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The age of marriage in Islam for women varies with country. Traditionally, Islam has permitted marriage of girls below the age of 10, because Sharia considers practices of Muhammad as a basis for Islamic law. According to Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim , the two Sunni hadiths , Muhammed married Aisha , his third wife when she was 6, and consummated the marriage when she reached the age of 9 or This version of events is rejected by Shia Muslims.


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Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years i. Some Islamic scholars suggest that it is not the calendar age that matters, rather it is the biological age of the girl that determines when she can be married under Islamic law. According to these Islamic scholars, marriageable age in Islam is when a girl has reached sexual maturity , as determined by her nearest male guardian; this age can be, claim these Islamic scholars, less than 10 years, or 12, or another age depending on each girl.

Some clerics and conservative elements of Muslim communities in Yemen, [] [] Saudi Arabia, [] India, [] [] Bangladesh, Pakistan, [] Indonesia, [] Egypt, [] Nigeria [] and elsewhere have insisted that it is their Islamic right to marry girls below age The majority of Muslim scholars have historically read Surah 60, verse 10, which forbids female converts from returning to their non-Muslim husbands, as an injunction against any Muslim women marrying non-Muslim men. Additionally, the Qur'anic verse in question mentions unbelievers, but not people of the Jewish or Christian faiths, whom the Qur'an does identify as suitable partners for Muslim men.

The Qur'an thus does not give any general guidance on whether Muslim women may marry "non-Muslim" men, but rather "discusses specific categories of potential spouses. Do not marry the polytheist women, unless they come to believe in Islam ; a Muslim slave-girl is better than a polytheist woman, even though she may attract you;and do not give your women in marriage to polytheist men,unless they come to believe; a Muslim slave is better than a polytheist, even though he may attract you. They invite to the Fire when Allah invites, by His will, to Paradise, and to forgiveness.

He makes His verses clear to the people, so that they may heed the advice. Islamic law and practice recognize gender disparity, in part, by assigning separate rights and obligations to a woman in married life. A woman's space is in the private sphere of the home, and a man's is in the public sphere.

The equity of this system lies in the fact that God both favoured the man with the necessary qualities and skills for the 'guardianship' and also charged him with the duty to provide for the structure's upkeep. The Quran considers the love between men and women to be a Sign of God. In Islam, there is no coverture , an idea central in European, American as well as in non-Islamic Asian common law, and the legal basis for the principle of marital property.

An Islamic marriage is a contract between a man and a woman. A Muslim man and woman do not merge their legal identity upon marriage, and do not have rights over any shared marital property. The assets of the man before the marriage, and earned by him after the marriage, remain his during marriage and in case of a divorce. Rather, each spouse walks away from the marriage with his or her individual property.

Divorcing Muslim women who did not work outside their home after marriage do not have a claim on the collective wealth of the couple under Islamic law, except for deferred mahr — an amount of money or property the man agrees to pay her before the woman signs the marriage contract. And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child.

But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. In case of husband's death, a portion of his property is inherited by his wives according to a combination of sharia laws. If the man did not leave any children, his wives receive a quarter of the property and the remaining three quarters is shared by the blood relatives of the husband for example, parents, siblings.

A woman's deferred mahr and the dead husband's outstanding debts are paid before any inheritance is applied. Female sexual satisfaction is given significant prominence in the Islamic faith and its classical literature. As recorded by the British Muslim writer Ruqayyah Waris Maqsood in her book The Muslim Marriage Guide : "the early Muslims regarded sexual prowess and the ability to satisfy a woman as being an essential part of manhood. On their wedding night he made love to her no fewer than seven times, so that when morning came, she told him: 'You are a perfect Muslim in every way, even in this!

In this context, the Muslim caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab believed that a married woman had the right to sex at least once every four days, while according to the hadith scholar, jurist and mystic Abu Talib al-Makki d. Islamic luminaries expanded on this theme. If he arouses her desire, and then sits back from her, this will hurt her, and any disparity in their orgasms will certainly produce a sense of estrangement.

