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The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. We cannot know whether the water had formed so many freezing nuclei that determined an instantaneous transition, or the rough appearance was simply determined by wind driven water splashing on already formed ice and then building-up illusion of waves.
The thickness of ice was two Venetian feet, i. It should be noted that this thickness is almost twice as much as the measurement taken by Temanza; however, this difference can be explained by the location and the time the measurements have been taken.
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According to the convention in use in climatology, this means winter , the winter being characterized by the January date. However, no confirmation has been found in the local or other documents. The cold was similar to the level reached in This caused lack of water, famine, illness and death in Venice. News arrived about the Rhone River supporting carriages, extreme cold in Ratisbon Germany and Madrid, with killed people and animals.
However, no specific news was found about ice on the Lagoon. Possibly, the cold happened in periods of lunar conjunction when the tidal exchanges are maxima and bring in large amounts of mild marine water. The Republic sent some workmen to break the ice sheet for the passage of some boats. The Lagoon was frozen over impeding access to the hinterland and keeping Venice without contacts. In Padua, Toaldo noted in his daily logs at the Specola Observatory that the Lagoon was frozen and the air temperature readings reached Everywhere brass splits, clothes freeze on the back, and they cleave with axes the liquid wine; whole lakes turn into a solid mass, and the rough icicle hardens on the unkempt beard.
From Cavanis' Diaries: "Because of the extreme cold which began in the second half of the month with heavy snowfall, the Lagoon froze on December On January 30 people began to cross on foot the Lagoon from Venice to Mestre and vice versa". This situation lasted for many days so that Venice was hit by famine. Similarly the canal to Fusina was filled by slabs of ice from other parts of the Lagoon, but people could cross it on foot safely". Ice started to melt on January 10 th , The thickness of the ice slab reached 8 inches [i. The winter was also commented by Levi, who contacted several eyewitnesses and reports that the temperature dropped 18 degrees below zero.
The 17 th the temperature returned milder and with sunshine, melting the ice In the following days, snow and cold that lasted until the 17 th when the Sirocco wind brought rain. The Lagoon was frozen over and sustained the weight of people in the area between the Fondamenta Nuove and San Michael Island. Bortoloni composed in that year a popular song to celebrate the winter The instrumental records taken in the Patriarcale Observatory, Venice, and in Padua that we have recovered and analysed show that the temperature was low, reaching However, the severe cold was too short to form a thick sheet over the whole northern part of the Lagoon and to support the weight of people.
The winter severity should be classified VS. Therefore, the formation of ice is a good index of the winter severity in January and February, less in December. Beginning from January, arctic air blew over Venice and some snow fell.
A second heavy snowfall i. The snow lasted till March 8 th. The coldest day was February 12 th , and the temperature ranged between On February 10 th , 11 th , 12 th , 13 th cold Bora blew again and the Lagoon and all the canals were frozen over. The thickness of the ice slab ranged between 15 and 20 cm. Ice began melting on February 18 th and disappeared, on 24 th. In the City the cold broke some lead pipes for the distribution of water, forming unexpected ice fountains from walls. The period was characterized by a meridian-type flow with blocking high pressure over Western Russia Fig.
A low-pressure trough was extended over central Europe from Scandinavia to Italy, bringing extremely cold polar air. The deep depression over the Northern Adriatic Sea was fed by the release of sensible and latent heat from the relatively warm sea waters. In Venice the violent Bora wind blew cold air from East. The effect was snow and long-lasting severe cold. Red: High pressure. Cyan: Low pressure. There was arctic and polar air in the following days.
The North-Eastern part of the Lagoon froze. On the 4 th , people walked over the Lagoon near the estuary. The ice melted between February 21 st and 26 th when the temperature became milder, and finally the snow turned into rain. The Lagoon was partially frozen. The North-Eastern part of the Lagoon froze, and the bridge connecting Venice to Mestre constituted the border of the ice sheet.
In some internal canals in Venice, ice slabs were floating. On January 12 th , the ice extended between Punta Sabbioni, S. Over two thousands Lagoon birds, especially wild ducks and herons, and local fish as well froze. After January 14 th the meteorological situation changed: the warm Sirocco wind caused a rise in temperature and a rainfall on the 16 th melted the ice. A low-pressure minimum oscillated around central Italy.
