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E-mail: anca. Website: www. Her research interests are in the field of public relations, communication, corporate social responsibility, branding, and personal branding. She teaches courses such as: public relations, corporate social responsibility, branding, and personal branding. E-mail: ilies fspac. Her paper studies synonymy at grammatical level with a view to highlight the great variety of linguistic means English displays.
Email address: lipanancaflorina gmail. She is also the author of several articles published as a result of her current research. Email: iuliap51 hotmail. She has been carrying out research on translating academic brochures this was also the title of her dissertation and has xvi. E-mail: ioanapastinaru yahoo. Her research focused on the trans-disciplinary fields of communication sciences media impact on children and youth , sociology virtual communities and cultural identity in multi-ethnic social environments and education science non-formal education, lifelong professional training for teachers.
Her publications include a wide number of scientific articles and books. Her latest article focused on How good is the internet? Olah S. Roseanu, S. Bodogai, L. E-mail: ileanarotaru mediapedagogy. He is part of an international team of researchers interested in the fields of socio-cultural studies, applied philosophy and technological transfer. E-mail: sorisuciu gmail.
She is also a freelance translator. Her main research interests are translation studies, the translation of humour, intercultural communication, audio-visual translation. E-mail: elena. She taught seminars in Syntax and Semantics at the Faculty of Letters. Email: anca. Applied to different sectors of goods and services production or consumption, they all converge to the same result: unregulated economic activities driven merely by strict economic criteria such as profit and market share, affect the environment in a serious and irreversible manner.
These findings imply increased responsibility on the part of companies, both to consumers and the general public, as well as to future generations. My article aims to highlight the importance of communicating sustainability in an efficient manner and to provide a series of landmarks that will render it more effective. Keywords: sustainability, efficient communication, interdepartmental communication, sustainable development 1. Introduction Effective communication is a fundamental part of the business environment providing an essential link between people and supporting relationships.
The lack of communication in a company affects productivity and creates barriers to business development. Effective communication eliminates misunderstandings, confusion and downtime that generate delays. When people communicate effectively in the workplace, they are more productive because they know what they are supposed to do. Social concern for environmental issues has been growing exponentially in recent years. The public has become increasingly sensitive to issues related to waste management, recycling, sustainable development, clean production, corporate responsibility, or product lifecycle.
The objective of the project is to integrate the existing knowledge about sustainability and to transfer it to administration and industry. The project aims to help organizational leaders and employees understand the strategic implications of sustainability and encourage them to propose creative and innovative approaches. As a result of the project, course modules have been developed in four languages English, French, Romanian, Slovenian.
Following this program, students will be able to certify their skills and competences within the European Qualification and Association ECQA. In this article, we provide some preliminary elements that underpin the qualification and certification program for the sustainability management specialist. We will analyze in particular the communication skills that this position entails, both within and outside the organization with partners, institutions, and the media.
Effective communication A survey based on the responses from more than 1, employees at Fortune companies revealed found that workers send and receive about messages each day via telephone, email, faxes, papers, memos and face to face communication. The average manager spends about 75 to 80 percent of his day engaged in oral or written communication, about 45 minutes every hour Piombino, On the other hand, employees retain only 50 percent of communicated information, and supervisors only 60 percent.
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In oral communication, around 30 percent of the information is lost is each transmission. In the beginning was the word, and this is equally true for companies that want to introduce sustainable development based on clean production, resource and waste management, product life cycle, corporate social responsibility, and so on. All of these concepts are not obvious, they must be explained so that they can be understood and applied within a company.
Communication is the instrument that can transform words, concepts into actions. Communication skills are of utmost importance in a company, especially for management positions, the public relations and the customer service department. The number of verbal and written interactions, messages, mails, etc. There is a proportional relationship between the efficiency of communication in an organization and its economic performance.
Communication deficiencies, whether we talk about imprecision, faulty interpretations, redundancies, verbiage, communicational noise, delayed messages or even lack of communication between certain segments, cause poor economic performances. On the contrary, a clear, timely, unambiguous communication, containing only terms that can be easily understood by the recipient, the existence of feedback and the elimination of any sources of irritability will lead to increased productivity. When communication is efficient in a company the employees know from the beginning what their tasks are and what they are supposed to do.