A simultaneous orgasm will be the most delightful for her, especially since her husband will be distracted by his own orgasm from her, and she will not therefore be afflicted by shyness. There is disagreement among Islamic scholars on proper interpretation of Islamic law on permissible sex between a husband and wife, with claims that non-vaginal sex within a marriage is disapproved but not forbidden. After sex, as well as menstruation, Islam requires men and women to do ghusl major ritual washing with water, ablutions , and in some Islamic communities xoslay prayers seeking forgiveness and purification , as sex and menstruation are considered some of the causes that makes men and women religiously impure najis.

Sexual intercourse is not allowed to a Muslim woman during menstruation , postpartum period , during fasting and certain religious activities, disability and in iddah after divorce or widowhood. Homosexual relations and same sex marriages are forbidden to women in Islam. Religious qadis judges have admonished the man or women who fail to meet these duties.

A high value is placed on female chastity and exhibitionism is prohibited. There is no mention of female circumcision — let alone other forms of female genital mutilation — in the Qur'an. In answering the question of how "Islamic" female circumcision is, Haifaa A. Jawad — an academic specialising in Islamic thought and the author of The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach — has concluded that "the practice has no Islamic foundation whatsoever.

It is nothing more than an ancient custom which has been falsely assimilated to the Islamic tradition, and with the passage of time it has been presented and accepted in some Muslim countries as an Islamic injunction. Forcibly split, torn, and severed tissues are neither conducive to sensuality nor to the blessed feeling given and shared when participating in the quest for pleasure and the escape from pain.

The Egyptian feminist Nawal El-Saadawi reasons that the creation of the clitoris per se is a direct Islamic argument against female circumcision: "If religion comes from God, how can it order man to cut off an organ created by Him as long as that organ is not diseased or deformed? God does not create the organs of the body haphazardly without a plan.

It is not possible that He should have created the clitoris in woman's body only in order that it be cut off at an early stage in life. This is a contradiction into which neither true religion nor the Creator could possibly fall. If God has created the clitoris as a sexually sensitive organ, whose sole function seems to be the procurement of sexual pleasure for women, it follows that He also considers such pleasure for women as normal and legitimate, and therefore as an integral part of mental health.

Mahmud Shaltut , the former Sheikh of Al-Azhar in Cairo — one of the most important religious offices in Sunni Islam — also stated that female circumcision has no theological basis: "Islamic legislation provides a general principle, namely that should meticulous and careful examination of certain issues prove that it is definitely harmful or immoral, then it should be legitimately stopped to put an end to this damage or immorality.

Therefore, since the harm of excision has been established, excision of the clitoris of females is not a mandatory obligation, nor is it a Sunnah. In the twenty-first century, a number of high-ranking religious offices within the OIC have urged the cessation of all forms of FGM:. From very early times various methods of contraception have been practiced in Islam, [] and Muslim jurists of the two major sects of Islam, Sunni and Shia, generally agree that contraception and family planning are not forbidden by Sharia; the use of contraceptive devices is permitted if the marital partners agree.

Given the era and the fact that both Christian and Jewish tradition outlawed contraception, the attitude of Muslims towards birth control has been characterised as being remarkably pragmatic; they also possessed a sophisticated knowledge of possible birth control methods. Islam condemns female infanticide.

In some Islamic populations, sex-selective female infanticide is of concern because of abnormally high boy to girl ratios at birth. After the collapse, the birth sex ratios in Azerbaijan has sharply climbed to over and remained high for the last 20 years. In Islam, a woman may only divorce her husband under certain conditions. These are many and include neglect, not being supported financially, the husband's impotence, apostasy, madness, dangerous illness or some other defect in the marriage.

A tafriq is a divorce for certain allowable reasons. This divorce is granted by a qadi , a religious judge, in cases where the qadi accepts her claims of abuse or abandonment. If a tafriq is denied by the qadi , she cannot divorce. If a tafriq is granted, the marriage is dissolved and the husband is obligated to pay her the deferred mahr in their marriage contract.

