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There is one gurudwara in Bobigny. Turban ban French Sikhs have been in the limelight since the turban ban, banning Sikhs and other religions from sporting a headwear. This has met with anger and worldwide protest by the Sikhs. At least five Sikhs wearing turbans or cloth covers for their uncut hair were barred from classrooms near Paris. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of , in The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,, in , the second-largest urban area in France.

Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It is also known for. The duo announced that they were breaking up so they can each follow solo careers. Dadju released his solo album Gentleman 2. Personal life Dadju comes from a musical family.

His father is Djanana Djuna, a vocalist of Papa Wemba's band. His other brother Bedjik and Xgangs are also rappers in their own right. In , he got married and had a daughter a few months l. The following season, he was loaned to Celtic, where he won the domestic treble, before joining them on a permanent move for a club record fee. He scored 22 goals in 14 league appearances for the U17s the following seaso. History Creation The University Paris was created after the desire of the Rector of the Academy of Paris in the early s, of opening a third faculty of science at Villetaneuse.

In September was also created at Saint-Denis, a science-based university center with status of faculty, in the University of Paris, called University Centre Saint-Denis - Villetaneuse. In , with the application of Law Faure reform, was decided to create 13 autonomous multidisciplinary universities, which replaced the faculties of the University of Paris, and the faculty of Villetaneuse became the University of Paris XIII.

The new university was designed by the architects Fainsilber and Anspach, as part of the renovation of the town of Villetaneuse. The first stage was the constr. In accordance with an agreement made with the Republican Young Ottomans, he promulgated the first Ottoman Constitution of on December 23, ,[4] which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule. Later, however, he noticed Western influence on Ottoman affairs and citing disagreements with the Parliament,[4] suspended both the short-lived constitution and Parliament in and accomplished highly effective power a.

Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of , inhabitants in Line T1 connects Noisy-le-Sec station and Les Courtilles with a suburban alignment running in parallel to the Northern city limits of Paris. It opened in as the first modern tram line in the Paris region. The line was extended in December and November Daily ridership reaches , passengers in making it the second busiest line of the tram network.

To the east a planned extension towards Val de Fontenay, which has been. The general councilors are elected for a 6-years term. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture in and E. Nice is approximately 13 kilometres 8. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region. Quick is similar in theme to McDonald's and Burger King. In , it was taken over by the French government's investment holding company, CDC, and was purchased by Burger King in February By December 31, , it ope.

In he settled in Paris, France. He is of Finnish and Swedish descent. It is in the 10th arrondissement, not far from the Gare du Nord, facing the Boulevard de Strasbourg, part of the north-south axis of Paris created by Baron Haussmann. It is one of the largest and the oldest railway stations in Paris, the western terminus of the Paris—Strasbourg railway and the Paris—Mulhouse railway.

It was renamed the "Gare de l'Est" in , after the expansion of service to Mulhouse. Renovations to the station followed in and In it was doubled in size, with the new part of the station built symmetrically with the old part. Dolosigranulum pigrum is a Gram-positive bacterium from the genus of Dolosigranulum. Stephen, Dr. Berger Laclaire, L. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Lecuyer, H. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. He returned to Abkhazia and was killed in the war. The league serves as the fourth tier of the French football league system behind Ligue 1, Ligue 2, and the Championnat National.

Contested by 64 clubs, the Championnat National 2 operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Championnat National and the Championnat National 3, the fifth division of French football. Seasons run from August to May, with teams in four groups playing 32 games each totalling games in the season. Most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, with a few games played during weekday evenings. Play is regularly suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January.

The Championnat de France amateur was initially founded by the French Football Federation in and was composed of the regional amateur league champions. The league served as the first division of French. Brahim Thiam born February 24, in Bobigny is a retired Malian football defender. Thiam is said to have a good midfield partnership with Stoke City F. He joined Stade de Reims in January Mercato in French. Locally, it is often referred to colloquially as quatre-vingt treize or neuf trois i. Geography Seine-Saint-Denis is located to the northeast of Paris.

Since 1 January , together with Paris, they form the area of Greater Paris. Dolosigranulum is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic and non-motile bacterial genus from the family of Carnobacteriaceae, with one known species Dolosigranulum pigrum. Collins, Matthew D.

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Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. Further reading Lecuyer, H. He was educated privately. According to custom, Abdulmejid was confined to the palace until he was On 3 March , six months after the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished and the Ottoman dynasty. He was born in Istanbul. He was highly influenced by French culture and was a liberal. The ensuing political instability caused by his ousting moved the empire closer to the disastrous war with Russia, then ruled by Alexander II.

Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions.


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Departments are further subdivided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections. The municipality commune of Bordeaux proper has a population of , With 1,, in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, and Lille.

It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" for men or "Bordelaises" women. The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region.


