamic sculptures and il Padre of contemporary Italian art, Michelangelo Pistoletto.
Their works are analyzed and discussed by art scholars and critics in their countries. D57 In English. Presents a tour of historic and cultural areas of Italy. Easter in Art Call Number: N E27 In English. Betrayal: Marlow begins by looking at depictions of The Last Supper including Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, a 6th century mosaic and a modern interpretation by Chris Ofili. He then turns to interpretations of Jesus' betrayal and trial by artists including Bosch and Tintoretto.
Crucifixion: Marlow's exploration begins in Varallo, northern Italy, where the Stations of the Cross were carved into a series of sculptures and frescoes by a 15th century Franciscan friar. Marlow then looks at Tintoretto's enormous depiction of the crucifixion in Venice and Grunewald's harrowing image above the Issenheim altar. We also take a modern journey to the Philippines with Sebastian Horsley who, for the sake of his art, experienced a form of crucifixion for himself.
He then compares interpretations of the resurrection and ascension in several contrasting treatments including work by Grunewald and Rembrandt and Stanley Spencer. Florence Call Number: DG F56 In English. Rudy Maxa tours Florence and various hill towns of Tuscany and Umbria discussing popular tourist attractions, historical background, and practical information about traveling in Italy. F6 F7 In a series of simple and joyous vignettes, director Roberto Rossellini and co-writer Federico Fellini lovingly convey the universal teachings of The People's Saint: humility, faith, and sacrifice.
Gorgeously photographed to evoke the medieval paintings of Saint Francis' time, and cast with monks from the Nocera Inferiore Monastery. E84 F7 In English. Francis Bernardone, son of a wealthy cloth merchant, after hearing the voice of Jesus speak to him, had a radical conversion from a worldly man of adventure to a life devoted to Christ lived in Gospel simplicity and service to the poor.
Fuocoammare Call Number: DG L F8 Samuele is twelve years old and lives on an island in the middle of the sea. He goes to school, and loves shooting his slingshot and going hunting. He likes land games, even though everything around him speaks of the sea and the men, women, and children who try to cross it to get to his island. But his is not an island like the others: its name is Lampedusa and it is the most symbolic border of Europe, crossed by thousands of migrants in the last twenty years in search of freedom.
Galileo Call Number: QB G2 G35 In English. This is the story of the brilliant Italian astronomer and mathematician who dared to challenge the accepted teachings of his day. Galileo's work brought him to the attention of the Inquisition and one of history's greatest minds was forced to work his last years under house arrest.
Featuring atmospheric specially-filmed dramatised depictions and rare contemporary images, this program vividly recreates Galileo's life and work. It also includes expert comment and interpretation by the eminient historians Les Prince and Joel Roderick. Ginevra's Story Call Number: N L33 G5 Examines Ginevra de Benci, the first portrait by Leonardo da Vinci. Utilizing the potential of x-ray analysis, infrared reflectography and the power of computer technology, this film delves beneath the surface of the painting to unveil fascinating stories about both Ginevra and Leonardo The film provides answers to questions such as: who Ginevra was and how Leonardo came to paint her; why the panel is painted on both sides; how it was drastically cut-down; why it was sealed in the safety of a wine cellar; and what mysterious chain of events brought it to the National Gallery of Art--the only Leonardo in the Western hemisphere.
F7 H4 In English. The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower, the central cathedral of Florence, was constructed over eight centuries. Generations of Florentine artists and architects dedicated their lives to the project, setting in stone changes in the aesthetic ideals of the time and advances in engineering.
In this program, the biography of Filippo Brunelleschi--who introduced the technique of one-point perspective and designed the cathedral's dome as well as machinery necessary for its construction--is intertwined with the story of the cathedral and the city itself. H5 H4 In English.
The King of Oudh was utterly unfit for his position, and the territorial aristo- cracy, though fighting amongst themselves, tyrannised over the people, whose misery was deplorable. The system of government has been aptly described as a combination of anarchy and robbery. On the other hand, the extinction of one of the few remaining Muhammadan States, whose ruler moreover had pro- vided us with money and innumerable soldiers, created a very bad impression amongst all our Native subjects. The annexation deeply affected the Bengal army, which drew 60 per centum of its recruits from Oudh ; for the privilege they possessed, and greatly prized, of the right of appeal whilst on furlough to our Resident for speedy justice under the Native rule, was now lost.
The aristocracies of the North- West Provinces and of the Southern Maratha country were deeply affected by the working of the Settlement Act. The Survey on which the Act was based was begun in , when Lord William Bentinck was Governor-General ; but its drastic effects only became apparent many years later, and then varied according to the views of the indi- vidual officers in the Revenue Department. Before the Survey there was practically no system of land taxation. The Talukdars had in many cases a proprietary right as Zamindars, and they had for centuries been the most influential class in the north-west of India.
Both classes natur- ally resented being obliged either to prove titles, which rested, in some instances, on weak foundations, or to cede what they held to be their freehold property. Several of the young Revenue officers, having daily proofs of the incapacity of these Revenue farmers, and of the cruel oppression of their agents, tried to make the village communities direct tenants to the Govern- ment, to the immense relief of the cultivators of the soil.
Some of the older officers, trained according to the views of Sir John Malcolm, and holding, with Sir Henry Lawrence, that equal justice should be rendered to the aristocracy, and to the peasantry, were unwilling to admit that imbecility or misuse of power justified the transference of proprietary rights, though it might often be essential to make over their exercise to trustees.
Nevertheless, the men of the new school were generally supported ; and in a typical case, that of Mainpur, the nearly imbecile Rajah, in spite of years of former loyal good service, lost of his villages, as he could prove a good title only to 5 1 of those which his family had possessed for over a century. There was much to disgust the Brahmans. Formerly they had ruled all the social life of the Hindus. They got fees for marriages, births, and deaths ; educa- tion, law, and religion, and every kind of business had been in their hands.