The second method, by far more common in wife-initiated divorces, khul is a divorce without cause, by mutual consent. This divorce requires a husband's consent and it must be supported by consideration that passes from the wife to the husband. Often, this consideration almost always consists of the wife relinquishing her claim to the deferred mahr. In actual practice and outside of Islamic judicial theory, a woman's right to divorce is often extremely limited compared with that of men in the Middle East. In contrast to the comparatively limited methods of divorce available to a woman, Islam allows a Muslim husband to unilaterally divorce his wife, as talaq , with no requirement to show cause; however, in practice there is variance by country as to whether there are any additional legal processes when a husband divorces his wife by this method.

For example, the Tunisian Law of Personal Status makes repudiation by a husband invalid until it has been ratified by a court, and provides for further financial compensation to the wife. In case of death of her husband, the iddah period is 4 lunar months and 10 days before she can start conjugal relations with another Muslim man. A key verse relating to obligation of women during divorce is [].

Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have more right to take them back in this [period] if they want reconciliation. And due to the wives is similar to what is expected of them, according to what is reasonable. But the men have a degree over them [in responsibility and authority]. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. This verse not only explains the divorce rights of women in Islam, it sets out iddah to prevent illegal custody of divorcing husband's child by a woman, specifies that each gender has divorce rights, and that men are a degree above women.

With the coming of the Quranic revelation, the family replaced the tribe as the basic unit of Arab society, and today the family is still the primary means of social organisation in the Islamic world. Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; that is for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child.

No-one should be charged beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born be made to suffer because of his child. And on the father's heir is incumbent the like of that which was incumbent on the father. If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and after consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provide that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do.

Although no limitation or prohibition against women's travelling alone is mentioned in the Quran, there is a debate in some denominations, especially Salafis, regarding whether women may travel without a mahram unmarriageable relative. Nowadays, most Muslim scholars think that it is not forbidden for women to travel without a mahram , because nowadays, public transport, airports, harbours, etc.

Such facilities did not exist during the Middle Ages and the prohibition of women travelling without a mahram according to Islamic law is not an absolute prohibition. A fatwa commissioned by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of the Interior formally enacted a ban on women driving. Theologically speaking, the ban has no basis in the Quran or Hadith, and should never have been issued in the first place. A Muslim woman may not move in a mosque, or perform salat , while she is menstruating or during postpartum period, because bodily fluids are considered ritually impure in Islam.

Some Muslim scholars suggest that the woman should stay in her house, or near her house, during this state. Narrated Ayyub: Hafsa said, 'We used to forbid our young women to go out for the two Eids. She said, "We used to treat the wounded, look after the patients and once I asked the Prophet, 'Is there any harm for any of us to stay at home if she doesn't have a shawl? She replied, "Yes. May my father be sacrificed for him!

I have heard the Prophet saying, 'The unmarried young virgins and the mature girl who stay often screened or the young unmarried virgins who often stay screened and the menstruating women should come out and participate in the good deeds as well as the gathering of the believers but the menstruating women should keep away from the praying place.

In the specific context of women, the Qur'an at speaks of covering women's "ornaments" from strangers outside the family. On the basis of the injunction to be modest, various forms of dress were developed in different parts of the Islamic world, but some forms of dress were carryovers from earlier, pre-Islamic Near Eastern societies: the practice of women covering their hair was the norm in the earlier communities of Jews and Christians.

In the twenty-first century, there continues to be tremendous variance in how Muslim women dress, not least because the Islamic world is so geographically and culturally diverse. Conversely, in a handful of states — notably Iran and Saudi Arabia — with modernist fundamentalist regimes, dress codes stipulating that women wear exclusively "religious" garments as opposed to "secular" ones in public which became mandatory in the latter part of the twentieth century are still in force.

The overwhelming majority of Muslim-majority countries do not have laws mandating the public wearing of either secular or religious apparel, and the full spectrum of female clothing — from bikinis to face veils — can be seen in countries such as Albania, Lebanon and Morocco. In a study done by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, Muslim American women were, "the most likely" when compared to other domestic religious communities to, "wear "a visible symbol that makes their faith identity known to others.