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  7. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo,[5] and the wine econom. This station was the terminus of Line 5 from to As a result, there are four tracks and a scissors crossover just east of the station; two are used to reverse the direction of trains. The project comprises four new lines, plus extensions of existing Line 11 and Line The new lines are therefore now known as 15, 16, 17 and They are planned to open in stages through Learn French as it is spoken not as the textbook says it should be spoken There is also a big difference between formal French and informal French.

    Volunteer to speak before you are spoken to. People appreciate you coming out of your shell towards them Pick up your French in phrases without analysing them and that includes slang, which comes up a lot in conversation: bagnole for car, boulot for work, toubib for doctor. You need to ask someone but most people will find it amusing to give a definition. France also loves abbreviations and you need to be alert for fac faculty, i. Take the initiative Volunteer to speak before you are spoken to.

    People appreciate you coming out of your shell towards them and it sends a message that you expect to be understood. You are never going to lose your accent but why would you want to? It is charming and part of your persona in French. However, you can make things easy for yourself. The more you move your mouth and lips and the more you concentrate on distinguishing vowel sounds, the less people will ask you to repeat yourself.

    Even Britons who speak flawless French will admit to words they can never pronounce. If you cannot avoid them, at least enunciate them slowly and be sure the listener has lots of context. Mine are desert and dessert where my pronunciation of the S sound throws them and I am never sure if people hear he s crying il pleure if I say it s raining il pleut.

    Make a fool of yourself Whether you like it or not you are a stand-up comedian when you speak a foreign language. Everyone is. Be the first to laugh at yourself. I always come out with howlers. I thought the dentist asked: Did you sleep well last night? Years ago, when my wife was going into labour I checked her into hospital with the solemn words, My wife is going to give birth to herself.

    Few people will mock but I remind myself the point is to communicate even if that is at the expense of my vanity and pride. Photo: Pixabay. Close to all amenities. Haute Savoie 75, Ref: bed ski apartment benefiting from balcony, pool, tennis court and great views. We have over properties for sale on our website Tarn et Garonne 2,, Ref: Manor house hotel with 30 bedrooms, pool, garden and 4Ha of surrounding land.

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    Contact us:. I met Olivier almost straight off the plane, and we lived together in London and then moved to Geneva in and since we ve been living on the Left Bank in Paris, she says. For Lauren, it was a crash course in learning French, and in her book, When in French, she documents her linguistic adventures along the way.

    The book is amusing and readable, but also contains lots of insights into learning a second language as an adult. At first, living in Geneva, I struggled with everything to the point where I thought that French was the problem, but since we ve been in Paris everything has changed and I have realised that Geneva was the problem.

    I love the French language! Now married to Olivier, with a small daughter and another baby on the way, she speaks French fluently but still enjoys the differences between the languages. She notices the frequency and moments of deployment of phrases like I love you are different in the two languages, although the underlying feelings are the same. In the US, we re always saying we love this that and the other. In French, it s used Do you find yourself cursing more easily in French than your native tongue? After extensive research into questions like whether or not jokes told in a foreign language are still funny, she is now studying the emotional impact of second languages and why people curse more readily in non-native tongues.

    Language taps into our memories so when more rarely so feels more special. She also finds that some French words, like solidaire, just don t have a simple one-word translation. Sometimes you need a lot of words to express the same concept. And how do you say bof in English? And n importe quoi when Macron used it in that TV debate with Le Pen just before the presidential elections, that was a seminal moment. And it just isn t the same as saying whatever in English.

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    She says learning a new language has in some way changed the way she thinks. My life in France isn t in quarantine. When I go back to the States, I still have my new cultural associations, my newly acquired French, my attitudes. It s the same in Paris, I still have all my cultural background. It can lead to unexpected culture clashes.

    When I go back to the US, the lack of a formal way of addressing people is jarring. I like the implied respect that comes with using vous and French formality has overtaken US informality as my normal, although when I first arrived in France, I found it snobbish and undemocratic. I was very American and thought that everyone is the same so you should speak to them the same way. We don t speak word by word, we draw on phrases and concepts which we ve heard in that language. It s not well recognised, but language and culture are intimately linked, she says. For example, when Korean woman living in the US meet up in groups, you might expect them to speak Korean but they don t.

    They prefer to speak English because it s less formal, and using it means there is less hierarchy within the group. When you re out and about, you use vous with everyone because it s polite and shows respect, but also you don t need to bother much because you don t really know those people. What I find amusing is the discussion as to when couples stop using vous and move to the more intimate tu In books translated from English to French for example, it s often the morning after a couple have been to bed for the first time, which always makes me laugh.

    She says she does not believe there are concepts that cannot be expressed in other languages. That s why we delight in doing untranslatable translations and finding just the right way to express a concept. But it s true that there are neater ways of expressing certain concepts in some languages. And some things always fall through the gaps. There are just some nuances that don t make it through a translation.

    The title of her own book is a case in point. When it was translated into French and published in France, the title was changed from When in French to Lost in French. Both are English titles, but the second is perhaps easier for a French-speaker to understand than the original. If you grew up in a culture where swearing is more accepted, it has less emotional resonance. But in Japan, for example, swearing is so frowned upon that many Japanese people prefer to swear in English.