Thus, the economic process will not be affected by confusions. The common barriers to effective communication are: x Not paying attention to the speaker or allowing to be distracted by the factors that the receiver is unable to control x Use of technical terms that the listener does not understand x Use of dialects unknown or only partially known to the listeners x Physical or technical difficulties related to the good functioning of the communication channel x Cultural differences, such as those related to the use and interpretation of non-verbal language, gestures, mimics, etc.
In order to prevent the difficulties, sustainability needs to be communicated both at the organizational level and also outside the company, to the stakeholders. At least at declarative level, the sustainability, seen as the quality of economic human activities to take place without depleting the available resources and without destroying the environment, is accepted 4.
In order not to compromise the needs and expectations of future generations, a balance must be established between economic growth and the protection of the environment. We are talking about recycling, finding alternative resources, use of green energy, waste management, product lifecycle, modular production, all of which needs to be implemented at the organizational level, in the economic unit, starting from the product design and up to advertising and marketing.
Companies are increasingly assuming the process of educating their clients in their advertising campaigns. Regarding organizational communication, the current situation is not very optimistic. The data is particularly worrying about interdepartmental communication. A research made by Discovery Consulting Group, Inc.
Katcher, on a population of 60, employees revealed that two-thirds of those surveyed consider that the communication between departments in their company is poor. This situation can be countered by developing sustainability communication strategies that inform employees about the benefits of efficient communication and inspire them to change their communication behavior, thus contributing to a better collaboration both within departments and between departments.
In this perspective, Anne Boyle proposes a communication strategy that could enhance the employee collaboration, while facilitating the implementation of sustainable processes. The strategy comprises several steps that are supposed to determine the employees to actively participate in environmental programs and contribute to initiatives: x Goals must be clearly formulated and communicated.
They must be tangible, integrated into operations and tied to the general business objectives; x The sustainability discourse must appeal to the personal values and principles of the employees. When people are told the benefits of sustainability for themselves, they will be more likely to embrace green practices from energy saving at work to bicycle transport and printing on both sides of the paper ; x The achievements must be recognized.
Positive reinforcement works better than blame because the employees will feel good about themselves and will be more likely to maintain the behavior; x The approach must be a holistic one. Change does not happen overnight, but it takes time. Sustainability communication is a complex and constant process and can only be achieved in a sufficiently long-time horizon.
The discourse must be multi-faceted and include several perspectives, each one reinforcing the last; x The discourse must be consistent. The contents should be confirmed by facts and the sentences must be mutually supportive. Creating a visual identity by logos, iconography, color palette, images can substantially contribute to sustainability implementation; x The content must be simple, the information must be relevant and easy to understand. It is useless to provide endless details and contextualization because those are most often skipped.
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It is appropriate to include a call to action; 5. It is important to measure the impact of the sustainability communication on the employees. The effort to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the communication will help you to identify the problems and make adjustments; x Sustainability implementation in a company requires patience and perseverance. Behavior change takes time. Conclusions An effective communication will have to defeat the resistance to change, which is the tendency of the system to perpetuate its current behavior despite efforts to change that behavior.
Through persuasive communication appealing to scientific data on the impact of human activities on the environment, people can be convinced to get involved in supporting sustainable economic processes. Internal communication is just a facet of the medal. It is not enough for employees to be convinced of the benefits of sustainable development and to participate in the company's efforts towards sustainable development.
More and more people become aware of the importance of sustainable, "green" development. Without an effective campaign meant to make transparent the sustainability policies, a company could record significant economic losses, contracts, or customers because they do not understand the company's green efforts. References 1. Boyle, A. Katcher, B. Piombino, K. During social movements or protests, especially in an era of post-truth, alternative facts and fake news, framing is relevant in different ways of constructing and interpreting messages.
Framing is a dynamic process, consisting in collective and ongoing shaping and reshaping of frames by protesters and audiences, in order to mobilize adherents, appeal to authorities and silence opponents. Social media enables social movement activists and participants to organize offline protests and to expand repertoires of action. Online platforms social networks, etc.ecole-lescadetsdelamitidja.com/includes/2019-08-20/4530.php
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Also, social media influence frame alignment processes of social movements. Introduction Framing is a pluralistic, multiparadigmatic concept, which is quite influential and, therefore, widely used in social studies, communication studies, media and journalism studies, political communication, social movement studies and so on.