The study did not find there to be any significant age or race difference. According to all schools of Islamic law, only women are permitted to wear pure silken garments next to the skin, although the schools of law differ about almost every other detail concerning silk such as the permissibility of men wearing silk mixed with other fibres.

In private, it is common for women to wear Western -style clothing. From the s to the s, the use of what is often referred to as the "veil" — this term could mean anything from a face veil to a shawl loosely draped over the head — declined until only a minority of Muslim women outside the conservative societies of the Arabian peninsula still used it. Lack of scriptural validity. In other words one can never see and get to know God, because our intellect is too weak [to fully comprehend Him]. Lack of historical authenticity.

During his rule as the 2nd President of Egypt , Nasser was given a list of demands by the Supreme Leader of the [Muslim] Brotherhood as part of a process of political reconciliation. When Nasser explained that the Brotherhood wanted Egyptian women to wear a headscarf, the audience members burst out laughing. The Singaporean writer Sya Taha has expressed this as follows: "In any commercial magazine targeted at Muslim women, compare the number of pages dedicated to hijab styling or makeup with sport, art, music, humanitarian work or science In contrast, Muslim women that do not wear hijab are often framed as though they must justify and reconcile how they can identify as Muslim women.

Commercialism and Exploitation. Deepening globalisation has resulted in a number of developments pertaining to clothing customs in Muslim-majority countries. Firstly, retail outlets for Western fashion labels are now commonly found in OIC member states: to give but one example, Calvin Klein has stores from the Citypark shopping mall in Tirana, Albania to the Plaza Indonesia mall in Jakarta. Secondly, fashion labels specialising in modest attire particularly but not exclusively the hijab or headscarf worn by some Muslim women have sprung up in a number of OIC states and observer countries.

Fifthly, the fashion media sector within the Muslim world for both Western and Islamic fashion has grown tremendously from the s onwards. From the earliest centuries of Islam, Muslims have visited shrines and mosques to pray, meditate, ask forgiveness, seek cures for ailments, and seek grace — a blessing or spiritual influence barakah sent down by God. The Virgin Mary 'Maryam' in Arabic has a particularly exalted position within the Islamic tradition, extolled as she is for being the mother of Jesus, whom Muslims revere as a prophet.

According to legend, Hala Sultan died after falling off her mule and breaking her neck during the first Arab incursions into Cyprus around A. The same night, a divine power supposedly placed three giant stones where she lay. In , Hala Sultan's grave was discovered by Sheikh Hasan; he began spreading the word about her healing powers, and a tomb was built there.

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This tekke is also notable for being the burial place of the grandmother of the late King Hussein of Jordan. She also has the following mosques named for her:. During the Safavid dynasty , the women of this family were very active in embellishing the Shrine of Fatima Masumeh. In times of war, Safavid royal women found refuge in Qom, and likely compared their situation to that of Fatima Masumeh.

Her mystical sayings are noted for their pith and clarity; some have become proverbs throughout the Islamic world. The mosque was badly damaged during the post-military coup unrest in Egypt. Legend has it that the Bibi Pak Daman lit. These females were amongst the most important women who brought Islam to South Asia.

It is said that these ladies came here after the event of the battle of Karbala on the 10th day of the month of Muharram in 61 AH October 10, CE Bibi Pak Daman is the collective name of the six ladies believed to interred at this mausoleum, though it is also mistakenly popularly used to refer to the personage of Ruqayyah bint Ali alone.

They preached and engaged in missionary activity in the environs of Lahore. It is said that Data Ganj Bakhsh , considered a great Sufi saint of the South Asia , was himself a devotee of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine and received holy knowledge from this auspicious shrine.

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According to a saying attributed to Muhammad in the hadith Sahih Bukhari, women are allowed to go to mosques. By pre-modern period it was unusual for women to pray at a mosque. Today, Muslim women do indeed attend mosques. Female religious scholars were relatively common from early Islamic history throughout the 16th century.