    She says a similar phenomenon is seen in romance: In some cultures, people never say I love you to their parents, lovers, no-one Switching to another language gives them the freedom to say things they otherwise feel too inhibited to express. In such cultures, family is considered to be so close that you are not expected to have to cultivate close relationships with family members.

    Trying to do so would be seen as strange, seen as indicating that you don t feel close to your family. But in societies like in the US, we are all individuals so we have to reach out to our close families and friends to create and maintain close bonds. So in English, it s normal to say I love you and sorry all the time. It doesn t carry the same emotional baggage. She says it works when we are on the receiving end, too.

    When people swear at us in a foreign language, we re not much troubled by it because the words are not loaded with cultural associations and personal memories. They are just words with little emotional resonance. But when foreigners swear at us in our own language, it can hurt badly because the use of the Studies have shown that your personality changes when you speak another language and, keen to know if she was doing the same, Emily Commander started taking notes IT HAS been claimed that many bilingual people experience a shift in personality when switching between their two languages.

    Some researchers claim this is caused by structural differences between the languages which force speakers to formulate their thoughts in different ways, and others claim it is all tangled up with the culture associated with any language. To test out this theory, I have spent the past week noting down how I feel when I speak in English and French, and asking my family to make observations about my behaviour they have had a field day. At the most basic level, I look different in the two languages.

    In English I smile at everyone and for absolutely no reason at all. In French it takes quite an effort to make me crack a smile. This is, in part, a pronunciation issue. English vowels require a smile a simple passing hi or hello forces me to grin a little, however I am feeling. French vowels, on the other hand, encourage pouting it is difficult to smile while delivering even the most effusive of bonjours. I got one of my children to photograph me bonjour-ing away to her collection of soft toys and, despite the comedy of the situation, it turns out that throughout I wore a pout that would rival Keira Knightley s finest.

    Perhaps this explains the sultry pose worn so effortlessly by my French friends in swear words evokes an emotional response in us. We feel that they are getting away with it, because they aren t feeling the same emotional resonance. She vividly remembers being sworn at by a customs official in France once. He spoke quite quietly, so no-one else heard but he used the c-word and I was completely shocked.

    I felt completely violated, it was far worse than if an English-speaker had used that language to me. But I had the feeling that to him it wasn t that offensive and that even if he had understood just how hurtful it was to use that word to me, he didn t care. But she says that to her the memory still hurts. What it comes down to is this: language is so linked to culture, memory and background that when a linguistic use shocks you, it s because you ve just come up against a cultural shock of one sort or another.

    It is a metaphorical slap in the face, just as it is, conversely, when you discover a delightful new idiom or phrase in a foreign language. It s one of the pleasures of learning them. Learn French So much for the way I look, but how do I feel in French? For one thing, I appear to care less about the rules. Recently, there was no parking space outside the school so I double-parked and ran to collect the kids.

    My response? A shrug and Oh, qu est-ce que tu veux?

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    Roughly translated this means Oh well, what else could I do? They don t call it a Gallic shrug for nothing. I am more direct in French, too. Last week a friend offered me a bag of her children s cast-offs. I responded by sorting through the items. I set aside one or two, then told my friend what was wrong with each of the remaining ones before thanking her and handing them back. In English I would never have behaved in this manner. Rather, I would have taken the bag, thanked my friend profusely, and only found later its contents were useless.

    Indeed, two boxes of second-hand clothes in our cellar are the result of precisely such encounters. In French, however, I not only turned down the items that I didn t want, but criticised them without any sense of shame. My friend was not offended in response. I had put practicality ahead of politeness, and nobody had died.

    So it seems to come down to this: I cringe less in French. What this says about either me or the French is another matter. Catherine Caldwell-Harris Connexion tip ONE pitfall when learning French is the deceptive faux amis words that appear the same in French and English when, actuellement, they have different meanings. Actuellement is one of them. It does not mean actually, en fait, but currently.

    So, where do these language traps come from? English, despite belonging to the Germanic family of language, has many words that are influenced by the French, ever since , and changed little in spelling or meaning: such as intelligence, situation or accident. After the English defeat at the hands of the French in the Hundred Years War, English started to undergo a revival and the two languages increasingly went their separate ways.

    Sandrine Durand, a French language tutor at Lalangue Paris, says: Often that s how faux-amis arise: the word evolves in meaning in one language but not the other but still sounds the same. Differences like hearing letters sounded at the end of words that are usually silent are among those you may have come across. Reader Mary Douche, for example, told us that one of her south-west friends says moins as moinz, even though in most of France the last consonant is not pronounced. At the opposite end of the country, in the northeast, they pronounce the T on vingt.

    Lots of readers from the south notice the change that occurs in some of the nasal vowels there, such as Scheenagh Harrington, who said she loves the way people in Castres say peng for pain and demeng for demain. According to Chris Sears, at the station in Bergerac they announce the arrival of the tron, while Nathan Phillips said he has picked up a Ch ti accent I say shud instead of sud, because I live in the north.