They skilfully played on one supposed grievance, by spreading about reports that the Government intended to abolish Caste. These reports became amongst the mass of Hindus the principal incitement to revolt, for any violation of the arbitrary rules of Caste appeared to all to be a step towards forcible conversion to Christianity. Ten years earlier an attempted reform in rationing prisoners in jail had given rise to a widely accepted belief that such a measure was intended.
Previously, every prisoner received a monetary allow- ance, and cooked for himself. In the schools, boys heard much about the Christian religion, of which the parents disapproved though they did not withdraw their sons, either from a wish to stand well with the local British authorities, or from a desire to secure for the scholars employment under Government. Lord Canning promulgated in the law passed the previous year legalising the remarriage of Hindu widows, and this, an act of the purest benevolence from a British point of view, was regarded, and justifiably, as a blow against polygamy.
The publication of this law was coincident with increased missionary activity. Zealous young Protestant clergymen in- capable of the conciliatory tolerance of St. Very few Natives understood that the Missions were private enterprises, and the vernacular newspapers made the most of all intolerant expressions of the clergy of the Ruling Race. There were some few indiscreet commanding officers, who thought it right to prosely- tise as long as their efforts were made outside the regimental lines. The feeling of the army is shown by the following extract from a petition presented by a commanding officer of a Bengal infantry regiment.
The petitioners, after reciting the grievances of the new cartridge, of the pollution of salt and sugar, state : " The representation of the whole Station is this, that we will not give up our religion. The Maharajah, being a Hindu, should help us. Reports among the upper Muhammadan classes that the Government contemplated their forcible conversion to Christianity became so prevalent, that in the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal issued a conciliatory proclamation on the subject.
All these rumours added fuel to the smouldering fire of discontent ; and the Hindu prophecy, dating from , that there would be a change of government in a hundred years, en- couraged the malcontents. A similar distribu- tion of cakes in the Madras Presidency fifty years before had been followed by the mutiny at Vellur.
Reforms had been instituted in the Native- army which tended to raise its self-esteem, while the urgent representations of Lord Dalhousie that the vast extensions of territory, acquired by conquest and annexation during his rule as Governor - General, necessitated an augmentation of the white garrison of India, were disregarded by the Home Government.
On the other hand, 40, men and 40 guns had, since , been added to the Sipahi force. Dalhousie's successor, Lord Canning, had only 38, Europeans to face the mutiny of the Bengal army, the discipline of which had been weakened by injudicious concessions to Caste pretensions ; while the Native troops in India numbered , men, conscious of their immense superiority of numbers. While the Native soldiers dreaded the European troops less than they had done formerly, they had ceased to respect many of their own British officers, from whom all power of rewarding by promotion had been taken ; and this because the Headquarter Staff of the Army realised that the commanding officers being old and worn out, were no longer good judges of efficiency : thus absolute seniority became the rule.
The average length of service of the Briton who commanded the ten Bengal Regular Cavalry regiments was over thirty-eight years, and that of the captains averaged twenty-eight and a half years. They, like the Native officers, rose by seniority, the system being untempered by compulsory retirements.
In January the detachments assembled at the Musketry Depot at Damdamah, 8 miles north of Calcutta, to learn the manipulation of the Enfield rifle, which was to take the place of " Brown Bess" after its use for years, suspected, and with sound reason, that the lubricating substance, smeared on the bullet to facilitate its being rammed home, was composed of beef fat and hog's lard. Although no such cartridges had been, or in fact were ever, issued to regiments — the Government, on being warned, having sanctioned the soldiers' making up the lubricant themselves — yet fear of loss of Caste, of forcible conversion to Christianity, and of drastic punishment for any refusal to use the cartridges, spread far and wide.
There was also much excitement amongst the four Native battalions stationed at Barrackpur, 16 miles west of Calcutta, where an anonymous letter was picked up and read, inveighing against the sale of polluted flour, and the use of greased cartridges ; while letters were sent broadcast calling on all Sipahis to resist the insidious attacks on their Caste and Religion. A battalion at Barhampur, near Murshidabad, miles north of Barrackpur, was the first unit to rise; but it was checked by a regiment of Native cavalry and some Native artillery, and eventually marched quietly to Barrackpur, where it was disbanded on March Mangal Pandi, a Sipahi, 34th Bengal Infantry, drugged with bhang, and blustering in front of the quarter guard, shot at the European regi- mental sergeant-major, and the adjutant.
He was still fighting furiously with both of them when he was seized and held by Shekh Paltu, a Muhammadan Sipahi, the champion wrestler of the regiment, until the white men escaped, in spite of the opposition of the guard, who threatened they would shoot Paltu unless he released the assassin. Mangal Pandi was calling to his comrades, " Die for your Religion and Caste! To his son, who shouted, " Take care of his musket! If I fall, John, rush on him and kill him. Nineteen years afterwards, Mr. Commissioner G. Ricketts came across Shekh Paltu, and obtained for him the proprietorship of a confiscated village.
The regiment was disbanded, but the Bengal army was already on the verge of mutiny. Nevertheless, he was very astute, and had never forgiven what he regarded as the confiscation of his estates ; and although the Govern- ment could not discern the signs of impending trouble, I he and other Maratha nobles had been plotting for years against their overlords. The first concerted outbreak occurred in the canton- ment 2 miles north of Meerut, a town of 30, in- habitants, 40 miles north-east of Dehli.
On April 24, 90 men of the 3rd Native Cavalry were paraded to practise tearing instead of biting off the end of the cartridge, a change intended to allay suspicion ; but all except 5 refused to receive the ammunition. They were sentenced by general court-martial to ten years' imprisonment with hard labour.
They were placed in fetters on parade on May 9, an operation lasting several hours, and then lodged in jail under Native. The degrading ceremony, carried out amid the appeals of the prisoners to their comrades to rescue them, and the taunts of Native courtesans from the Bazaars, so inflamed the Native mind that it precipitated the Mutiny, which by an understanding known only to three or four men in each corps throughout the Bengal army had been arranged for Sunday, May The cantonment of Meerut stretched over a wide extent of ground. The frontage of the European lines alone was nearly two miles from east to west, and three-quarters of a mile from north to south.