Women's right to become imams , however, is disputed by many. A fundamental role of an imam religious leader in a mosque is to lead the salat congregational prayers. Generally, women are not allowed to lead mixed prayers. However, some argue that Muhammad gave permission to Ume Warqa to lead a mixed prayer at the mosque of Dar.

Hui women are self-aware of their relative freedom as Chinese women in contrast to the status of Arab women in countries like Saudi Arabia where Arab women are restricted and forced to wear encompassing clothing. Hui women point out these restrictions as "low status", and feel better to be Chinese than to be Arab, claiming that it is Chinese women's advanced knowledge of the Quran which enables them to have equality between men and women. Sufi Islam teaches the doctrine of tariqa , meaning following a spiritual path in daily living habits.

To support followers of this concept, separate institutions for men ta'ifa, hizb, rabita and women khanqa, rabita, derga were created. Initiates to these groups pursued a progression of seven stages of spiritual discipline, called makamat stations or ahwal spiritual states. Rabiah al-Basri is an important figure in Islamic Mysticism called Sufism. She upheld the doctrine of "disinterested love of God".

There are a number of prominent female Islamic scholars. They generally focus on questioning gender-based interpretations of the Quran , the traditions of Muhammad and early Islamic history. Many classical Islamic scholars, such as al-Tabari , supported female leadership. This historical record contrasts markedly with that of predominantly Taoist and Buddhist Chinese-majority nations, where there were no women rulers in the period between the reign of the fierce empress Wu Zetian at the turn of the eighth century , and the inauguration of Tsai Ing-wen as President of the Republic of China in Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah , an Islamic institute that advises Egypt's ministry of justice, had said women can both be rulers and judges in an Islamic state.

In the modern era, Pakistan became the first Muslim-majority state with an elected female head of government As well as elected heads of state, a number of other elected female politicians have attained exceptional levels of notability within the OIC in the twenty-first century. Several Muslim-majority nations have passed laws to incorporate more women in their parliaments and political processes.

In , among all regions of the world, the Gulf Arab region had the lowest overall percentage of women in parliament, and no women in the parliaments of Saudi Arabia and Qatar, the only two Muslim-majority states in the world which are officially Wahhabi. However, some Muslim countries gave women suffrage in the early 20th century. For example, Azerbaijan extended voting rights to women in , [] two years before it became part of Soviet Union. Females in Turkey similarly gained the right to vote in municipal and parliamentary elections in and respectively.

In the United States, Islamophobia, coupled with the presidential election which heightened anti-muslim sentiment has particularly impacted on Muslim American women. In the Islamic conception, every human being has a responsibility towards oneself. Since human life is sacred and initially created by divine rather than human agency, people are responsible for trying to keep their bodies and souls healthy, and not causing themselves spiritual or physical harm.

In modern times, Muslim women have achieved some significant success in athletic arenas. In the second decade of the twenty-first century, women's club volleyball has come to be dominated by teams from OIC member state Turkey, which have won six out of eight editions of the Women's CEV Champions League from through to Turkish clubs have also become a force in women's basketball, with at least one Turkish side having been present in the final four of the EuroLeague Women since the season; in , Galatasaray became the first Turkish team to win Europe's elite club tournament.

The Iran women's national futsal team are two-time champions of Asia, having won both editions to date of the AFC Women's Futsal Championship Malaysia , Thailand by beating Japan in the respective finals. Notable female tennis players from the OIC and its observer and applicant states include Dinara Safina , who achieved the coveted world number one ranking in and with Marat Safin is one half of the only brother-sister pair to both attain No.

Women's football has significantly increased its profile within the OIC bloc in the twenty-first century. At the same time, many Muslim women experience significant barriers to sports participation. These barriers include bans on the Islamic headscarf, commonly known as the hijab, cultural and familial barriers, and the lack of appropriate sports programs and facilities.

The Islamic Solidarity Games is a large multi-sport event held every four years in which all qualifying athletes from Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries can compete, regardless of their religious affiliation. The next edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games is scheduled to take place in Istanbul. From its inception, Islam has had contact and coexistence with other major world faiths, and this phenomenon intensified as the religion transcended its Arabian origins to spread over a wide geographical area: from the Adriatic region, where Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity took root, to the Hinduism- and Buddhism-dominated land masses of India and South-East Asia, Muslim populations have both influenced and been influenced by the pre-existing spiritual traditions that they encountered.