    In a bid to chart such variations, linguist Mathieu Avanzi from the Catholic University of Louvain, in Belgium, has created francaisdenosregions. The way locals say rose varies with geography He said regional French should be distinguished from a dialect. Similar to languages like Spanish or Italian, dialects developed separately from Latin while conventional French took a different course.

    Regional French is from Ile-de-France, but which has gained a regional colour depending on the local dialects and history. If you hear someone speaking a dialect like Walloon or Picard, you won t understand them, but with regional French, you usually can. The general grammar and the syntax and sounds are more or less the same.

    Another difference is that dialects can have very restricted areas down to a single village but regional French may be similar across a large area. He said the most noticeable regional kinds are the Ch ti accent from the far north, the typical southern accent found from Marseille to Toulouse, and eastern accents which sound Germanic due to the influence of the Alsatian dialect. How do new words make it into the dictionary? Photo: francaisdenosregions. Sometimes it s hard to understand the logic and you really need a map per word.

    For example in the moins area [south-west] they also pronounce the S on encens [incense], so we can deduce that in the south-west they say the S s at the end of words; that seems to make sense. But in the north of France they say persi but they pronounce the L on the end of sourcil [eyebrow], whereas it s the opposite in Belgian French. He added: I also never knew that in the south-east people say peuneu in stead of pneu.

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    It comes from the fact that in the south they have tendency to add eu sounds and they don t like having a consonant followed by another one. They will also say un-eu peutit-eu fill-eu instead of une petite fille. Other typically southern features include adding a ng sound to the end of words ending in N or M. There is also a north-south split in the sound of the O in rose, which is an open O in the south, or closed close to the English pronunciation in the north.

    Tradition has it that the best or purest French comes from the area of Tours which, Mr Avanzi said, is due to the fact the royal court used to be based in the area. He said it is not appropriate to say it is better than other versions, but it is true that French there is probably of the most standardised kind, such as you will usually find marked in dictionaries or used by most announcers on national radio.

    However, he said more and more specifically regional words are being inclu ded now, along with a note about the area of France they are from. EVERY YEAR we read how new words have been added to French dictionaries last year, for example, these include uberization, hipster and burkini making them a recognised part of the language.

    But have you ever wondered what happens to old words presumably bumped out to make space? Well, that is not quite how it happens. As word lovers, dictionary publishers try not to condemn them to death. From one year to the next, we don t take away a word, said Carine Girac-Marinier, director of Larousse s French language department. We add about per year, as the language becomes more rich.

    We might remove a few words during the big redesigns of the dictionary, which take place every 15 years or so. But it is relatively very few, because, for example, in , of the 62, words contained in the Petit Larousse, only words or meanings were removed. However they try to move them into other more specialised dictionaries, she said. They are generally anglicisms that have gone out of fashion or have been replaced by French words.

    A good example is computer, which has been replaced by ordinateur. For example, during the redesign we kept VCR even if the object no longer exists, because we can find it by reading a book from the s and a teenager might wonder what it is. The words leave a trace: obsolete and modern must co-exist. We annotate with vieilli [old-fashioned] those that can be said by yearold people and vieux [old] ones that are no longer said at all. To ensure this, we do surveys among people we know or young people. My daughter is the first one to tell me when I use an unfamiliar word.

    It was only in , when we did a big redesign of the Petit Robert, that we took out a few words, she said. They were mostly very obvious words such as essuie-plume [fountain pen wiper] or cache-corset [corset-cover]. Ms Drivaud added that keeping old words is also justified by the fact that sometimes they come back into usage. Some words disappear and return, like thune, originally meant alms and then became a word for the five-franc coin in the nineteenth century, before being forgotten. It was resurrected in the late 20th century in a different sense, as a slang term for money.

    Deciding what words come in or go is not easy. Meetings between lexicographers and linguists at publishing houses may get heated. We are passionate about words but the criteria are rational and we are aware of having responsibilities towards readers, said Ms Girac-Marinier.

    Getting settled in means finding out more about your local community and it is a good idea to introduce yourself at the mairie, particularly in smaller communes. The commune refers to the first level of local government usually one village or town with a council and mayor. This will be easier if you have some command of French as you may be visiting them quite often whilst you work through the formalities. The mayor plays an important role in local life, so being on friendly terms can only help. The mairie also has important information such as the location of local rubbish tips, bylaws, how to pay for school meals and so on.

    If you search online for nouveaux arrivants mairie and the name of your commune you should find some help. Some mairies have even prepared little booklets. Getting to know your neighbours is important, especially in a small commune. These are usually arranged at short notice and informally, either just before lunch The usual drinks are pastis generally in the south , whisky or a sweet fortified wine such as Muscat, but some people serve champagne, or local sparkling wine. Other than whisky, spirits are rarely drunk. Finger food is essential, and not just peanuts and some crisps.

