Even when the two component waves have the same frequency and phase, due to the randomly changing polarizations, the result is still the same.
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Although the sum average wave intensity due to superposition of natural unpolarized waves is the sum of individual average intensities each one depending on the square amplitude of individual electric field Eq. Let us explain this in more detail: Consider many photons of natural unpolarized light superposed on each other at a particular point in space. Since all possible orientations have equal probabilities, the superposition of a large number of such equal vectors applied on the same point in space will be the sum of vectors applied on the centre of a sphere with their ends equally distributed around the surface of the sphere.
The sum of an infinite number of such vectors all applied on the same point — centre of the sphere — and with their ends evenly distributed at all points of the sphere surface tends to become zero. In other words, at any given location, any moment, the sum electric field of a large number of incident photons of random polarization tends to be null, since the individual vectors are in all possible directions diminishing each other when superimposed destructive interference of electric vectors. Similarly for the sum magnetic field:. They may only induce heat, i.
When two waves of same polarization have opposite phases at another location, in other words, when their phase difference is:. The electrical components of two such waves plane harmonic waves of the same polarization and frequency reaching a certain location after having run different distances r 1 , and r 2 from their two coherent sources, are given by the equations:. Again, the amplitude E 0 of the resultant electric field electric component of the resultant electromagnetic wave , is:.
At the locations of destructive interference the electric field vectors of the two waves are anti-parallel, and thus, both the resultant field and the resultant wave intensity are minimum Eqs.
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Thus, for N number of polarized coherent electromagnetic sources of the same polarization, frequency, and different intensities, with electric components E 1 , E 2 , …, E N , it comes that at the locations of constructive interference, the resultant electric field is the sum electric field from all the individual sources e. That situation can create very sharp peaks of wave and field intensities at certain locations, not easily detectable by field meters, where any living organism may be exposed to peak electric and magnetic field intensities.
Any location along the midperpendicular to the distance d between two antennas is a location of constructive interference in the case of two identical antennas. All critical biomolecules are either electrically charged or polar This is fundamental to our understanding of the biological phenomena.
Although all molecules oscillate randomly with much higher velocities due to thermal motion, this has no biological effect other than increase in tissue temperature. But a coherent polarized oscillation of even millions of times smaller energy than average thermal molecular energy 26 can initiate biological effects. A forced-oscillation of mobile ions, induced by an external polarized EMF, can result in irregular gating of electrosensitive ion channels on the cell membranes. That was described in detail in Panagopoulos et al. According to this theory - the plausibility of which in actual biological conditions was verified by numerical test 27 - the forced-oscillation of ions in the vicinity of the voltage-sensors of voltage-gated ion channels can exert forces on these sensors equal to or greater than the forces known to physiologically gate these channels.
They interconvert between open and closed state, when the electrostatic force on the electric charges of their voltage sensors due to transmembrane voltage changes, transcends some critical value. The voltage sensors of these channels are four symmetrically arranged, transmembrane, positively charged helical domains, each one designated S4.
Details on the structure and function of cation electrosensitive channels can be found in 11 , 29 , Consider e.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.
The electric and the magnetic force on each ion due to any unpolarized field is zero Eq. The general solution of Eq. The term in the solution, represents a constant displacement, but has no effect on the oscillating term. For pulsed fields such as most fields of modern digital telecommunications this will be taking place constantly with every repeated pulse. The force acting on the effective charge q of an S4 domain, via an oscillating single-valence free cation, is: , r is the distance of the free ion from the effective charge of S4. Each oscillating cation displaced by dr , induces a force on each S4 sensor:.
While in the case of a non-polarized applied field , and , in the case of a polarized applied field, the sum force on the channel sensor from all four cations, is:. This is an even more crucial difference between polarized and unpolarized EMFs in regard to biological activity than the ability of interference. The displacement of one single-valence cation within the channel, necessary to exert this minimum force is calculated from Eq.
Therefore, any external polarized oscillating EMF able to force free ions to oscillate with amplitude , is able to irregularly gate cation channels on cell membranes. For N number of EMF-sources of the same polarization e. N number of parallel power lines the last value is divided by N according to Eq.
Such minimum power frequency field intensity values are abundant in urban daily environments, and even more close to high-voltage power transmission lines 7. As is evident from the described mechanism, the field does not gate the channel by forces exerted directly on the channel sensors. It is the mediation of the oscillating free ions in close proximity to the S4 channel sensors that allows such weak fields to be able to exert the necessary forces to gate the channel.