This situation blew extremely cold polar air from North to North-East. The general circulation in Venice was locally reinforced by Bora Wind. The extreme cold over Europe is evident from the temperature pattern reported in Fig. On February 5 th the North-Eastern part of the Lagoon was frozen over, the bridge connecting Venice to Mestre was the border of the ice sheet. The canals of the City, including the Grand Canal, had floating ice slabs, transported from the North-Eastern sector by the tidal currents. The Lagoon was partially frozen and the winter was classified very severe.
Two Etchings by V. Coronelli of the Lagoon frozen over, dated [ More Veneto , i. Libray of the Correr Museum, Venice. Only one original and various copies are available for the famous winter , some independent paintings and several engravings for , one for Several pictures are available for the and later winters. This etching is the first visual document, focused on some amusements during this exceptional event.
An Anonymous reproduced this etching as oil on canvas, and the painting is exposed at the Querini-Stampalia Gallery. People could walk over for miles. This situation lasted for 10 days. This particular view and the path to Mestre will inspire Francesco Battaglioli, Teodoro Viero, Giovan Battista Ersego, Francesco Guardi and Giacomo Guardi in the occasion of subsequent great winters, as we will see later.
Other similar etchings and a painting by Gabriele Bella at the Correr Museum are dated [ More Veneto ] but very likely they were produced later to take advantage of the market. Just to give an idea, only the Museum Correr has one pen drawing, three oil on canvas and seven etchings on this subject. An oil on canvas made by an Anonymous follower of the school of Francesco Battaglioli, is dated [ More Veneto? Second Island and Mestre, the same in the etching by Coronelli in Fig.
February A. March A. Oil on canvas, dated [ More Veneto , i. D], by an Anonymous follower of the school of Francesco Battaglioli. They realistically show the situation, the long line of people with sleighs and food going from Venice to Mestre and vice-versa along the path shown in Fig. It should be also noted that the ice sheet was thick on the Lagoon, North and East of Venice, but in the internal canals it was not thick enough to carry people and supplies. For this reason narrow channels were opened by breaking the ice to connect the safe ice area with the interior of the City and, to allow the distribution of supplies.
Indeed, the painting shows an icebreaker boat with a workman hitting the ice with a hammer or an axe to allow the internal transport of food and supplies. Wooden planks are used to bridge the narrow channel of broken ice and to provide a safe path over thin ice. On the main ice slab some boats are used as sleighs. For the reasons we will discuss later, nobody knows when originals and copies were made, and the Museum curators preferred to date in terms of century.
All of these visual arts are useful for their content, not for their obscure chronology. The Dance of Moors, also known as Moorish or Morris Dance depicting the struggle of the Moors and Christianity was very popular and widespread over Europe. The dance was based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures that constituted a pantomime of war.
It was performed without music or particular songs; it simulated a battle, fighting or jumping around with real swords or imaginary weapons, following the Moor style. The dance formed wide circle, resembling a ring-around-a-rosy. The detail in Fig. Viero at the Correr Museum, Venice. Gherro, Each pyramid was formed by people from two main districts of the City in competition. In this paper we will shortly analyze three etchings with human pyramids, i. The xylography and the two etchings display only one pyramid, probably because it was really very risky to build-up two pyramids at short distance on slippery ice.
To be visible, the details of the Strengths of Hercules have been reported in Fig. Etching by G. Ersego at the Correr Museum with the Strengths of Hercules. Etching by T. Viero with the Strengths of Hercules. Detail with human pyramids of the Strengths of Hercules: a Xylography in Fig.
Ersego in Fig. Viero in Fig. The equilibrium was reached with feet leaned on shoulders, except for the topping man who stays head by head and hands by hands. The etching by Ersego Fig. This time the equilibrium has been reached with the help of poles for a better distribution of weight but especially they constitute a frame to resist to horizontal forces and tottering.