    As you settle in you may be invited to a French home for lunch or dinner. Take flowers or another small gift but usually not wine this is chosen by the hosts. Table manners differ a little from those in Britain. It is acceptable to rest your arms on the table and to clean up in French, saucer your plate with your bread. French people are usually more formal in addressing others than the British - and yet think nothing of kissing each other several times when they first meet. Remember, there are two forms of the word you : the formal vous and the less formal tu.

    The form you use depends on the relationship: for someone you do not know well, other than a child, vous is correct; tu being for friends, relatives, children, colleagues depending on workplace - and God. When it comes to tutoiement using tu , younger French people in their 20s and 30s tend to be more relaxed about it. Among older adults it is safest to use vous and let the other person suggest changing if they feel comfortable with doing so.

    Habits, however, are becoming more relaxed especially, for example, among fellow members of local clubs. Using the informal address on the wrong occasion can give offence but the French usually make allowances for foreigners slip-ups. In this and many other areas of cultural faux pas. It can also take longer to get on to first name terms in France than Britain, especially with older genera tions. People can still be addressed as Monsieur, Madame or Mademoiselle for some time.

    Gene rally the older person makes the first move towards informality. An older single woman is usually addressed as Madame. There is no French equivalent of Ms but a recent law removed the need to specify Madame or Mademoiselle on official forms. When it comes to la bise, the practice of kissing each other on the cheek , even the French can get confused over how many as it depends on where you are from.

    A map produced by a substantial internet survey shows it can vary between one Brittany and five Corsica. There are no hard and fast rules, be prepared for awkwardness and the occasional accidental headbutt while making friends. It is all taken in good humour. Ils font quoi? C est pas vrai! We asked people who recently moved to France what has surprised them the most.

    Here are some of their answers. There is unlikely to be any sort of curtain for you to undress behind and no modesty towel. The market is another thing If your dog barks too much, you could be liable for a fine, while you can expect a visit from a stern police officer if the party or barbecue you are hosting is too noisy, no matter the time. It refers to someone who is having difficulties reaching their goal, no matter how much effort they make.

    There are two claimed origins of this saying, both from the early 20th century, during the first Tour de France cycle races. One says that people created the expression when they saw tired cyclists seemingly pedalling in a stodgy substance, like choucroute. The other is that during the race, a car used to pick up the runners who were too exhausted to continue.

    These support vehicles were covered in advertisements for choucroute, lending its name to the expression. If you work, employers provide much of this; they may provide you with coupons to help pay for holidays, meals out, motorway tolls Commuters get help from their employers.

    Many still go for a good value set lunch, the cost often covered by tickets restaurant subsidised by employers. The French word for a tip, pourboire, literally means for a drink and should not be confused with pot-de-vin pot of wine a bribe Unlike certain countries such as the US, workers in service industries are always supposed to be paid an acceptable amount for their work always, at least, the minimum wage and payment for their service is included, meaning tips are an extra, if you appreciated the service and felt the person put in effort beyond a bare minimum.

    The practice is not common, but in a few establishments eg. Legally this is the only situation where the bill needs to say service compris servicecharge included , otherwise the term prix net taxes and service included may be used though restaurants often do not make this distinction. Either way, the customer is not expected to worry about whether the person serving is paid enough a tip is always just a tip. A few years ago the UMIH hospitality industry body proposed reducing the fixed part of workers salaries and encouraging diners to make more use of variable tips according to quality of the service, as opposed to service being deemed as included.

    They said it might encourage staff to be friendlier and take the job more seriously. This proposal was not carried out. Who gets the tips? An UMIH spokeswoman said in most establishments, especially smaller ones, tips are collected directly by the person who is tipped. In others, staff are expected to put them into a common fund to be shared out among all the staff in contact with the public.

    The spokeswoman said practices vary, but the common fund method is typically used more in more luxurious establishments. Who should you tip? Tipping is also common for hairdressers and, to some extent, taxi drivers. It is not expected automatically and you should not feel obliged. For a taxi you might round to the nearest euro or ask the driver to gardez la monnaie keep the change. You could add a euro or two if the service was especially good. However, drivers should have spare change and should not begrudge you expecting it. At a hotel, it is reasonable to tip a euro per bag to a porter who carried your baggage to or from your car to the room, perhaps up to 10 if it is a luxurious establishment.

    In a luxury hotel you might tip 5 to a valet who brings out your car from the garage. It is also considered good manners to leave a tip for the chambermaid sometimes you will find some envelopes provided in a drawer perhaps depending on the length of stay. For deliveries, you could tell a pizza delivery person to keep the change or give them a euro if you have already paid by card.

    It is not usual to tip for good service in a shop. Tipping is reportedly less common and less generous in France than it was, and used less by the young than older generations. Can you tip by card? It depends on the establishment sometimes not, and increasing use of cards for payment is said to be one reason for diminishing tips in recent years. One solution often used is that the customer indicates the full amount they wish to pay including tips and this is taken on the card; the employee then tells their employer and takes the tip money out of the till.

