To capture the complex and foreshortened pose of the Virgin, he or, some believe, his student Guilio Romano sketched a workshop assistant in the pose of the classically inspired Madonna.
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Once a student had graduated to painting, he would usually spend time executing less important parts of a composition, such as sections of landscape background. The records Neri left of his workshop activity indicate that he produced an average of more than three altarpieces each year. Over the twenty-two-year span covered by his account, one scholar counted seventy-three altarpieces, eighty-one domestic tabernacles , and sixty-nine miscellaneous jobs. The master might paint only the central figures or simply the faces in a work—or he might not paint any of it at all.
Attributions of some paintings from the studio of Verrocchio, for example, have gone back and forth between the master and various assistants. Although contracts sometimes specified that the master himself execute certain parts of a composition, guild rules allowed him to sign as his own any work that emerged from his shop. Andrea del Verrocchio was primarily a sculptor—in bronze and marble—but also worked as a goldsmith and painter. He ran one of the most successful studios of the Italian Renaissance, and some of the most important artists from the next generation trained with him, including Perugino , Lorenzo di Credi , and Leonardo da Vinci.
Other painting assistants included Ghirlandaio and Botticelli. This small panel, just over six inches tall, continues to invite debate. Or did Leonardo? Current thinking gives the nod to Credi. After a period of training in a shop, a student could proceed to journeyman status. The Sixteenth Century. London: Batsford, Belfanti, Carlo Marco, and Fabio Giusberti. Belfanti, Carlo Marco.
Burghartz, Susanna. Veiling in Early Modern Europe. Calvi, Giulia. Groebner, Valentin. Lechevallier-Chevignard, Edmond. New York: Dover Publications, Lemire, Beverly, ed. Farnham, Surrey; Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Lister, Margot. London: Barrie and Jenkins, Morris, Robert, and Jane Huggett. Clothes of the Common Man, — Bristol: Stuart Press, Patterson, Angus.
Renaissance in Italy, Volume 3 The Fine Arts
London: Victoria and Albert Museum, Payne, Christiana. Roche, Daniel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Rodini, Elizabeth, Elissa B. Weaver, and Kristen Ina Grimes, eds. Rosenthal, Margaret F. Rublack, Ulinka. Dressing up: Cultural Identity in Renaissance Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, Semmelhack, Elizabeth.
Sherrill, Tawny. Owen-Crocker, — Woodbridge: Boydell Press, Stallybrass, Peter, and Ann Rosalind Jones. Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Vincent, Susan J. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion. Welch, Evelyn S. Andersson, I. Aneer, Cecilia. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet, Dahl, Camilla Luise. Havertown: Oxbow Books, Norsk folkemuseum , Oslo, Owen-Crocker, Robin Netherton, — Oxford: Oxbow Books, Lipkin, Sanna, Kuokkanen, Tiina.
Renessanssin Puku Suomessa, — Barokin pukumuoti Suomessa — Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakauskirja Bean, Jacob, with the assistance of Lawrence Turcic.
Renaissance in Italy, Volume 3: The Fine Arts by John Addington Symonds
Bean, Jacob. Bertocci, Carlo. Blair, Claude. Blass-Simmen, Brigit. Blum, Shirley Neilsen. Blunt, Anthony. Boorsch, Suzanne, Michal Lewis, and R. The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi. Boorsch, Suzanne. Brandl, Rainer. Breck, Joseph and Meyric Rogers. Handbook of the Pierpont Morgan Wing.
Breiding, Dirk H. A Deadly Art: European Crossbows, — Brown, Elizabeth A. Brown, Sally B. Bugslag, James. Burroughs, Louise. Buttfield, Helen, Jeffrey M. Hoffeld, and Helmut Nickel. Byrne, Janet S. Renaissance Ornament Prints and Drawings. McKendry, and Mary L. Camiz, Franca Trinchieri. Campbell, Thomas P. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art and Magnificence. Cassidy-Geiger, Maureen.
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Cavallo, Adolfo Salvatore. Cetto, Anna Maria. Chalmers, Anne Palms. Chandler, Bruce. Grancsay, Morrison H. Christiansen, Keith, Laurence B. Kanter, and Carl Brandon Strehlke. Painting in Renaissance Siena, — Christiansen, Keith, and Judith W. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi. Christiansen, Keith, and Stefan Weppelmann, eds. Christiansen, Keith, ed. Piero della Francesca: Personal Encounters. Christiansen, Keith. Duccio and the Origins of Western Painting. Cook, Brian F. Coonin, Arnold Victor. Crockett, Lawrence J. Cropper, Elizabeth. Daley, John, Alfons M. Dauterman, Carl Christian. Davis, Howard McParlin.
De Montebello, Philippe. Dolcini, Loretta. Verrocchio's Christ and St. Draper, James David. Duschesne-Guillemin, Jacques. Edited by Elizabeth A. Eisler, Colin T. Fahy, Everett. Fenton, Edward. Fischer, Henry George. Forsyth, William H. Friedmann, Herbert, and Howard Hibbard. Friedmann, Herbert. Galitz, Kathryn Calley.
Gardner, Elizabeth E. Goldner, George R. Bambach, Alessandro Cecchi, William M. Grancsay, Stephen V. The Age of Caravaggio. Gregory H. Centeno, Janet G. Douglas, Christina Hagelskamp, John T. Haynes, Robyn E. Hodgkins, Edward A. Kennedy, Sarah Kleiner, Michele D. Thomas, and Anna Vila. Griswold, William M. Hackenbroch, Yvonne. Hand, John Oliver. Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert.
The Robert Lehman Collection. Henry, Tom. Holman, Thomas S. Husband, Timothy B. Husband, Timothy, and John Goldsmith Phillips. Isler-de Jongh, Ariane. Ivins, W. How Prints Look: Photographs with a Commentary. Ivins, William Mills. Jebb, Richard Claverhouse, Sir. Kahsnitz, Rainer, and William D. Gothic and Renaissance Art in Nuremberg, — Kanter, Laurence B. Mayer Thurman, and Pia Palladino.
Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence, — Schmidt, and Anneke de Vries. Fra Angelico. Karpinski, Caroline, A. Hyatt Mayor, and Edith A. Hyatt Mayor, and John J. Karpinski, Caroline. Keele, Kenneth D. Kessler, Hans-Ulrich. Krautheimer, Richard. La Rocca, Donald J. How to Read European Armor. LaRocca, Donald J. Laing, Mary.