A broad road, the centre of which was called the Mall, extending 2 miles nearly east and west, separated the European from the Native quarters and the Bazaars, which were built on the south side of the Mall. To the south of the Carabiniers' lines was the Dragoon Bazaar, and to the south of it were the Native infantry lines.
The 3rd Native Cavalry were quartered a mile to the south of the Native infantry, in the south- west corner of the station. The jail in which the insubordinate troopers were imprisoned was outside the town, in the south-east corner of the station, nearly 3 miles from the Native cavalry lines. On Sunday morning, May 10, there were no sus- picions of the impending Mutiny. The European artillerymen and the greater part of the 60th King's Royal Rifles had attended the morning divine service, carrying sidearms only, as was then the custom. In the evening the Carabiniers, and a detachment of the 60th, crowded out of the church in the morning, for it accommodated only half of the Christian garrison at one time, were preparing for divine service.
Cap- tain Muter and other officers of the 60th were early on the parade ground, and just as the first of the soldiers appeared, they hurriedly ran back on the shout being raised, " The Sipahis are killing their officers! It stood to the south of the artillery lines and a mile and a quarter from the 6oth King's Royal Rifles barracks ; but Lieutenant Austin, by " doubling " nearly all the way, disarmed the guard without a struggle and secured the buildings shortly before the mob came out of the town to sack the Treasury.
Meanwhile the greater part of the 3rd Cavalry Regiment galloped to the jail and released their 85 comrades. The nth and 20th Bengal Native Infantry assembled on their adjoining parades. The 20th killed 4 of their officers, and Colonel Finnis, 1 1 th Regiment, who had ridden over and was exhorting the battalion. Then with the cavalry they fired the cantonment, and having murdered every European, male and female, whom they met, they marched for Dehli.
The iith Bengal Infantry hurt none of their officers, although the men drove them off the parade, and the majority of the battalion remained in villages near Meerut for forty-eight hours before going to Dehli. There were two generals at Meerut, which was the headquarters of a division, but neither they nor the officer commanding the Native cavalry regiment were equal to the emergency. If the outbreak had occurred an hour later, the British soldiers would have been sitting in church without firearms.
Both generals had risen by seniority, and the conduct of a younger and selected officer in the Panjab, Major Crawford Cham- berlain, was very different. At Multan, a fortress and the chief business town of the district of that name, 4 miles from the Chinab River, there was an officer of thirty-four years' service in command ; but he was an invalid, and Chamberlain, commanding the ist Irregular Cavalry, exercised the control of the station.
Chamberlain assem- bled all the Native officers of the garrison at his house, and suggested that the seniors should give a written guarantee for the fidelity of their men. His own officers rose as one man, with their signet rings. The artillery commanding officer asserted that his men would fire on anyone as he might order, but the infantry officers alleged they were unable to answer for their men. A captain in a battalion plotted next day to murder Chamberlain and his family, and nightly the infantry tried to win over his men.
But he discovered the plot and his men frustrated it. It was entirely owing to Chamberlain's personal influence that a mutiny at Multan was averted ; and it is by such influence we have won, and by such influence alone that we can retain, the fidelity of the millions of Great Britain's peoples beyond the seas. Simultaneously with their arrival came the 1st Panjab Cavalry from Asni, 85 miles south of Multan, brought without orders by Major Hughes, who had heard of the impending outbreak. On the morning after their arrival a parade was held at day- break and attended by the British gunners.
Having explained his decision. Although the seniors at Meerut were supine, there were many young officers of energy and determination in the garrison. He was informed he should not listen to such silly stories. Next evening a Native officer, who had given him the information, rode up with 2 troopers to Gough's bungalow with the news that the infantry were firing on their white officers. Gough, with the 3 men, rode to the cavalry lines, where the Sipahis called to his escort to stand clear that they might shoot the Sahib. As the escort did not move, they fired, but ineffectually, at the group.
Gough then went to his regimental lines, where all the men were busy, some removing ammunition from the magazine, which they had broken open, and others saddling their horses. He tried to restore order ; but, after a few shots fired at him by recruits, the Native officers, anxious for his life, forced him to leave.
On his way to the European lines he met an armed rabble coming out of the Bazaar. Some of them tried to stop him, but he charged through the mob, closely followed by his escort, who saw him safe to the artillery mess. Here, in spite of Gough's arguments, they left him with a respectful salute, saying that they could not separate themselves from comrades and relatives. He commanded the Depot Bengal Artillery, and during the night of the loth he went with 6 European gunners to take over the magazines from the Sipahi guards, and to disarm them.
The sergeant, on being called, came out of the chief magazine, but absolutely refused to obey the order to give over his charge. Light put his hand on the man's shoulder, and said, " You must do so," but the guard called out to him to resist. The sergeant then stepped back two paces, and resting his carbine on the hip, fired with the muzzle almost touching the officer's body. The bullet missed its objective, and Light knocked the man down, and fell with him. As the Saxon and the Asiatic grappled in death-dealing embrace, the Whites and Blacks fired over their prostrate forms.
Some of the Native guard had been killed, and the others had fled, before Light arose from the ground, where the sergeant lay still for ever with a battered skull. The inability of our officers to read the signs of the times was remarkable. During the exasperating punishment parade, which, owing to the difficulty of riveting iron fetters on the ankles of 85 men, lasted for many hours on the 9th May, British artillery- men, mainly recruits, had only blank cartridge for their carbines, although they stood between two Bengal battalions carrying ball ammunition.
All this want of preparation existed in spite of the fact that for three months indications of unrest in the Native army had been plainly evident. The British garrison consisted of a cavalry regiment, 2 batteries, and a company of artillery ; but no adequate steps were taken to avert the outbreak, or to prevent the mutineers from seizing Dehli and its great military magazine.
The absence of thorough concert amongst the mutineers is indicated by the fact that some of the guards stood stanch, and handed over their trust to a European guard. This remarkable difference was probably caused to some extent by the officers having more influence over the men in some regiments than they had in other corps.