    A classic example is money for the pompiers when they call round with their annual charity calendar. People may also give money to their postman , sometimes 5 to their binman if they knock on the door for a chat at this time of year, this will be what they are hoping for. Who should you tell in the UK? If you are under state pension age you may want to contact the DWP to discuss making voluntary National Insurance payments from France, which could help top up your entitlement to a UK pension if you have not contributed for the required minimum period at present, 35 years.

    Paying these may also help you claim certain UK benefits requiring recent NI contributions. Those working in France are currently able to benefit from the low Class 2 rate, but there are plans to abolish this so expat workers will have to pay the much more costly Class 3.

    It is an offence not to tell the benefits office if your circumstances change. If you have a student loan you should inform the Student Loans Company that you are moving abroad. You will need to complete an Overseas Income Assessment Form and attach proof of earnings or means of support. If you want to vote in UK elections register as an overseas voter with your last UK constituency at gov. Children can register as overseas voters once they turn 18, as long as their parents or guardians are still eligible to vote. This can affect deliveries. When giving out your address, stick to the basics: The number, street, postcode and then town.

    You do not need the department the first two digits of your postcode indicate this. You can check if there are any strange quirks to your address, or find the ideal way to write it here www. It is your responsibility to contact them ignorance being no defence ahead of making your income tax declaration and to pay local taxes such as the taxe d habitation or if you are eligible wealth tax. You may need to register with your local state health authority Cpam to obtain a social security number and state health reimbursements card though obtaining one can be problematic for some new arrivals see the 28 u Moving to France Guide section on health.

    This process is different if you are self-employed. You may want to register with other bodies, such as the family allowance body Caf, if it relevant. You could also register with your mairie to vote in local and European elections, as is a right for EU citizens, though due to Brexit Britons may not get the chance to use this now only those with French nationality can vote in national or presidential elections.

    This must be done before December 31 to be registered to vote the following year. You can also do it online at service-public. It is common to draw up a contract with a notaire. In this regime all property owned at the time of the marriage and bought during it remains owned by the person who paid for it or was given or bequeathed it and only the individual s possessions are at risk if he or she is in debt.

    Where property is not clearly owned by one or the other partner, it is deemed to be owned half and half if it has been acquired by means of income accruing during the marriage. This may apply to the matrimonial home if the deeds state it is jointly owned but do not specify precise portions of the purchase price Becoming a permanent resident of France also known as tax or fiscal residency refers to the point at which France becomes your home and this is significant for a wide range of rights, such as claiming certain French benefits and paying French tax.

    It is what makes the difference from being merely a temporary visitor, which includes people spending part of the year in France, for example using a holiday home. Often it is clear-cut that a decision has been taken to become resident in France and to make the country a person s main home - and practically-speaking, at that point you have become a resident.

    On the other hand, there is no single definition of when you acquire French residency and, in the case of EU nationals, no rigid formality to be carried out or permission to be gained. If you have been in France for more than six months then by default you are probably a resident, but you could equally become one if, for example, you spent five months in France in a given year, three in Italy and four in the UK.

    Our chapter on taxation pages deals with this in more detail. If you are tax resident in France you may still be taxed on certain income elsewhere, subject to tax treaties. Legally, Europeans are divided into those working in France employed or self-employed , called actifs, and state retirees and early-retirees called inactifs.

    To stay legally for more than three months as an actif, you need a valid EU passport or national ID card and to be working. The right to stay may in certain circumstances be retained where you are temporarily incapacitated or in a period of unintended unemployment. In the case of death, the surviving spouse has only the usual legal rights. Whether he or she also has full or partial ownership depends on whether he or she already owned a share, the contents of the deceased s will, and whether or not the deceased had children entitled to a share. In a divorce each party gets property which belonged to him or her.

    Each party retains what they owned prior to the union, but whatever is acquired afterwards is joint property but not gifts and inheritances. Thus, a property bought is owned jointly and on the death of one partner it is wholly owned one from the prefecture local representative of the state if you wish. See also pages Inactifs have the same rights after five years but until then they must have sufficient resources to not be a burden on French social security.

    What is deemed sufficient may vary dependent on their personal situation, but will not be more than the rates for income support eg. French rules also state that inactifs must have private healthcare arrangements see our chapter on healthcare pages. Court consent must be obtained to change a regime and possibly the consent of adult children where their rights could be affected.

    Couples living together without a formal arrangement may wish to look at this, bearing in mind the heavy inheritance taxes they face otherwise. See our section on inheritance - page 89 Moving to France Guide u In the UK should you apply during a prolonged visit and receive delivery in the UK it is Those born before September 2, get it for free including those living abroad.

    Overseas applications must be completed online at though the process still involves, at the end, printing out and signing forms, which have to be sent to the UK. You create your application by filling in online boxes. You then enter bank card details for payment in pounds then print off your form plus guidance notes , which should be signed and sent to a given UK passport office address along with the old passport and two recent photographs that meet the standards detailed in the notes.