The next two levels are both composed of only one man, one standing and one upside-down on the top. The etching by Viero Fig. The pyramid composed of 8 men and 2 supervisors is equivalent to kg distributed over 2 m 2 , but we should consider that there are some other people in close proximity. The load of the 16 men pyramid and a supervisor is around kg, which requires an ice thickness exceeding 40 cm considering that the load may be increased by onlookers and is associated with vibrations. This is realistic, especially if we consider that in the ice sheet reached 43 cm thickness, indicated by the above-mentioned documentation evidence.
This clever and realistic solution suggests that the impressive pyramid was not invented by the painter. The above representations give an idea of the thickness of the ice slab carrying so many people and carriages and confirm the descriptions of documents. People are walking on ice, most of them in a precession manner, thinking they were following the safest and already tested path to reach the hinterland. Some others are carefully testing the ice strength in other points. The date is surprising because the winter was normal to mild, while a great winter occurred in More Veneto , i.
The art historian Antonio Morassi suggested that in reality the watercolour refers to the winter and was the model for other two paints, with the same subject, made by Giacomo Guardi, son of Francesco see later, winter and Fig. We believe that the watercolour was made some years after the event, with artistic purposes, on request of a foreign client i.
III n. It is almost identical to the watercolour dated and kept in London.
This gouache may be related to another drawing made by Giacomo Guardi, also in London, at the Simonson Collection Giacomo had the practical conduction of the studio and preferred to sign with the name of the official master of the studio, i. Francesco, for the higher commercial evaluation of his prestigious name. It is well known that the Venetian painter of vedutas Giovanni Antonio Canal nicknamed Canaletto produced many paintings with the help of his studio assistants; one of them was his nephew Bernardo Bellotto Bellotto was an excellent pupil and soon equalled his master and in was officially recognized as painter by the Venice painter association.
However, in the period from to he continued to sign his paintings "Canaletto". The level reached by Bellotto and the ability in using the style of the Canaletto studio was so high that many art historians had difficulty in distinguishing early works of Bellotto from that of Canaletto. Some 55 views of Venice, that in the past were attributed to Canaletto, today are attributed to Bellotto The competition between the two painters practically obliged Bellotto to leave Venice in , and move to Dresden, Vienna, Munich and Warsaw, where he died.
However, even outside Venice, especially in Germany and Poland, Bellotto continued to call himself by his uncle's illustrious name Canaletto. It is not surprising that Francesco Guardi, who was a friend and colleague of Canaletto and Bellotto, made the same for business purpose, especially because this was the normal use. Once recognized, the painter could found a studio and become the "master of the brush" with a number of assistants and pupils that cooperated at various levels to the production of paintings. Only the master was authorized to sign the paintings and his signature had the meaning of registered trade-mark and determined the price, irrespectively of the personal contribution of the master.
If a particular painting had success, the studio reproduced it a number of times to satisfy all requests. The replicas were easily made by pupils, with little or no intervention of the master, but were in any case signed by the master, because the signature determined the commercial value of the paint. This can be established because no other evidence from written sources or from instrumental records has been found for ice: neither in January i.
Morassi suggests that the two paints by Giacomo Guardi were inspired by the original watercolour dated and highly likely made a few years after the grand winter but before , when Francesco died.. Another similar painting by Giacomo Guardi is at the G. Simonson Collection, London, but without legend, signature and date Wrapping up, Giacomo Guardi was simply interested to produce, and sell, some attractive gouaches, that substantially were a replica of the watercolour made by his father a few years after the frost. The conclusion is that paintings showing a Venetian curiosity, e.
Sailing boat stuck inside the thick ice in the area between the City of Venice and St. Michael Island on February Photo by Anonymous in Crestani, Some snow is visible on the ice sheet and on the roofs. On the side of this picture, another has been reported, taken in with ice slabs floating on the water surface Fig. The difference is evident: in the winter was great GW , with harder and thicker ice, forming an almost continuous sheet; in the winter was very severe VS , with many floating ice slabs, 4 cm thick.
