In the Greek East, the original work remained extant long enough to be read not only by Photius in the 9th century , but by the excerptor working for Constantinus Porphyro- gennetus 10th century , by Michael Psellus 1 lth century , and perhaps even by Joannes Tzetzes 12th century. In works by other Byzantine scholars a reference to Ctesias is not uncommon, but these can mostly be derived from Photius or from classical sources such as Manuel Philes from Aelianus.
In the 16th century Ctesias found his first and perhaps most enthusiastic champion in the famous French printer, publisher and philologist Henri Estienne Henricus Stephanus ; His Disquisitio and Dissertano on Ctesias, both originally published as parts of the introduction to his edition of Photius' excerpts of Ctesias in , are now most easily found in Baehr's edition. To him Ctesias was a good and reliable authority both on Persian history and on India, he was so convinced as a classical philologist that he categorically denied the opposing testimony of the merchants of his own day who had visited India.
This passage is also a reminiscense of Strabo, who gave a similar opinion of illiterate merchants in opposition to the historians of Alexander and Megasthenes. However, Stephanus' favourable opinion of Ctesias did not find much sympathy among historians. For instance, such famous scholars as Joseph Justus Scaliger and Bernard de Montfaucon had a poor opinion of Ctesias.
Nevertheless, early zoologists such as Konrad Gesner and Ulisse Aldrovandi scrupulously wrote down accounts of his fantastic animals,10 while philologists such as Gerhard Johann Vossius and Johann Albert Fabricius gave a summary of his remains, adding their own criticism.
The corpus of Ctesias1 remains was slowly completed. After Estienne, David Hoeschel issued in a new edition of Photius including some fragments in the notes. A fuller collection was attempted in the edition of Photius by Andreas Schott , and in the edition of Herodotus by Gottfried Jungermann died All these early works were then eclipsed by the great works of the early 19th century : the new Photius by Immanuel Bekker in , and the two rival editions of Ctesias with a full commentary on fragments by Heinrich Albert Lion in and Johann Christian Felix Baehr in The last- mentioned edition was then for a long time the most authoritative, although soon followed by C.
Miiller's11 more succinct version appended to Dindorffs Herodotus.
Our own century has furnished us with still better texts, with fuller and more critical collections of fragments. Translations have never played a great role in studies on Ctesias. Miiller's edition was accompanied by a Latin translation, and his edition was also the textual basis of John Watson McCrindle's annotated English translation, first published in Nordhausen's German version and Gilmore's English version contain the Persica only. Bowman's unpublished dissertation at Northwestern University in contains a complete new translation of all fragments. The study of the Indica really started only with the increasing knowledge of India first obtained in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the formative period of modern Indology.
But even before its results were fully available, several attempts to explain Ctesias had been made, though they were often more enthusiastic than convincing. The Indian material was still much too meagre, and mostly only connected with modern India. Equally unhappy was the attempt to connect Ctesias' Indica with Persian evidence at a time when there was still no reliable evidence available on ancient Persia beside Classical sources.
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Discarding the huge chronological gap of 2, years some 18th century scholars such as Reland and Tychsen had tried and found etymologies from modern Persian for Indian words mentioned by Ctesias. Though in Lassen had clearly pointed out the methodological impossibility of such an attempt, McCrindle in still quoted many of these etymologies and thus transmitted them to subsequent generations of scholars.
The long answer, signed by four missionaries, viz. Francke in the Hallische Missionsberichte volumes It contained a number of parallels from Tamil and a few from Sanskrit here called Grendisch, i. Grantha for the words sought, but only a few of these equations can be accepted now. Another unfortunate attempt saw Ctesias making up his stories from Old Persian iconography.
In the case of the griffin, true, a comparison with the works of art Greek or Persian? In a Persepolis relief the beast, which in a modern photograph is clearly a lion, has been given a distinctive human face by several early travellers17 in their drawings see illustration , perhaps in allusion to the very same account of Ctesias. Soon their pictures, however, were used in an attempt to explain the origin of Ctesias' account. Several early Indologists were interested in Ctesias as well as in other Classical accounts of India.
They were attempting to explain them from Sanskrit sources and to use them to supplement our picture of ancient India. Though he himself was not an Indologist, we can here mention Heeren's historian's attempt to review various evidence on Indian antiquity. A full study of Ctesias' remains from the Indological viewpoint was made by H. Wilson, who had himself spent many years in India.