    They must be countersigned by another person if you are not recognisable from your previous passport photo. Obtaining your passport will take around six weeks from the application being Why a recent birth certificate? For this reason it is usual to be asked for a certificate 30 u Moving to France Guide received, so make sure you have no journeys planned that require it. Applications can be made up to nine months before the passport expiry date and any unused time will be added to the new one. The UK and Ireland did not sign so you do need your passport to pass between them and the Schengen zone.

    However increased security concerns and the increasing number of migrants have pushed a number of EU countries to use temporary powers to reinstall border checks, among them France, so a good rule of thumb is to always have your passport wherever you are travelling, and to carry some form of photo identification, such as your UK drivers licence.

    However, if it is explained that, in Britain, a birth certificate is issued at birth and does not change throughout life, an older birth certificate will usually be accepted. The EU has proposed that states recognise each other s basic documents, without a translation, however in practice it is down to the mood of who you are dealing with. Outside of these tests the network exists to alert the population to the unlikely events of aerial bombardment nuclear or otherwise , terrorist attack natural disasters such as flooding or man-made events such as a radioactive leak.

    Your immediate response should be to stay inside, find a radio, TV or internet connection and find out what is going on. A British state pension or government service pension can be claimed in France and paid into a French bank account. Other benefits can be claimed under certain circumstances. For full criteria speak to the relevant agency or visit gov. Eligibility may depend on your National Insurance record unless you are also entitled to a state pension, ESA, or certain other UK benefits. See tinyurl.

    Maternity pay may depend on your employer Contributions-based Jobseeker s Allowance; for three months only if you register as a jobseeker in France. Contact Jobcentre Plus before moving. Maternity Allowance or statutory maternity pay the latter only if you work for a British employer, who can advise. Details from Jobcentre Plus. In certain restricted cases, Child Benefit if you are also entitled to certain other UK benefits.

    Contact the office paying it before going abroad, or the IPC see page Contributions-based ESA the right to claim it long-term may depend on your National Insurance record. Bereavement Allowance or Payment. There were attempts to contest this but they have been overshadowed by Brexit. The right to continue claiming exported benefits will continue for Britons living in France before Brexit if the exit deal currently on the table is signed off. In France these are not as popular and if sent at all tend to be in the form of New Year s wishes and arrive throughout January right up until the end of the month.

    Another change in the season of goodwill is the number of people knocking on your door selling calendars. Postal staff, street cleaners and pompiers may all pass by. You are not obliged to give anything and it has been known for fraudulent agents to go out collecting money. For postal staff the money counts as extra, non-taxable income.

    The recommended donation is between 5 to For the pompiers the money is used collectively by the local group to fund sporting activities, entertainment events and charities related to their work. Street cleaners and municipal staff are actually banned from collecting in Paris, Lyon and Nice, but where they do appear, a lower tip of 5 is appropriate. Top earners at Christmas are domestic cleaners, who may be expecting around 50 and concierges between Family allowance: Claiming Allocations Familiales Parents of at least two children under 20 in permanent, legal residence in France, can claim family allowance whatever their income, although since summer betteroff families have received reduced amounts.

    If you previously claimed child benefit in the UK you should have let the Child Benefit Office know that you have moved abroad. For family allowance, get a form at tinyurl. For two children the full monthly benefit on going to press is ; for three and for each additional child thereafter.

    For older children there is an extra per month after a child s 14th birthday if you have three or more children. It is to help pay for autumn back-to-school costs and varies according to the child s age. If you get benefits from the Caf you will automatically receive it at the end of August.

    In it was for children aged ; for and for Other help is available for single parents, or guardians of a child and for babies. Help is also available for disabled workers, people starting a job after a long time out of work and for young people. Moving to France Guide u 31 Now is a great time to invest in France. The French property market reached historic levels in , with , transactions carried out, Notaries of France figures from September reveal.

    In separate figures available up to , notaires also revealed that the British remain top among foreign buyers in France accounting for one in three purchases. In this section we look at the fundamental strengths of each of the regions, give you a snapshot of what they offer and show what your euros can buy when it comes to finding your French home.

    No other region borders more than two countries. Its largest city, the regional capital Strasbourg, is home to several EU institutions, including the European Parliament and the Court of Human Rights. Its picturesque historic centre, the Grande Ile, was declared a Unesco World Heritage Site in France s most north-easterly region has warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters.

    It is home to the celebrated wine-making regions of Champagne and Alsace. Given the political importance of its capital, it is no surprise that the region enjoys good transport links. See pages for more details. The region boasts several Englishlanguage international schools, mostly based in Strasbourg. Its vineyards produce worldrenowned wines; its farmers supply everything from potatoes to strawberries and kiwi fruit; while the region is also at the forefront of the French aviation, digital and tourism industries.