There are two aspects of framing which determine this ambiguity: the cognitive and the communicative dimensions of the process.
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Framing as a concept stems from the constructionist paradigm, starting from the principle that meanings are not assigned automatically to objects, events or circumstances, but are the result of socially mediated interpretive processes. Entman has defined framing as involving mainly selection and salience. Framing is a process whereby communicators act to construct a perspective that encourages the facts of a given situation to be defined by others in a shared specific manner.
Frames are generally central organizing ideas often found within a narrative account of an issue or event, providing interpretive cues for otherwise neutral facts Kuypers, Framing of Social Movements Framing is particularly useful in social movement studies, since it accounts for symbolic processes meaning production and interpretation of collective action mobilization. Social movements are collective processes through which social actors articulate their interests, express concerns and critiques, and propose remedies to identified problems by engaging in a variety of collective actions.
Social movements use protest as a typical form of action, even if they do not employ protests alone. Ibidem: Framing processes have been included as part of social movement studies since the mids Benford and Snow Social movement mobilization includes two basic processes: persuasion consensus mobilization and activation action mobilization.
The attributional component of diagnostic framing concerns the targeting of responsibility, but the agreement regarding the source of the problem does not result automatically. Controversies over whom to blame for the grievance are quite common in social movements and usually take the form of intramovement conflicts. Also, framing is crucial in identifying the blame: abstract, impersonal forces that cause the problem inhibit mobilization, whereas clearly established persons or groups which act in a perceived malicious manner generate mobilization.
Prognostic framing proposes a solution to the problem, and indicates what remedies are needed in order to change the situation through collective action. The suggested solutions can be utopian or realistic, and a certain social movement may comprise several different prognostic elements. Solutions may include ideas and meanings otherwise neglected in society.
The prognostic framing solutions are influenced and restricted by the diagnostic framing outcomes: the identification of certain problems and causes induces a limitation of possible strategies and tactics. It is influenced by the consensus mobilization framing processes, which limit its scope and strategies and tactics repertoires of action to be implemented. Rhetorically, the three processes correspond to the stases points of disagreement. Collective action frames advance interpretations that suggest the necessity and expediency of performing action.
Movements may have internal conflicts over which particular frame will become prevalent or may proffer several frames for different publics, but they will all have in common the implication that those who share the frame can and should take action. Gamson, Three components of the collective action frames have been identified: injustice, agency, and identity Gamson, The injustice frames allow movement actors to construct their grievances through a sense of moral indignation.
Injustice frames not only provide evaluations about what is legitimate, but they also provide activists and potential activists with a political consciousness to challenge whatever perceived harm or affliction they have experienced. The agency component of collective action frames inspires people to believe their actions can lead to change. Agency frames enable people to act by defining them as potent agents capable to influence their own history. They suggest not merely that something can be done but also that the collective action participants can do something specific to address the problem.
The identity component of collective action frames supports movement activists, participants and bystanders who are affected by a problem to raise an oppositional consciousness in which there is a clearly defined antagonist, whose values or interests are different. The three core framing tasks discussed above can be articulated with the components of collective action frames. Diagnostic framing uses extensively injustice frames, prognostic framing is the main factor of the identity of the social movement and motivational framing employs the agency component.
The scope of the collective action frames associated with most movements is limited to the interests of a particular group or to a set of related problems. Some collective action frames, however, are wider in scope and influence, functioning as a kind of master formula that influences and restricts the positions and activities of more other movements.
Only several collective action frames have been identified as being sufficiently comprehensive in interpretive scope, inclusivity, flexibility, and cultural resonance to function as master frames. Whereas most collective action frames are context 9. Usually, once a social movement selects and advocates a markedly resonant frame that is broad in interpretive scope, other social movements within a cycle of protest will adopt that frame and adapt it to their own actions. Master frames are linked to cycles of protest, periods of intense social movement activity in which various movements overlap in mobilization and are often connected to one another.
An innovative master frame can spark derivative collective action frames and tactical innovations at the initiation of a cycle. Cycles of protest include the following features: a phase of acute conflict in a social system involving sudden diffusion of collective action, innovation in the forms of contention employed, new or transformed collective action frames, the coexistence of organized and spontaneous participation, and information flow between protesters and authorities.