Thus, ELF electric fields emitted by mobile phones and base stations stronger than 0. This ELF intensity value is emitted by regular cell phones at distances up to a few meters and base stations at distances up to a few hundred meters 6 , 34 , For N number of mobile telephony antennas vertically oriented, the last value is divided by N according to Eq.
We do not distinguish between externally applied EMFs and internally induced ones within living tissue, especially in the case of ELF for the following reasons: 1. Living tissue is not metal to shield from electric fields and certainly is not ferromagnetic metal Fe, Co, Ni to shield from magnetic fields. Moreover, it is known that especially ELF fields cannot be easily shielded even by Faraday cages and in order to significantly minimize them it is recommended to totally enclose them in closed metal boxes 6. Thus, ELF electric fields penetrate living tissue with certain degree of attenuation, and magnetic fields penetrate with zero attenuation.
Even in case that the ELF fields are significantly attenuated in the inner tissues of a living body, the eyes, the brain, the skin cells, or the myriads of nerve fiber terminals that end up on the outer epidermis, are directly exposed to the field intensities measured externally on the surface of the living tissue. These thresholds are very close to those predicted by the present study. Except for direct electric field exposure by an external field, there can be an electric field within tissues induced by an externally applied oscillating magnetic one, which as explained penetrates living tissue with zero attenuation.
Tuor et al. Any location at equal distances from identical sources antennas , in other words any location along the midperpendicular to the distance d between the two sources, is a location of constructive interference and increased field and wave intensities. As the number of sources e. The result of field superposition at those locations are standing waves i. Within biological tissue, at those locations of constructive interference we can have increased biological activity due to the polarized EMFs.
Using the forced-oscillation mechanism 19 , 20 we showed that the resultant force exerted on the S4 sensors of electrosensitive ion channels on cell membranes by several ions forced to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase by an applied polarized EMF and even more by constructively superimposed fields from several polarized EMF-sources , is able to irregularly gate these channels.
This is in contrast to the null force exerted by any number of ions oscillating on non-parallel random planes and with different phases from each other due to any number of non-polarized applied EMFs, and in contrast to the null force exerted by the random thermal movement of the same ions 20 , Exposure to In both frequencies, the right-handed or the left-handed circularly polarized radiation induced a greater effect than the linearly polarized radiation.
When the structure of the DNA was altered by ethidium bromide intercalation, a change in intensity of the effect of polarization was reported Chromatin condensation a sign of cell death was induced by elliptically polarized The effect increased with intensity. Right-handed polarization induced a stronger effect than left-handed These experiments show that not only linear but circular and elliptical polarizations are important parameters for the biological action of EMR, and that molecular structure of biomolecules may be important for the interaction between polarized EMF and the biological tissue.
In all these studies there was no comparison with unpolarised field of identical other parameters, but only comparison between different types of polarization.
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This should be the subject of a future experimental study. The total daily duration of human exposure to the sunlight is also much longer normally than the total daily duration of cell phone exposure during conversations 5 , 6 , 12 , Moreover the frequency energy of sunlight is also significantly larger than any man-made RF or ELF frequencies. Although all animals on Earth have adapted throughout evolution to exposures to EMFs from the sun and the earth, these fields are non-polarized even though natural light may become partially polarized in a small average degree due to atmospheric scattering or reflections.
Moreover, terrestrial electric and magnetic fields are mainly static, emitting very weak non-polarized ELF radiation due to slight variations in their intensities.
The present study explained how this difference in polarization results in corresponding differences in biological activity between natural and man-made EMFs. However, these mechanisms may not always be totally effective, especially when the organism is under additional stress or increased metabolic needs e. Then exposure to polarized man-made EMFs may considerably increase the probability for the initiation of adverse health effects.
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Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. Over the past century, this natural environment has sharply changed with introduction of a vast and growing spectrum of man-made EM fields. From models based on equilibrium thermodynamics and thermal effects, these fields were initially considered too weak to interact with biomolecular systems, and thus incapable of influencing physiological functions.
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Calcium Precipitating Factors Ions Heating. Cellular Phone Heat physical force Equilibrium. Citations Publications citing this paper. Living organisms are complex electrochemical systems that evolved over billions of years in a world with a relatively simple weak magnetic field and with few electromagnetic energy emitters.
As is characteristic of living organisms, they interacted with and adapted to this environment of electric and magnetic fields. In recent years there has been a massive introduction of equipment that emits electromagnetic fields in an enormous range of new frequencies, modulations, and intensities.