In the twenty-first century, a number of new factors have facilitated the comparison of spiritual traditions — and the place of women within them — to an unprecedented level. These include: i a fresh wave of technological globalisation, which has obliterated communicational borders; ii the advent of cheap mass international air travel, which has hugely increased people's exposure to other cultures; and iii the internationalisation of higher education, whereby students and scholars alike are spending ever-increasing amounts of time in countries with different religious demographic compositions to their own.

Notwithstanding these developments, comparing the position of women in Islam with that of women in other faith traditions is complicated by the following determinants:. This means that Eve was not the cause of Adam's expulsion from paradise: he was also responsible, and therefore both men and women are faced equally with its consequences. This has a number of important implications for the Islamic understanding of womanhood and women's roles in both religious and social life.

In the Western world, polygamy has long been associated with Islam; the idea of Islam as — to quote Professor Akbar S. Ahmed — some sort of 'man's paradise', with every man possessing at least four wives, remains a powerful one. This survey also found that a polygamous Hindu was likely to have as a statistical average 1.

Like many other major world religions, [] [] [] Islam views extramarital sex as a great sin in the eyes of God; however, its general approach to sexuality is profoundly distinct to that of Christianity. There exists a marked contrast between the teachings of St Thomas Aquinas — who stated that marriage becomes "more holy sine carnale commixione " i. In Islam and the Destiny of Man , the Swiss-born diplomat Charles le Gai Eaton elaborates on the respective sexuality perspectives of the world's two most popular faiths:. It is in itself an unqualified good, however much it may need to be hedged about with restrictions.

Women have played an integral part in the development and spiritual life of Islam since the inception of Islamic civilisation in the seventh century AD. Khadijah , a businesswoman who became Muhammad's employer and first wife, [] was also the first Muslim. Women make up a disproportionately large or rising share of converts to Islam in numerous Western countries. Within the Muslim community, conservatives and Islamic feminists have used Islamic doctrine as the basis for discussion of women's rights, drawing on the Quran , the hadith , and the lives of prominent women in the early period of Muslim history as evidence.

Conservatives reject the assertion that different laws prescribed for men and women imply that men are more valuable than women. Ali ibn Musa Al-reza reasoned that at the time of marriage a man has to pay something to his prospective bride, and that men are responsible for both their wives' and their own expenses but women have no such responsibility.

The nebulous revivalist movement termed Islamism is one of the most dynamic movements within Islam in the 20th and 21st centuries. The experience of women in Islamist states has been varied. Women in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan faced treatment condemned by the international community. Liberal Muslims have urged that ijtihad , a form of critical thinking, be used to develop a more progressive form of Islam with respect to the status of women.

Although rooted in Islam, pioneers of Islamic feminism have also used secular and western feminist discourses and have sought to include Islamic feminism in the larger global feminist movement. Islamic feminists seek to highlight the teachings of equality in Islam to question patriarchal interpretations of Islamic teachings. After the September 11, , attacks , international attention was focused on the condition of women in the Muslim world.


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    In , Marina Mahathir, the daughter of Malaysia's former Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad , published an editorial in the Malaysia Star newspaper to denounce what she termed "a growing form of apartheid" for Malaysia's Muslim women:. Non-Muslim Malaysian women have benefited from more progressive laws over the years while the opposite has happened for Muslim women. She pointed out that polygamy was illegal in Malaysia for non-Muslims but not for Muslims, and that child custody arrangements for Muslims were biased towards fathers as opposed to the shared-custody arrangements of non-Muslim parents.

    The Tribunal ordered that all future publicity materials for public events hosted by Hizb ut-Tahrir must clearly inform attendees that segregated seating arrangements are not compulsory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country.