In addition to the meteorological reasons i. Rio dei Gesuati, frozen over but with holes for the underlying warmer current, on February 10 th , Andrea, on February 6 th , In this section we want to analyse the role of these two factors, deduced from instrumental records, and how they are related to harsh winters, i. GV and VS. To this aim we should introduce two parameters: the ice days and the freezing degree-days. From the instrumental records we have selected the ID and then computed their average temperature that has been reported per each year and each century Fig. This has been computed for the instrumental period when readings are available in Padua, i.
In the same plot a red label is reported for the GW found in the written sources, and a blue label for the VS. The top great winters were occurred in , , and The plot in Fig. The agreement is generally good, but not perfect, because the formation of ice in the Lagoon depends on a number of variables, as already discussed. Average temperature of ice days in Venice.
Red labels are for great winters in: , , , , and ; blue for very severe winters in: , , , , , , and Shading is for missing instrumental readings. Freezing degree-days FDD are computed as a cumulative departure below the freezing point, i. The value may be accumulated summed over any period of time, depending on the aim.
The FDD for a given month tells how cold it has been for how long. This index has been computed for the months of December, January and February of each year Fig. It might be less representative of the occurrence of ice sheets in the Lagoon. However, when cold culminated around two consecutive months, the total count is partitioned between the two months, obscuring the related peaks.
On the other hand, if the whole cold season is considered, the repeated occurrence of spurious short cold events might grow exceeding and obscuring great winter peaks. This should be kept in mind when reading the plots. However, the plot clearly shows that the most critical period is January, followed by a few sporadic but sharp peaks in February; finally December, but less relevant. The severity culminated in the 18 th century, followed by the 19 th and the 20 th , in line with a general warming trend. Freezing degree-days in Venice as cumulative departure below the freezing point, for the winter months December, January and February.
Shading is for missing readings. This constitutes a synthesis of the previous two figures, but loosing the temporal evolution, hereafter any trend. The three winter months have more or less the same distribution, except for the density of population. The plot suggests that the longest periods reach the lowest temperatures, although with some scattering and the problem that some cases falling around two months are consequently cut and partitioned between the two related months.
The typical weather is formed by "blocking", i. Staying in the same position for weeks, this particular meteorological situation blows polar or arctic air and keeps cold weather for a long period of time, e. In winter, the most typical block is constituted of a high pressure over Western Russia or Scandinavia. This cold air will reach the Mediterranean blowing from North or from East. In Venice, this weather situation is locally associated with clear sky and Easterly Bora, that is a very cold and fresh to gale wind. This means that the Lagoon is rapidly cooled and ice may form when the intensity and duration of cold air spells will exceed the mitigation effect of the tidal exchanges.
Relationship between intensity and duration of cold periods, expressed in terms of freezing degree-days i. This paper used written documents, visual evidence and instrumental records. Beyond a climate series that deserves its own merit, the paper shows climate's ramifications on daily life of the society at Venice, and the citizens' efforts to save themselves from these difficult situations, without neglecting the opportunity for some unplanned amusement.
The descriptions in the documents made possible a classification of winter severity, especially in the case of the harsh winters: very severe VS and great winters GW. The classification was based on objective effects related to the ice extension and thickness, freezing of wine, wells, killed animals and trees etc. This required solving a number of problems, especially in the identification of the exact date, created by uncertain uses in the early mediaeval period, or the complex dating style in use in the various cities and changing over time.
This complexity, misinterpretation or errors in copying early documents, or bad quotation of sources has caused duplications of events that required an accurate critical work to recognize the true events or, at least, the most probable ones from wrong duplicates. Not only the content of the documents was important, but the missing information too, especially to confirm or reject unclear cases.
The validation of the data has been based on climatic, statistical and historical criterions.
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The common period of written documents and instrumental records i. Documents were written to inform, possibly in objective form, at no cost. Paintings were aimed to provide pleasant, artistic views and produced to be sold. Especially in the 18 th century, paintings were made in studios, with various contributions of assistants and pupils under the supervision of the master who signed the artwork. If the subject was appreciated, the painting was reproduced.
This business produced many paintings with misleading signatures and dating. To our aims the visual arts provide unparalleled information about the iced Lagoon in the 18 th century, to calculate the ice thickness, to know the path followed by Venetians to reach the hinterland, the transport of supplies, etc.