In later outbreaks the mutineers generally seized the Treasury as a first step. In Meerut not only was the nth Bengal Infantry inactive, but a subahdar's guard posted over some specie stood stanch throughout the night May 10— II, and next morning the Native captain gravely reported : " All correct " Sab accha. He and his guard remained loyal, and it was still serving intact when Mr. Commissioner Ricketts saw it at Moradabad, in June It had given a striking proof of its discipline on the previous 30th April. The guard was marching in rear of a column in Rohilkhand, having charge of a number of mutinous prisoners who were to be tried on a capital charge, when the head of the column fell into an ambush, and the general was killed.
The Native prisoners became troublesome, so the subahdar shot them, and then took his men forward at the double, towards the sound of the firing. With regrettable supineness amongst senior officers, there were bright instances of devotion to duty at: Meerut. Although they arrived too late to prevent the jail being broken open, their men gave many proofs of heroic fidelity under their courageous and sympathetic leaders, who in a blazing cantonment, overrun by troopers intent on destruction of Europeans, " handled the troop as if mutiny were a crime unknown.
Macdonald, commanding the 5th Irregular Cavalry at Rohni, an isolated station miles north-west of Calcutta, evinced marvellous moral and physical courage in extraordinary circumstances, and succeeded in averting an outbreak. Grant, when 3 Natives rushed on them with drawn swords. Leslie was cut down, the other two badly wounded as they fought with their chairs for life, when suddenly the Natives fled.
A trooper later confessed that the assailants were his disguised com- rades. Macdonald tried them by court-martial, and confirmed the death-sentences. Many writers have attributed the increase of indiscipline in the Native army to the evil effects of centralisation in curtailing the powers of commanding officers. Even General Hearsey did not venture to hang the jemadar who had abetted Mangal Pandi's murderous attack on the adjutant until the Commander-in-Chief had approved the sentence.
Thus the 5 th Cavalry expected no immediate result from the court-martial ; but they were mistaken, for their commanding officer accepted responsibility as fearlessly as he faced mutinous troopers. With three severe wounds in his head, from which the scalp had been sliced, he paraded the regiment with the prisoners in front, and himself looped the hang- man's ropes and adjusted them.
One prisoner called on his comrades, in the name of the Prophet, to rescue him, till Macdonald silenced him by pressing a pistol to his ear, with a threat of scattering his brains. Three times the elephant with his burden moved on, and three times a mutinous trooper was left dangling before the eyes of his guilty comrades. In the 74 battalions, mainly recruited in Oudh and on its borders, of which 6 only remained stanch, the Muhammadans numbered approximately i to 6 Hindus. The men had many grievances, some dating from , when the money allowances, previously given for service outside Hindustan, were refused to battalions sent to Sindh ; but all foreign service questions affected infantry more than cavalry.
In the former, promotion to the highest rank obtainable, that of captain, was always by seniority in, and from the ranks ; a Sipahi had generally sixteen years' service before he became a corporal — sergeants reached that rank after twenty-six years, and Native officers became such in most cases after thirty-five years' service ; a lieutenant had frequently to serve fifty years for pension, and the rules had recently been made more stringent in Bengal.
Our ignorance of the Native soldiers' feelings and inner life is shown by the wording of Lord Dalhousie's farewell minute : " Hardly any cir- cumstance of his the Sipahi's condition is in need of improvement. It was, however, carried out in July , and it caused intense dissatisfaction, being considered a breach of faith ; for, though the change in application was restricted to men then enlisting, the Oudh peasants looked on the army as an hereditary possession, in which their fathers had served, and their sons would have served, had such service been com- patible with strict maintenance of Caste.
This, however, became an insuperable difficulty on long voyages. The Hindustani soldier had many admirable qualities, and under good and sympathetic officers became imbued with a fine sense of Regimental pride. In at a punishment parade 24 soldiers were about to be blown away from guns for mutiny, when 4 Grenadiers claimed and obtained the pre- cedence in death which their company had exercised in life. Though credulous and sometimes absurdly suspicious, Sipahis when rightly handled have evinced a chivalry grand beyond words.
Macaulay shows, in his narrative of the siege of Arcot in i, the heroic self-sacrifice of which the Hindustani soldier is capable when commanded by a man like Clive. For 50 days this young Civil servant of the East India Company held the fort, with its ditches dry in places and its ramparts in bad repair, against Rajah Sahib's army of 10, men.
Clive and his men, disregarding the threat of extermination, refused every summons to surrender, and finally repulsed an assault, which cost Rajah Sahib men, and induced him to raise the siege. Before this final attack was delivered, the food supplies of the garrison began to fail, and the Sipahis then petitioned that all grain should be reserved for the Europeans, alleging that the water in which their rice was boiled would be a sufficient ration for an Asiatic.
Individually the Hindustani is brave, and does not hesitate to engage a European in single combat ; but collectively, probably from want of confidence in his leaders or comrades, he will seldom meet his foe in serried line with sword or bayonet. I have seen Native cavalry rebels, formed in line, ridden through and put to flight by a squadron of the 17th Lancers. On June 23, , the mutinous battalions, which for seventeen days, under the command of Nana Sahib, had besieged the handful of Europeans in the Cawnpur cantonment, proposed to mark the centenary of Plassey by an assault.
Lieutenant Mowbray Thompson, who with 1 6 men held an unfinished building, the key of the British position, sent to Captain Moore, who was the executive commander of the garrison, a message stating that there were large numbers of the enemy collecting under an adjacent wall, and begged for a reinforcement. Moore had been badly wounded in the arm ; but he walked over to the post, and, explaining that there were no men available, ran outside the building with Thompson, shouting, " No.
The petitioners asked for the help of a military force to fight the British troops, and, if it could not be given, that a Gurkha officer might be lent to command each Hindustani battalion. On the other hand, on November i6, , when the troops under Sir Colin Campbell stormed the Sikandarbagh at Lucknow, they were momentarily stopped by rebels, who were selling their lives dearly from within a gate-house, and were closing the massive doors as Private Mukurrab Khan of the 4th Panjab Infantry arrived. Thrusting the shield on his left arm between the doors, he kept them apart.