Collective action frames can also vary is in terms of the level of resonance. The concept of resonance applies to the issue of the impact or mobilizing force of proffered framings. Two sets of interacting factors account for variation in degree of frame resonance: credibility of the proffered frame and its relative salience. The credibility of any framing is a function of three factors: frame consistency, empirical credibility, and credibility of the frame articulators.
A second factor affecting frame resonance has to do with the empirical credibility of the collective action frame. This refers to the apparent fit between the framings and social events. The important point is not that the claimed connection has to be generally believable, but that it must be believable to some segment of prospective or actual adherents.
The final factor affecting the credibility of a collective action frame refers to the perceived credibility of frame articulators status, expertise and knowledge about the specific issue are usually associated with persuasive trustworthiness. In addition to issues of credibility, the resonance of a collective action frame is affected by its salience to targets of mobilization. Centrality has to do with how essential the beliefs, values, and ideas associated with movement frames are to the lives of the targets of mobilization. Movement framings must be congruent or resonant with the personal, everyday experiences of the targets of mobilization.
If the framings are too abstract and distant from the lives and experiences of the targeted participants, the probability of mobilization reduces. Collective action frames are generated by two basic discursive processes: frame articulation and frame amplification or punctuation. Frame articulation involves the connection and alignment of events and experiences so that they associate and integrate in a relatively unified and compelling fashion. The frame amplification process involves accenting and highlighting some issues, events, or beliefs as being more salient than others.
These punctuated or accented elements may function in service of the articulation process by providing a conceptual prop for connecting diverse events and issues. The punctuated issues, beliefs, and events make prominent and represent the larger frame of which they are a part. Frames are developed and deployed to achieve a specific purpose: to recruit new members, to mobilize adherents and demobilize opponents, to acquire resources, to gain media coverage and to effect political changes.
Four basic alignment processes have been identified and researched: frame bridging, frame amplification, frame extension, and frame transformation. Bridging can occur between a movement and individuals, through the linkage of a movement organization with an unmobilized sentiment pool or public opinion cluster, or across social movements. This is among the most prevalent of framing strategies. Given that one of the key factors affecting whether or not a proffered frame resonates with potential constituents has to do with the extent to which the frame taps into existing cultural values, beliefs, narratives, folk wisdom, and the like, it is not surprising to find that most movements seek to amplify extant beliefs and values.
Although movements often employ this alignment strategy, it is subject to various hazards and constraints. The development, generation, and elaboration of collective action frames are contested processes. The player within the collective action arena who engage in this reality construction work are entangled in the politics of signification. This means that activists are able to construct and impose on their intended targets only certain versions of reality. Every social movement exists within a society where differences regarding the meaning of different aspects of reality are common.
The framing contests take place within complex, multi-organizational settings, and this circumstance affects social movements framing activity. One of the most extensively researched topics related to framing and counterframing disputes is the subject of collective action and media framing. Framing contests not only take place between movements and their opponents, they can also occur internally. The last form in which movement framings can be contested, and thus modified or transformed, concerns the dialectic tension between collective action frames and Social Media and Social Movements Internet provides protesters and activists with new tools and repertoires of action.
Social media play an important role in facilitating the mobilization for, and coordination of, collective actions offline. An overemphasis on the Internet is present in some studies and mobile technologies and text messaging often play a very important role Cammaerts, 5.
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Lowering the cost and increasing the efficiency of mobilization and coordination with a view to offline direct action is one of the main features of social networking sites and smart phones, enabling direct or real-time communicative practices. A distinction should be made between Internet-supported and Internet-based social movements. The former employs traditional tools and tactics mainly occupation of public spaces: demonstrations, marches, street blockades, etc.
However, they can use common repertoires of action, such as culture jamming. Social media enable activists and protest movements to negotiate and to disseminate digitally movement goals or frames faster, easier and cheaper. Moreover, social media provide wide opportunities for citizens and groups in society to circumvent state and market barriers and the mainstream media gatekeeping to construct alternative collective identities.
Social media tools support internal debate among social movement activists. Online social networks especially Facebook are used extensively and these platforms have emerged as essential parts of various movements, to such extent that many have started to use online platforms for interaction, debate, decision-making and recruitment Idem. Online platforms are used for real-time distribution of films and pictures of the direct actions and for exposing police violence.