They cannot be used, however, for dating purposes. In some cases the peak of cold of some great winters, such as in and in was exceeded by peaks of very severe winters of and The crucial factor for the formation of a thick ice sheet is that the cold air blowing from the polar region persists for a long time. The synergism between the various factors leading to the formation of the ice sheet on the Lagoon may induce a substantial difference in classifying winter severity by the written sources and visual arts, or in considering peaks of cold, i.
However, not always the classes of winter severity based on proxies can be easily transformed and expressed in terms of instrumental readings because the same effect e. Typically, this is a block generated by a high-pressure over Western Russia or Scandinavia that brings arctic or polar air to Venice, and lasts for weeks and sometimes reaching a month. The last three centuries have been characterized by the transition from the Little Ice Age to the Global Warming; over this period the number of occurrences of extreme winters is decreasing.
Over the last millennium the mean occurrence of great winters was two or three per century i. The peak of occurrence was in the 18 th century with 5 GW; the minimum was in the 19 th century with no GW, followed by the 20 th century with only one. Culture has been found to have two complementary aspects that provide a nice example of positive synergism. On one hand, science is finalized to preserve mankind, his culture and the environment. On the other hand, culture provides science with the basic knowledge and with the necessary input in form of proxy data generated from literature and visual arts.
Bonora ed. III, pg 25, Parma Simonsfeld ed. Pertz ed. Jaffe ed. Muratori ed. Hannoverae et Lipsiae, Antiquitates Italiae Medii Aevi pg. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores , t. XXIV, P. VII, Zanichelli, Bologna XVIII sec. IV, cc Library of the Correr Museum, Venice. Classense Mob.
Library of the Correr Museum. Barral: Notices Scientifiques, Tome V. Gide et Baudry, Paris. Spondano Annalium Ecclesiasticorum Eminentiss. Tomus II. Bartoli, Ticino. Scotto, Venice. Libro de' Memorie , Manuscript Cod. VII, n. Mazzatinti, in Monumenti istorici pertinenti alle province della Romagna, V. I, Bologna Cronaca di Bologna di Marco Antonio Bianchini con aggiunte dal 18 agosto al 16 novembre Library of the Bologna University, Bologna.
II, V. II, pp Bibliotheca Monasterii S. Justinae, Padua. Ferroni, Bologna. Abel et L. Weiland ed. Seth Kallwitz, Lantzenberger, Leipzig. Thymii, Frankfurt. Gensch, Leipzig. Edited by Zanon, F. Tipografie Emiliana, Venice. Antonelli, Venice. Lecture note read by P. The Edinburgh Magazine or Literary Miscellany. XII, Dec. X, ed. Borghi, Cronaca Modenese, Fiaccadori, Parma Sorbelli ed. Lapi, Citta di Castello-Zanichelli, Bologna, Fiaccadori, Parma VI, pg , Trombetti Murero, Udine. Manuscript Mss. Itam: catalogus prodigiorum atque ostentorum, tam coelo quam in terra, in poenam scelerum, ac magnarum in mundo vicissitudinum significationem, jam inde ab initio divinitus exhibitorum, ab eodem conscriptus.
Institutio Astronomica. Tomus IV, J. Franchi, Florence. Part II. I, Rossi, Bologna, and L. Muratori, with G. Carducci and V. Fiorini, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores , t. Pirotta, Milano. Frati e A. Sorbelli, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores t. XVIII, p. Biblioteca Marciana Venice. Zanetti Alex, Farsetti, Venice. The manuscript was also edited by Monticolo, G. Istituto Storico Italiano, Rome. Guerigli, Venice. LEVI, M. Estense Library A. Parolari, Venice.
Printed edition by Gamberini e Parmeggiani, Bologna, Orr and Co, London. Udine Pierres, Paris. Monti, Bologna. Bethmann and G. Waitz eds. Libri XXIV. Typographia Ederiana A. Angermarium, Ingolstadt, Dejussieu, Chalon S. Tipografia del Seminario, Padua. Academischen Buchhandlung, Kiel. RIVA, G. Soli-Muratori, filza 40, fasc. Justinae Padua, P. VII, pars 1. Guerra and De Franceschi, Venice Monumenta historica ad provincias Parmensem et Placentinam pertinentia.