    Main article: An-Nisa. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May Main article: Gender roles in Islam. See also: Religious education of Women in Islam. See also: Islamic economics in the world. See also: Female figures in the Quran. See also: Female labor force in the Muslim world. Sharia plays no role in the judicial system. Sharia applies to Muslims in personal status issues only. Sharia is also used in criminal law. Regional variations in the application of sharia. Main article: Application of sharia by country.

    See also: Women and inheritance in Islam. Main article: Zina. Main article: Rape in Islamic law. Main article: Status of women's testimony in Islam. See also: Islam and domestic violence. Main article: Ishq. See also: Muhammad's wives.

    Khalid Yasin - Treatment of Muslim Women

    See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence and Polygyny in Islam. See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence. Main articles: Rights and obligations of spouses in Islam and Islam and domestic violence. Main article: Islamic sexual jurisprudence. Main articles: Female genital mutilation and Religious views on female genital mutilation. Main article: Divorce Islamic.

    Main articles: Culture and menstruation and Menstruation in Islam. Main articles: Islam and clothing and Intimate parts in Islam. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Gender segregation and Muslims and Women's mosques. See also: Sultana title , Female political leaders in Islam and in Muslim-majority countries , and Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries.

    Main article: Muslim women in sport. Main articles: Islamic revival and Islamism. April 27, Retrieved June 13, Bodman; Nayereh Esfahlani Tohidi, eds. Lynne Rienner Publishers. The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. New York: HarperOne.

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    The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 10, Birmingham, United Kingdom: Amadeus Books. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on September 18, London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation. Retrieved May 24, The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, American Ethnologist , 37 1 , pp. Political Studies Review. Journal of Islamic Studies. In John L. Esposito ed.

    The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. The social structure of Islam. Marriage and slavery in early Islam. Harvard University Press, pp. What she discovered, however, in the stories of British colonial officials, young Muslim feminists, Arab nationalists, pious Islamic daughters, American Muslim immigrants, violent jihadists, and peaceful Islamic activists, confounded her expectations.

    Ahmed observed that Islamism, with its commitments to activism in the service of the poor and in pursuit of social justice, is the strain of Islam most easily and naturally merging with western democracies' own tradition of activism in the cause of justice and social change. It is often Islamists, even more than secular Muslims, who are at the forefront of such contemporary activist struggles as civil rights and women's rights. Ahmed's surprising conclusions represent a near reversal of her thinking on this topic.

    Richly insightful, intricately drawn, and passionately argued, this absorbing story of the veil's resurgence, from Egypt through Saudi Arabia and into the West, suggests a dramatically new portrait of contemporary Islam. Leila Ahmed is the Victor S. She lives in Cambridge, MA. Instructors: This title is also available in paperback. If you would like to request access to an e-examination copy of this title, please click here.

    Ahmed's learned and engaging argument should make all readers examine their prejudices. This valuable and much needed introduction to major trends in the modern Muslim world leads to some novel and surprising conclusions. An important book, it should be required reading for journalists, educationalists, politicians and religious leaders.

    Her new book brings the critical historical perspective necessary to understand the deep and quiet revolution that is occurring among American Muslims. This is a history Leila Ahmed herself has lived through and witnessed, especially in. North America. It is compelling reading for the many readers with questions about the veil and its meanings.

    Its history stretches over more than a m The Enlightenment and the Orthodox World. Professor Paschalis Kitromilides's lecture is supported by the A. Published 26 October, University of Edinburgh, Room 2. It looks like you may be having problems playing this video. If so, please try restarting your browser. Posted by Abigail Burnyeat.

    Tom O'Donnell: Medieval Irish bodies, emotions and fosterage. Dorothy Dunnett Academic History Prize The Prize is for an essay of up to words. Entries will be accepted from students registered on a PhD programme at any recognised higher education institution. See More. Classics seminars The University of Edinburgh. The Classics research seminars take place throughout the academic year and are open to all, within and outside the University.

    The University of Edinburgh has one of the largest concentrations of scholars researching the late antique and Byzantine worlds in the UK, and many of these staff and students are in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology. Denys Hay Lecture For more details on the society please see its Facebook page or university Wikispace. Publishing in the Humanities.