    It also features the ever popular region of Dordogne. Temperatures generally range from 3C in January to 27C in July, though highs of more than 40C have been recorded in Bordeaux and other towns. To the northeast, in Limoges, it falls on average seven days a year. In Bordeaux, which is warmed by westerly winds from the Bay of Biscay, residents can go three winters without seeing any although rain and powerful Atlantic storms can be more common. An average older house in Bordeaux cost , in June , an increase of 9. In Poitiers, an older house cost on average ,, a rise of 2.

    Consider all the options when it comes to getting the most from your pounds. The guide reviews the important changes to French inheritance law affecting expatriates and second-home owners. It includes an explanation of the healthcare rights of expats, whether working, state pensioners or early-retirees, and how the French system works.

    Buy online at the helpguide section of connexionfrance. The rugged and relatively sparsely populated Auvergne, a region of ancient volcanic hills and mountains called puys , rivers, valleys and forests, is a walking and mountainbiking paradise. It, too, has become a favourite year-round tourist destination, with climbing and biking, riding and sailing popular when the snow melts. An older house will on average cost , in Grenoble up 7.

    With airports in Lyon, Grenoble and St Etienne, it is relatively easy to travel to and from this part of France. See pages for more details about transport links. The region experiences colder winters and warmer summers than the UK, with average temperatures ranging from 5C in December to 27C in August. Large town house in a small village in Cantal, Auvergne. Previously a shop and apartments, ripe for renovation. Price 51, Village close to Burgundy canal. Price , So keen were the two regions to reunite that, before the entire map of France was redrawn in , they had come up with their own plan for voluntary unification.

    Famous for its wine, array of cheeses, canals and mountains, this part of eastern France, which has a border with Switzerland, is popular among affluent Parisiens as somewhere to buy a second home. Despite this, and away from major centres such as Dijon, property Photos: Pixabay; Fletcher Tremblay prices remain reasonable this is perhaps because it is still relatively undiscovered among Englishspeaking expatriates.

    The historic centre of the new region s capital, the ducal city of Dijon, was declared a Unesco World Heritage site in July , and its annual Autumn International and Gastronomic Fair is one of the most popular fairs in the country. It s also home to the Maille mustard brand. Mid, an older house in Dijon cost , on average, an increase of 7. Average temperatures range from 5C in January to 24C in August, while rainfall is relatively constant throughout the year.

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    Property prices have jumped in recent years, thanks in part to its popularity among UK-based househunters tempted by the weather, scenery and ease of access via ferry ports to England s south coast. The opening of the Bretagne TGV service in summer puts Rennes 1hr25 from Paris and Brest 3hr13 and makes property even more attractive. An older property in Brest will cost on average , In , the French newspaper L Express declared Bretagne s regional capital, Rennes, the most liveable city in France.

    Charming two bedroom house in central Brittany with spacious interior, lovely views, a garden and garage. Underneath the property is a large garage and storage area with conversion potential. Price 90, Where the capital is all hustle and bustle, life moves at a more leisurely pace in this north-central region of France, the Garden of France more easily recognisable to outsiders as the Loire Valley. The grand river after which the stunning valley is named flows past hundreds of famous chateaux including Chenonceau, and Blois. Those excellent transport links to Paris mean that properties cost a little more, particularly in the more scenic areas, but there are still some bargains to be found if you are prepared to look, or have renovation in mind.

    Expect short, occasionally chilly winters here and long, pleasantly warm summers. Average temperatures range from 1C in January to 25C in August, while rainfall remains steady at about 2in every month. Great value for a fantastic holiday home. Price 71, Three bedroom house in Borgo, fifteen minutes from Bastia, with enclosed garden with trees.

    Air con, garage. Officially, the island has been part of France for more than years, but some of its appeal to holidaymakers and those looking for a more permanent home is that it is so different to the mainland in so many way. His ancestral home, Casa Bonaparte, is today a museum. Corsica even has its own language, which is closely related to the regional dialect of Tuscany, Italy. For those buying older flats, the north of the island 2, per m 2 is generally cheaper to buy in than the south 3, per m 2.

    Note that the latter is a huge increase of Not surprisingly, with elegant, chic tourist haven Paris at its heart, the region also has the greatest concentration of English-speaking expatriates in France. In common with areas immediately surrounding capital cities across Europe, the cost of living is high, but you get a lot for your money, including enviable public transport and easy global connections. In Ile-de-France, prices for older properties continue to go up.

    Prices in the second quarter were up 1. Over 12 months, the rise is even stronger at 3. Beyond the capital s boundaries, you will find fields and forests dotted with hunting lodges and chateaux. Temperatures range from an average of 7C in February to Clockwise from left: A view of Paris at night, a typical city scene, Jardin du Luxembourg, the palace of Versailles, the capital s rooftops a vendre!

    It is an understandably popular entry point into France from the UK, with ferry services disembarking at Calais, while the Eurostar crosschannel rail service races into Lille, the region s charismatic capital. From here, it is possible to commute easily to three major European capitals Paris, Brussels, and London. On average an older house in Lille will cost you , down 1. Town and area names here are synonymous with the two World Wars, and the landscape is dotted with war cemeteries.