Bertani and Ficcadorii, Parma, Iacomo Sansovino , Venice. Altobello Salicato , Venice. Francesco Sansovino. Entrepreneurial Alertness was measured using four items based on the work of Kaish and Gilad e. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0. Regarding the instruments used in the research, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found 0.
The arithmetic means and standard deviations of the instruments are presented in Table 1. I think about work-related matters even during my holidays to start my own business. My success depends on whether I am lucky enough to be in the right place at the right time. It is not wise for me to plan too far ahead, because things turn out to be a matter of bad fortune. I feel that what happens in my life is mostly determined by people in powerful positions.
Based on the data collected from students were classified into two groups. These two groups with and without entrepreneurial intention were compared for personality traits to determine whether entrepreneurial intention differed according to innovativeness, need for achievement, entrepreneurial alertness and locus of control. The results of the t-test in Table 2 showed that students with entrepreneurial intention were open to innovativeness, had greater need for achievement, they were more alert and had greater locus of control.
The present study compared personality traits based on the entrepreneurial attitudes of university students. It was conducted in a foundation university in Istanbul, Turkey. The study results demonstrate that the students who have entrepreneurial intention are more innovative, have higher need for achievement, greater locus of control and they are more alert compared to the students who do not. Accordingly, all hypotheses of the present study were confirmed. These findings suggest that entrepreneurial intention is significantly related with certain personality traits.
This may contribute to the cognitive approaches to entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial literature. Furthermore, higher education institutions may benefit from this research to improve their content of entrepreneurial education considering the significance of personality traits. Entrepreneurial education may concentrate on modification of attitudes and development of basic skills to encourage entrepreneurship for creating an economically strong country.
Towards an innovative and entrepreneurial economy. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, Ang, S. Entrepreneurial spirit among East Asian Chinese. Thunderbird International Business Review, 42 3 , Ardichvili, A. A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, Begley, T. Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and small businesses.
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Journal of Business Venturing, 2, Busenitz, L. Research on entrepreneurial alertness: sampling, measurement, and theoretical issues. Journal of Small Business Management, 34 4 , Carland, J. The theoretical bases and dimensionality of the Carland entrepreneurship index. Proceedings of the RISE. Carlson, S. Consistency of attitude components: A new approach for all problems. Dissertation Abstract International, 46 09B : Diaz, F. Locus of control and values of community entrepreneurs.
Social Behavior and Personality, 31 8 , Gaglio, C. The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial alertness. Small Business Economics, 16 2 , Gibson, S. Comparing the entrepreneurial attitudes of university and community college students. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 11 2 : Gronhaug, K. Innovation: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, pp. Gurol, Y. Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students: some insights for entrepreneurship education and.
Education and Training, 48 1 , Hansemark, O. Need for achievement, locus of control and the prediction of business start-ups: A longitudinal study. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, The effects of an entrepreneurship programme on need for achievement and locus of control of reinforcement.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 4 1 , Hills, G. Opportunity recognition: perceptions and behaviors of entrepreneurs. Frontiers of. Hull, D. Renewing the hunt for the Heffalump: Identifying potential entrepreneurs by personality. Journal of Small Business, 18 1 : Kaish, S. Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives: Sources, interests, general alertness. Journal of Business Venturing, 6, Khanka, S. Motivational orientation of Assamese entrepreneurs in the SME sector. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 18 2 , Kirzner, I. Competition and entrepreneurship.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: an Austrian approach. The Review of Austrian Economics, 11 12 , Koh, H. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11 3 , Kor, Y. Resources, capabilities and entrepreneurial perceptions. Journal of Management Studies, 44 7 : Krueger, N.
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Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5, Lachman, R. Management International Review, 20 2 , Lee, D. The effects of entrepreneurial personality, background and network activities on venture growth. Journal of. Management Studies, 38 4 , Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33 3 , Lim, W. L, Lee, Y. Personality, prior knowledge, social capital and entrepreneurial intentions: Entrepreneurial alertness.