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Though his conclusions cannot always be accepted, his study still makes for interesting reading. At the time of its appearance, in , it could have been of greater benefit to scholarship, but being published in a rather obscure journal Transactions of the Ashmolean Society it was rarely noted at all. In the second volume of C.
Lassen's monumental Indische Altertumskunde contained a more critical evaluation of the remains of the Indica against Indian evidence. It is one of the best Indological contributions, though now of course antiquated, although his criticism occasionally amounted to prejudice. I have already mentioned McCrindle's notes from It did not help him much that he gave a translation of Lassen's account in an appendix. During the s there also appeared articles by Valentine Ball. He was a geologist who had travelled much in India and tested and applied his naturalist's knowledge to Ctesias1 and others' accounts of Indian animals, plants and minerals.
I pass here over the contribution of 19th-century Classical scholarship by Rettig, Blum, Riiter, Marquart, Krumbholz ,20 which was mainly concerned with the Persica, and hurry on to the present century. In its early years Classical philology tended to consider its subject as a kind of hermetic whole, as free as possible of any extraneous influence.
The role of oral information and autopsy was underestimated and everything, if possible, derived from literary predecessors. In an extreme case this meant that only Scylax brought real fresh information, while Hecataeus and Herodotus only copied him, and Ctesias put together, distorted, and relocated in India the stories his predecessors mainly Herodotus had told about various parts of the earth. Reese did not go this far, but still he much too readily saw a literary relationship between them and his division of the Indica is far from convincing.
In his authoritative RE article on Ctesias in Jacoby condemned the Persica as an imaginative concoction mainly based on Herodotus this view has been well criticized e. His invitation to Indologists once again to study the fragments of the Indica was unfortunately not followed up perhaps J. Charpentier died too early , though Max Kiessling, Otto Wecker and the geographer Albert Herrmann briefly discussed some of the problems of Ctesias.
But, for instance, Otto Stein and Bernhard Breloer, the two leading Indological scholars working on Megasthenes between the World Wars, were never really interested in Ctesias. I can pass quickly over the most recent developments as these must be familiar to anyone interested in Ctesias. The traditional way of dismissing Ctesias as a simple liar e.
Wachsmuth has been taken to a kind of extreme by Bevan Others have rightly seen that though Ctesias must often be considered with suspicion, it is no use dismissing so early an author. Auberger have done valuable work, occasionally also tackling the Indica. A few articles specially discussing the Indica have come out during the last twenty years, by Bigwood, Kumar, Lenfant, Vofchuk, and myself and the books by Lindegger and Arora , but there still remains much to be done.
There is no modern. Some abbreviations common in classical philology have been used. Editions and translations of Ctesias. Bekkeri, Berolini. University cf. Summaries of Doctoral Dissertations submitted to the Graduate. School of Northwestern University VI, Chicago - Evanston , Librorum quos legit Photius patriarcha. Quatuor mss. La Perse, L'Inde. Les Sommaires de Photius, Collection. Tome 1. Collection byzantine. Ill C, Leiden. Orientforschung, Beiheft 18, Graz. Lion Albertus , Ctesiae Cnidi quae supersunt, recensuit A.
Calcutta - London from Indian Antiquary 10 , , repr. Pubi, as.
Alexanders des Grossen, Leipzig. Studies on Ctesias. Skylax to Aristoteles, Bareilly. II, Dublin , Lexington, Mass. Albertus , Bibliotheca Graeca sive notitia scriptorum veterum Graecorum. Consul General with Dy. Jagannath Rath Yatra in Munich. Paul Beinhofer discussed issues of Indo-Unterfranken cooperation. Entry for both events is free.
Consul General with Munich Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter discussed issues of cooperation especially in smart city management experience sharing. Prime Minister underlined India's continued commitment towards strengthening Indo-German economic cooperation at Business Summit Berlin.
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Ctesias in transmission and tradition
Consul General Mr. Sugandh Rajaram Centre With Prof. Kuehlmann Right , University Of Bayreuth. The Constitution Day of India celebrated in Munich. Salient features and the strength of our Constitution were also deliberated upon.