His left hand was immediately badly slashed ; but, as he withdrew it, he put in his right, and although it was nearly severed at the wrist, held the door open, till his comrades, throwing in their weight, forced the doors apart and slew every man inside. Such were the men who hastened from Meerut to Dehli, and proclaimed the restoration of the Mughul Empire.
His superscription remained on the current coin of India until , and we paid tribute and homage to his successor as his. This was resented, but Shah Bahadur was too effete, and his Court too deeply engrossed in animal pleasures, to do more than protest. If Shah Bahadur felt the loss of nominal kingship, he profited greatly from British protection in a material point of view, and was fortunate in comparison with his grandfather, whom the Marathas imprisoned, and deprived of kingdom, and eyesight.
In the King of Dehli, who still exercised despotic authority over the 1 2, retainers who lived in his Palace, was over eighty years of age, and the name was his main value to the disaffected Hindu con- spirators. The material advantages accruing to the rebels were great, for the largest arsenal in the north of India was in the city.
Sir Theophilus Metcalfe, the Joint Magistrate at Dehli, a fine strongly built man, having previously sent his child to Simla, was proceeding to Kashmir on six months' sick leave from May 1 1. When he drove from Metcalfe House to his office, to hand over the papers to his successor, he saw the telegram announcing the mutiny at Meerut, and from the office window, which overlooked the bridge of boats over the Jamnah, he saw the mutinous cavalry regiment approaching the city.
He galloped his horse to the magazine, warned Captain Willoughby, and then hurried on to the Calcutta Gate, where he met Mr. Hutchinson, the Collector. The Commissioner sent Sir Theophilus to close the Water Gate in the Palace wall, in order to bar the road into the city, but when half-way he met a number of the 3rd Cavalry mutineers, galloping out of the main Palace Gate, in front of which there was a dense crowd of Natives in holiday attire, evidently assembled to see some unusual spectacle. Some of the troopers rode at the buggy slashing at Metcalfe, and his horse, but succeeded only in cutting the hood of the carriage, as the Magistrate drove at speed into the crowd of spectators.
Metcalfe, in order to escape from the pursuing troopers, jumped down from the carriage and elbowed his way through the crowd towards a troop of Mounted police, ordinarily his obedient servants. He ordered the officer in command to charge, but not a man moved, so Metcalfe, knocking the officer out of the saddle, mounted the horse, and galloped to the police office.
After the Commissioner had sent the Magistrate away, some mutinous troopers arrived at the Calcutta Gate followed by a crowd of Natives. Eraser at- tempted to reason with the mutineers and an enormous rabble till he was fired on. Then, taking a musket from one of the King's guard, he killed the foremost trooper, and as the surging crowd fell back, dashed through it in his buggy. Douglas threw himself into the moat ; badly shaken, he was being carried by Natives into the Palace when he met Eraser and Hutchinson, the latter wounded.
The crowd followed up to the room where Mr. Jennings the chaplain, his daughter, and a friend were attending to the two stricken men, and cut the whole party into pieces. Then the soldiers rushed into the city, slaughtering every European and Eurasian they could find. The troopers rode towards the Kashmir Gate, on the direct road to the cantonment, where Brigadier- General Graves commanded 3 Native battalions and a battery. He ordered Colonel Ripley, commanding the 54th Bengal Regiment, with 2 guns, to march to the city to oppose the mutineers.
The colonel left 2 companies to escort the guns, which were not ready; and the battalion, just as it passed the main guard held by the 38th Bengal Regiment, met the mutineers and a huge rabble. The troopers killed the mounted officers, while those on foot were bayoneted by their own men in front of the 38th Guard, the men of which laughed at their officer, who ordered them to fire on the murderers.
Just then the two companies and guns arrived, and the troopers with the mob, seeing them, retired into the city as the 74th Bengal Regiment, with two more guns, arrived from the cantonment. Lieutenant Willoughby with 2 officers, 6 European Staff and a large number of Native artisans were inside the magazine enclosure, surrounded by high walls, some yards from the Palace.
Willoughby closed, and barricaded the gates, placed 6 -pounders to command them and the principal magazine-building gate, in all 10 guns; and a train was laid to the main powder store. Repeated orders sent from the Palace to surrender being ignored, a crowd of assailants, composed mainly of the 3rd Cavalry and 20th Bengal Infantry from Meerut, climbed up the walls, and opened fire.
The discharge of all the guns, double loaded, cut gaps in the crowd, but more men came on, and after four rounds, Lieutenant Forrest and Conductor Buckley, both being hit in the arm, could no longer load. So Willoughby gave the signal. Conductor Scully fired the train, and hundreds of Sipahis were destroyed.
Lieutenants Willoughby and Forrest, blackened and burnt, were blown into the air, but on recovering their senses escaped to the main guard at the Kashmir Gate : Lieutenant Raynor and Conductor Buckley, taking another line, reached Meerut. Lieutenant Willoughby was murdered some days later, with several other fugitives, on the Hindan River. Major Anderson, 74th Bengal Regiment, having received orders to return to the cantonment with his battalion and the guns, had got a hundred yards beyond the Kashmir Gate when he heard rapid firing behind him, and was told, " It is the 38th killing their officers.
The officers returned, and under a storm of bullets got them away ; knotting handkerchiefs and belts together, they lowered all down into the ditch, and with great difficulty pulled them up the counter scarp on to the glacis. Thence they crept into the jungle, eventually reaching Meerut, after a painful and perilous journey. In the cantonment some of the 38th, who had not deserted, asked for leave, telling their colonel they would serve no longer. The Brigadier made another attempt to keep the soldiers to their duty, and sounded the assembly, but only one Sipahi paraded.
At night- fall all the Europeans left the cantonments, and, after suffering terrible privations, some reached Meerut, others Karnal, 80 miles, and a few got to Ambala, miles distant. The fugitives hid themselves by day and walked by night, and, though frequently robbed and beaten by villagers, they were in some cases kindly received. Captain Holland tells how Jamna Dass, a Brahman, housed and fed him for a week ; and Paltu, a sweeper living near, went daily to other villages to procure milk for the Europeans. There were some of all classes who risked their own lives to succour our unfortunate people.