Moreover, social media can serve as a repository, a digital archive of texts, images, audio-video materials and other symbolic artifacts ideas and communicative practices. Online tools and platforms can also contribute to the transnational diffusion of protest and mobilization efforts. However, there is no direct connection between online activity e-mobilization on social networks and the participation in actual offline protests, so the former is a weak predictor for the former. Computer-mediated communication can serve as an invaluable resource for social movements, influencing and engaging large audiences, domestic as well as worldwide.
Also, Facebook accounts for specific communities can facilitate the diffusion of contention offline and the dissemination of content online. Social networks are essential tools for the processes of frame alignment and for integrating various organization-specific and particular frames of different groups within the social movement master frames. Social platforms can build online communities of people with common or compatible values and visions. Within the process of identity-building, the online Online communities construct themselves through a process of autonomous communication Castells, Consequently, the digital protest communities create a new autonomous public space, which is the networked space between the online and the urban space Ibidem: Within this new hybrid space of freedom, the online tools enable a course from indignation to confidence and finally to contentious action.
Protests 2. Facebook stimulates solidarity and coalition building, but it is not intended for activism and it encourages false consensus and conformism. Social media networks provide spaces for elaborating shared meanings, which social movements adherents and activists use extensively to stay in touch. Conclusions Framing is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient prominent in communicating messages, in such a way as to define problems, diagnose causes, make moral judgments, and suggest remedies. Social movements are actively engaged in the production of ideas and meanings.
This productive endeavor involves extension and development of current meanings, reconfiguration and revitalization of former meanings and the creation and construction of new meanings. The concept of framing has been employed to illuminate how movements define problems diagnostic framing , devise solutions to them prognostic framing , and mobilize new followers for their cause motivational framing. Social media are playing an increasingly constitutive role in organizing social movements and in mobilizing on a transnational level. Online platforms have expanded and complemented social movement repertoires of collective action.
In the digital age, for a social movement to become effective there must be a mix of online and offline tactics, and offline real-world actions are mandatory. Castells M. Dejica, D. Published by the Slovene Association for the Study of English. Della Porta, D. Entman R. In Journal of Communication, No. Gamson W. Johnston H. Johnston, J. Noakes eds Kuypers, Jim A. In Jim A. Kuypers ed. Snow, D. Morris, C. In this framework, the present paper analyses the divided cultural space of the Romanian child who is caught between the internet society and the lack of simple and bare competencies of using the internet in its best ways.
For the critical positioning in front of this socio-cultural phenomenon media pedagogy is needed, understood as a critical theory of society in the context where communication became a phenomenon of total civilisation Rachieru, , Keywords: mediatization, media culture, media pedagogy, media effects, children and media. Introduction Today context is of children submersed in a mediatized world and society. The issue addressed is not any more focusing on what is media doing to the children media effects , but how adults parents and teachers can do with media for children.
Recent studies developed in Romania Velicu, Mascheroni, Olafsson, demonstrates that Romanian children aged between , use the internet from their home especially from their own room — those with a high economical level and they receive different types of mediation, but more on restrictive bases than creative and pro-active. Their main activities online include: listening to music, watching videos on Youtube and socializing on different sites. These gasps reflect the social reality of the level of the media culture existing and the problem of the lack of media education and digital competencies.
Kellner draws the attention to the excessive interest in Kellner notices the marked manifestation of media culture to be specific to contemporary society. The media are a profound and often misperceived source of cultural pedagogy: They contribute to educating us how to behave and what to think, feel, believe, fear, and desire […]. Consequently, the gaining of critical media literacy is an important resource for individuals and citizens in learning how to cope with a seductive cultural environment. Learning how to read, criticize, and resist socio-cultural manipulation can help empower oneself in relation to dominant forms of media and culture.
Therefore, we consider as the context of the media pedagogy determinations: - The growth of the level media consumption regardless of their form, but with acute spikes as to television and the virtual space the Internet, video and on-line games ; - The development of the new information an communication technologies and the invasion of the private space, and also the modification of the public space by models of e-government, e-learning, e-commerce, e-banking, etc. During the last 20 years, a greater and greater attention was paid to the problems of media literacy, more precisely to the vaster domain of the media pedagogy, a domain that we consider developed because of the interest and researches undertaken in this area of speciality and that evolved from mere literacy to a true pedagogy.