At sunset on May 11 the surviving 50 Christians in Dehli, adults and children of both sexes, were brought to the Palace and placed in a dungeon. Five days later they were led out into the courtyard and, by order of the King, conveyed by his son, Nuiza Mughal, they were butchered before a crowd of exult- ing spectators, and their bodies thrown into the Jamnah. When Sir Theophilus reached his office, which was at the police station, he learnt that his colleagues whom he had left at the Calcutta Gate had been massacred.
As he was passing the Jama Musjid he was hit by a brick thrown from the roof of a house, which striking him on the spine knocked him senseless from the saddle. As soon as he regained consciousness he returned to the office, where he was hidden by the Superintendent of Police until the evening, when with stained feet and dressed as a Native, Metcalfe accom- panied by his protector walked through the main street of the city, and out into the country by the Labor Gate.
The Superintendent of Police conducted Metcalfe to the house of a landowner, who had never before spoken to a European. Bhur Khan, although not willing, nevertheless at the bidding of the Superintendent, who was a friend, agreed to shelter Sir Theophilus Metcalfe. For three days he remained on the roof of Bhur Khan's zenana, and then his host warned him he must leave, as a search party was coming to look for him. That night the Magistrate was conducted to a stone quarry, in which there was a cave with a very small entrance.
Bhur Khan gave Metcalfe a sword, pistol, a big jar of water, and some Native bread. Next day he heard voices, and presently two 3rd Cavalry troopers approached, guided by one of Metcalfe's lieutenants of Orderlies, who was heard saying, " I am sure he is here. Come in with me, through this opening. They ran, and in opposite directions to the spot where they had tied up their horses, on one of which Sir Theophilus rode off westward. He made for Jhaijhar, a small State 35 miles from Dehli, and claimed hospitality from the Nawab, whose father had been befriended by Metcalfe's father when threatened by the loss of his principality by confiscation.
The Nawab had always acknowledged his obligation, but was now too apprehensive of the King of Dehli's vengeance to shelter the son of his father's benefactor, and moreover meanly misappropriated his horse, so Met- calfe rode on a little pony to Hansi, whence on May 24 he reached Karnal, and came back to the Ridge with the British troops. The Nawab's territory has been incorporated into that of Jhind. Colvin, in the North-West Provinces, met the news of mutiny and murder, which daily became worse, with unflinching courage ; but all three heroic Britons failed for some time to appreciate the gravity of the situation, and the inadequacy of the military forces, aggravated as it was by their unfitness to operate outside cantonments, owing to deficiencies in equipment, supply, and transport.
Two other great men, equally courageous — Lord Elphinstone, in Bom- bay, and Mr. The Governor- General moreover urged the despatch of Europeans from Dehli to Lucknow, where , inhabitants and 20, disbanded soldiers were dangerously excited. General Anson hearing at Simla on the evening of the 1 2 th of the outbreak at Dehli, and early on the 13th of the Meerut mutiny, at once moved the three battalions quartered in the Himalayas to Ambala, and efforts were made to collect supplies, camp and hospital equipment, and the transport necessary for moving these essentials.
In the nucleus of transport maintained for emergencies had been sold. In May the infantry when assembled at Ambala had only 20 rounds of ball ammunition a man, the magazine, guarded by Natives, being at Philur, north of the Satlaj, eight marches off, and the waggons of the Horse artillery at Lodiana, seven marches distant. General Anson, having ordered a column from Meerut to join him one march north of Dehli, moved from Ambala on the 25 th, but died of cholera early on May Although the heat was intense, and the sufferings of the British soldiers were great, yet they reached Alipur, 12 miles north of Dehli, on June 5.
Meanwhile reinforcements were being brought east- ward. He wrote in strenuous terms to the Governor, Sir George Higginson, who sent all the soldiers the steamers could carry. Moreover, he directed the ships, conveying a China Expeditionary Force then at Cape Town, to call at Calcutta for orders. It happened that its commander. General Ashburnham, having travelled out through Egypt, was staying with Lord Elphinstone when the Meerut news was received. When Bartle Frere landed at Karachi, on his return from leave of absence spent in England, he heard the Meerut news.
Though he had but 2 British battalions and a horse battery in Sindh, with its 2 million inhabitants, he ordered one to Multan, and later on despatched two Baluch battalions to the Panjab, suppressing, mainly with Native police, three outbreaks which occurred in his own province. Lord Canning, the impersonation of calm courage, irritated the inhabitants of Calcutta.
He muzzled not only the Native papers, which was essential, but also the European Press. He ignored the well-founded apprehensions of the inhabitants ; he refused at first to accept Volunteers for the defence of the capital — a mistake which he acknowledged later ; and he delayed to disarm the Native brigade at Barrackpur, 16 miles distant, which necessitated the retention of Europeans to watch it.
Edwardes : " Each step we take for our own security is a blow against the Regular Sipahi ; he takes a further step, and so we go on, till we disband or destroy them, or they mutiny and kill their officers. Neill and his battalion, the Madras ist Royal Dublin Fusiliers, arrived off Calcutta, and were railed to Raniganj, the terminus, 70 miles distant. Some obstructive and insolent railway officials threatened to start the train before the troops were entrained, but Neill, placing a guard over the station- master, driver, and fireman, got the battalion off with but a short delay.
Neill was a man of unusual force of character. He had been censured in Burma in for animadverting on Departmental officers who had failed to supply the troops with blankets and boots ; but he referred the question to the Governor-General, and was warmly supported. The horsed post carts available, with carrying power equal to 20 men, covered the distance in five days ; bullock carts carrying 1 00 men took ten days ; steamers were six- teen days on the voyage.
All these means of transport were used. Colonel Neill arrived at Benares with 60 of his men on June 4. The fidelity of the 37th Bengal Regiment was known to be untrustworthy; the cavalry was regarded as doubtful; but the Lodiana 15th Sikh Regiment, though it contained many Hindustanis, was supposed to be faithful. A crisis occurred when Colonel Neill arrived.
The 17th Regiment, quartered at Azamgarh, 60 miles to the north, had openly stated that the District treasure- chest should not leave the station. When the escort from the 17th, and the 13th Irregular Cavalry marched out with it on June 3 for Benares, the Sipahis rose and, June having killed the quartermaster and his European sergeant, sent after the treasure.
Its cavalry escort declined to fight the mutineers, but they protected their officer, Lieutenant Palliser, seeing him and the 17th Regimental officers safe into Benares. The latter had been escorted i o miles out of Azamgarh by a company of their own men, who had collected carriages for their use, refusing to allow the mutinous Sipahis to shoot the officers, as some desired to do. When this news was received at Benares, about 4 p.
Major Barrett, 37th Regiment, earnestly protested against the decision. Then firing on their ofificers, and the loth Lincoln- shire detachment, the Sipahis shot 7 men of it. All the officers ran behind the guns except Major Barrett, who, with the courage of his convictions, refused to leave his trusted men, till a party of them, with a more accurate knowledge of coming events, ran up, and carried him forcibly to one side of the parade.
The Europeans now returned the fire, and the 37th fled. At this moment the cavalry and Sikhs arrived, the guns being without escort, as the British infantry had pursued the 37th into their lines. The i 3th Irregular Cavalry, as they came on parade, cut down their commanding ofBcer, after he had been fired at and wounded by a 37th Sipahi. When the Station Staff officer, Major Dodgson, took his place, he was attacked by two troopers. The Sikhs, seeing the mutinous state of the cavalry, hesitated.
Some fired on the horsemen. Many had come on parade with loaded muskets, and one fired at his commanding officer, while another rushed forward to shield him. Captain Olpherts, Bengal Artillery, had just limbered up his guns to go back to barracks, when the Sikhs, shouting, began to fire in all directions. His subaltern called out, " The Sikhs have mutinied!
There are many officers who believe that the bulk of the Sikhs were loyal and meant to pass through the battery and BENARES 35 defend it, for some of their officers were already with it. The Brigadier, who was ill, now resigned the command to Neill, to whom all the summary justice meted out under martial law to rebels at Benares has been attributed.
This is incorrect, for he remained only five days at the station, leaving before the executions took place. He was later known as " Neill, the Avenger. These stories were, however, later con- clusively disproved ; but Neill's actions were based on a deep sense of duty, and were intended to prevent any such crimes being perpetrated. When the firing in the Native lines was heard, most june 4 of the Christian non-combatants assembled by previous arrangement at the Mint, and others at the Court- house.
It was now apprehended that the guard of the Treasury, a detachment of the Lodiana Sikhs battalion, ,would, in revenge for their slain comrades, slaughter the Europeans and seize the treasure. This they would have done but for the exertions of one of the chiefs of their nation, Sirdar Surat Singh, who, since the second Sikh war, had lived as a prisoner on parole at Benares, and had great esteem for Mr. Gubbins, the local Judge, who was the moving spirit of the Station. The Sirdar, carrying a double-barrelled gun, accom- panied the Judge to the detachment and persuaded the men to hand over the specie and the Sikh crown jewels, which were in the Treasury, to a European guard.
The district rose in rebellion, and all authority was swept away. Surat Singh was not the only important noble influenced by Mr. Gokal Chand, one of the most highly respected Brahmans in Benares, an official of the Judge's Court, and other powerful and independent Hindus, worked vigorously for the British cause in the days of our humiliation and distress. The land tax was reduced by 2 5 per cent. Sir Henry and John Lawrence, the mainsprings of these blessings to the people, were great men in every sense of the word, and as fearless as their father, Major Lawrence, who volunteered for the storming party at Seringapatam in , and was severely wounded and left for many hours as dead in the breach where he fell.
The Governor-General had an intense admiration for John Lawrence, to whom five months before vacating the Government he wrote : " Of all from whom I part in India, there is not one from whom I shall sever myself with greater regret than from yourself, my dear John. The chivalrous, sensitive mind of Henry enabled him, on receipt at Lucknow of the news of the outbreak at Meerut, to gauge accurately its effects on the Bengal army and to forecast the result. John, although a much more methodical ruler, with all his magnanimous greatness of mind, could not understand the feelings of the Natives.
Discussing, on January 9, , the Oudh decision, then daily expected from London, he wrote : " I hope for Annexation, anything short of it is a mistake. If there had been more of his type, although there might have been a Sipahi mutiny, there would have been no revolt in Hindustan. In their con- flicting opinions arrested progress, and both brothers asked Lord Dalhousie to move either one or the other. Lord Dalhousie naturally retained the man who supported his views, and was possibly, moreover, the better fitted to carry out the administrative reforms remaining to be effected ; and Sir Henry, to his great mortification, had to leave the scene of his labours.
He was sent to administer Rajputana, a country as big as Belgium and the Netherlands ; and John, who on the abolition of the Board of Administration ruled alone as Chief Commissioner, in time assimilated many of his elder brother's views, and acted to a great extent as he would have wished. Though both were public servants of the highest class, no comparison of their merits would, if possible, be desirable ; but it is probable that an expression once used by John to Sir Henry Daly was accurate : " Henry had a stronger grip on men than I ever had.
Generally a station had i White and from 3 to 4 Native regiments ; but there were 3 British battalions at Peshawar and Naushara, reduced, how- ever, by sickness to bayonets. The , Natives were practically all effective. The first crisis in the Panjab occurred at Mian -Mir, a cantonment 5 miles from Labor the capital, with its , inhabitants. Brigadier-General Corbett commanded the garrison, consisting of 2 batteries of artillery; the 8ist 2nd North Lancashire Regiment, 3 Sipahi battalions, and a Native cavalry regiment.
Montgomery communicated the bad news about Dehli to Corbett on the 12 th, and the calculated audacity of their plans was marvellously successful. A ball was given that night as previously arranged, and at daylight the garrison was paraded before the Native soldiers learnt that their mutinous intentions were suspected.