Thus, Elizabeth Thoman and Tessa Jolls , 21 show how, in the beginning, media literacy resumed to a mere activity of teaching the students about media: how advertising works and its effects and how to analyse the news. In her work Literacy in Digital World: Teaching and Learning in the Age of Information , Kathleen Tyner, making use of the concept media education, appreciates that it refers more to education than media.
Her assumption is that media education extends literacy by including activities of writing and reading within the use of the new means of communication. Today, the domain has matured by a greater understanding of its own potential, not only as a new form of literacy, but a dynamo of transformation of the essence of learning in a multimedia environment at the global level. Blue Whale effect and Mars Invasion — a reality of the Romanian media culture space The first studies on the mass-media effects are presented as a remarkable episode by books on communication sciences.
On the 30 th of October , the CBS radio channel aired, for the first time, a drama play after the H. Approximately 6 million listeners listened to the radio at that time. The macro-social context in which panic spread was determined by a series of factors: the American society found itself during a difficult period after the great economic depression, the Second World War was about to start, and the radio remained the most important means for news transmission, listeners investing a high trust level in radio channels.
In addition, studies realized by H. Cantril underline the all-powerful media, and the popularity and rapidness of such media means as a factor of exponential multiplication of information and of its effects. On the 17th of March, a group of 4 pupils from Iasi are considered victims of this online game.
It is the moment of a general hysteria inception: a state secretary from the Ministry of National Education warns on the risks of this online game; the Romanian Church takes attitude and incriminates the contemporary virtual society and local authorities from the West side of the country are alerted, when a teenager confesses on being harassed by the game managers. Panic is again triggered. A series of deaths were reported, as a result of participating in this game, as stated by different websites. What created panic? As in the case of the Martians invasion, as proved by H.
Thus, one could observe in this time cycle, H. The theory of all powerful media, regardless of the means of communication aimed at, remains a present theory which demands deep social research. One of the conclusions to be drawn from the two cases is the need to practice and form critical abilities for media consumption, the higher need of media educational programs applied at a large scale, in school aiming at youngsters, but especially at didactic personnel.
Contemporary society is a society in which the all-powerful media manifests itself freely and without critic limits. In addition, when speaking of a divided society and in the field of media education, a strong cleavage is observed, mainly due to economic matters. Unfortunately, Romanian school is not prepared, and the effects of media continue to produce effects and to accentuate the defensive side of media consumption, the evaluation-coercive nature of parental mediation and the lack Even if Romania registers the highest internet speeds, fact which also determines a high consumption, media education which includes net surfing demands a special attention.
Badescu, G. Cantril, H. Dobrescu P. Bucharest: Comunicare. A Manual of Style, 12th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Kellner D. Cultura media. Rachieru D. Thoman, E. Velicu, A. Raportul proiectului Net Children Go Mobile. Communication specialists changed their perspectives in the relationship of the company with the public. Today we speak about digital PR, digital marketing, and branding, digital all. This study aims to examine the digital implications of communication strategies in HoReCa industry.
Previous researchers showed that the digitization of the communication strategies of restaurants around the world had a direct and positive influence in the consumer-brand relationship. Our research is based on the relationship that Marty Restaurants from Cluj-Napoca, Romania builds in online with its customers. We intend to provide a twofold approach. On one hand, we analyse the theoretical framework regarding the digitization of the communication strategies in the restaurant industry.
On the other hand, we shall design an empirical research, based on interviews and content analysis that shall provide empirical information about how digital communication strategies are used in HoReCa industry in Romania and, how a successful restaurant can be visible in online in order to gain more clients and create a great brand experience. Introduction As an emerging country, Romania is trying to reach investors, to gain trust of companies to invest in its economic growth and is willing to develop all fields of activity.
Because today the Internet is one of the most used instruments in finding information, but also in buying goods and services, Romanians are more and more internet users. This is because, in the digital era, most companies try to change the classic tools of two-way symmetrical communications with public and stakeholders to a similar communication experience but using online social interaction and all online techniques.
Romanians are familiar with the most used online platforms around the world, such as: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, bogging, Instagram, Pinterest. Generally speaking, the digital communication era works with easier mechanisms for generating, collecting and sharing information and content. This is way communication specialists changed their perspectives on the relationship of the company with the public.