The 8 ist 2nd North Lancashire Regiment, which had only 5 companies on parade, numbering rifles, stood next to the artillery ; then 3 Native battalions, all in quarter-column, and the cavalry on their left. The Government decree disbanding the 34th Bengal Regiment at Barrackpur was read in front of each corps, and the Native troops were then ordered to change front to the rear, while the British corps changed front to the left, on their own ground.
The batteries loaded with case-shot, as the 8 1st retired on either side of the guns, and facing the flank of the Natives, while a fluent interpreter read to them the decision that they were to be disarmed. The general then commanded the Natives to pile arms, as Colonel Renny ordered " 8 1 st, with ball cartridge — load.
While the parade was being held, 3 companies of the 8ist Regiment were marching to the fort in the city, where they disarmed the garrison, consisting of a Native half- battalion ; and thus within two hours of daylight the capital was secured. Amritsar, the spiritual centre of the Sikhs, 30 miles distant, was overlooked by the Fort Govingdhar, which had been held by Sipahis and a few British artillery- men.
A British Horse battery was now moved from May 14 the cantonment into the fort. General Corbett, learning that the disarmed Mian - Mir Sipahis were marching on Govingdhar, sent in carts a company of the 8 1 St Regiment, which secured the fort at daylight on May At Firuzpur and Philur there were large magazines and equipment stores. The former was garrisoned by a British battalion, and a company of artillery, 2 Native battalions, and the loth Cavalry Regiment, which was then stanch. But the officer in command was not like General Corbett ; and, though the magazine was saved, the disarming of the infantry was attempted in a half-hearted fashion, so that, when one of the battalions dispersed, its main losses were due to the Native cavalry, which, led by Major Marsden, Deputy- Commissioner, pursued it for 1 2 miles, killing a number of men, and breaking up the corps.
The large arsenal at Philur was held by Natives, but a detachment from a British battalion at Jalandhar, 24 miles distant, occupied the fort, before any disturbance occurred. This was fortunate, for the situation was perilous. Dost Muhammad, Amir of Afghanistan, greatly coveted his old possessions in the Peshawar Valley, and it was doubtful if he could disregard the warlike appeals of his chiefs, and adhere loyally to the arrangements recently made. General Cotton, though sixty years of age, was strong, determined, and active ; his Civilian colleagues.
Colonel Herbert Edwardes, the Commissioner, and his Assistant, Major John Nicholson, themselves of the highest class, and trained under the two Lawrences, believed in the general. They invited Neville Chamberlain, commandant of the Panjab Irregular Force, to ride over from Kohat for a con- ference ; and the result was that General Reed, commanding the division, formed a movable column to interpose when necessary between disaffected garrisons. The command was given to Chamberlain, and he soon justified the selection. He was a thorough soldier in the prime of life, who as a youth had been more often wounded in personal combats during campaigns in Afghanistan and the Panjab than any other man.
General Reed personally joined John Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner at Rawalpindi, having first ordered half of the 55 th, a suspected Bengal regiment at Naushara, 30 miles from Peshawar, to exchange stations with the Guides at Mardan, 15 miles north of that place. Colonel Edwardes was authorised to raise 1 Multani Horse ; and General Cotton moved the Bengal and British forces, so that the Native battalions were separated. He now authorised doubling the levy of Multani Horse, and sanctioned the enlistment of Multani infantry. This half-battalion alone held Naushara, the 27th ist Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Regiment and the Guides having moved southwards.
Edwardes and Nicholson immediately urged General Cotton to disarm all the Sipahis at Peshawar except the 21st Bengal Infantry, which was supposed to be faithful. The commanding officers summoned to the conference vehemently protested their men's loyalty. One urged that sooth- ing speeches should be made, while the other predicted that his men, if ordered to lay down their arms, would attack the batteries.
Cotton closed the discussion by saying, " You will obey my orders ; " and soon after daylight, overawed by the British troops, the Natives loaded their muskets and sabres into artillery waggons brought up for the purpose. The British officers resented the disarming, and the cavalry officers threw their swords and spurs in with those of their men. Before midday the news was known throughout the immediate neighbourhood, and the tribesmen, appreciat- ing decisive rule, crowded in with offers for service in the new levies.
John Lawrence had sent back from Rawalpindi half the 27th Inniskillings, and Vaughan's Panjabis under Colonel Chute, and they also were moving on Mardan. The colonel of the 55 th had implicit confidence in his men, and had implored General Cotton to trust them. He believed in the Hindustanis, although the Sikhs in the regiment in number had warned him of their disloyalty, and had offered to fight them.
During the night of May 24 his Native officers questioned him about the troops reported to be coming from Peshawar. He could not satisfy them, and when they left the room he committed suicide. Next morning, when Colonel Chute's column came in sight, the battalion, except men who remained with the officers, marched off with their Colours, ammunition, and all the treasure they could seize, towards Sawad. They had got beyond the reach of British infantry before the two columns arrived. Nicholson, with Mounted police, followed the trail until the sun went down, killing of them, many with his own hand.
He took prisoners, and regained the Colours. A week earlier 1 2 deserters from the 5 1 st Bengal Infantry, who had been captured, were hanged on a general parade, and now some of the prisoners of the misguided 55 th Bengalis were to suffer death. The stern Major Nicholson, who had taken them prisoners in his unremitting pursuit of the battalion, pleaded that mercy might be shown to recruits and to all Sikhs MARDAN 45 who, as the officers testified, were loyal and subordinate until the last moment, when they were infected by the contagion of mutiny.
The men had not raised a hand against their officers until they were pursued, and John Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner, deprecated putting to death all the , who out of the had been sentenced to the extreme penalty. He suggested to the Commissioner of Peshawar that the execution of 40 of the oldest and worst behaved soldiers would satisfy the claims of justice, and Major Herbert Edwardes followed this suggestion.
As the Brigadier rode on to the ground, he received a salute from one of the batteries, and then rode round the ranks. The fettered prisoners were brought up and their sentences read out, in presence of thousands of the Border men, who had assembled to witness the execution.