The raw waste from grease trap is collected and disposed at the facility and filtered in a 2 mm filter and passed through grinder, then collected in storage silo equipped with heating coils and isolated with thermal isolation or jacket. The material is kept at temperature in the tank to melting points of Fat, Oil and Grease so that preseparation starts. The feed pump, installed on the decanter skid, takes the product from the bottom and pump it to decanter for the solid separation.
From the de- canter, solids are discharged by gravity and a conveyer allows the disposal in a dedicated movable skip. The grease trap waste input fed to the separator is separated into 3 different streams as by products:. The two liquid phases, oil and water are pumped by means of built in centrifugal pump to dedicated tanks and the solids that are discontinuously discharged will flow into an another receiving tank. The Dubai municipality introduced a permitting system to stream line the collection of grease waste from the food service establishments.
About 60 vehicles are deployed and in order to control the illegal dumping by hauling companies, Dubai municipality advised the installation of GPS devices in all vehicles. The department spends an estimated 2. This project is reducing the flow of fat, oil and grease waste into the sewer system and is improving the public health and safety. Grease trap waste is a contaminated liquid waste and causes a number of problems. Without treatment, the biological and chemical oxygen demand BOD and COD of raw grease trap waste wherever it is discharged into the landfill or into the sewer lines or in the deserts will kill plant, aquatic, and animal life.
Dumping into landfills allows grease waste to leak into aquifers. It contaminates the ground waters.
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The practice of sending grease waste to landfill is being reduced now which also results in the reduction of green house gas emissions. The dissolved zinc reacts with the hydrogren sulphide H 2 S produced by sulfate reducing bacteria in an anaerobic reactor, to zinc sulphide ZnS. ZnS is then separated from the waterstream by sedimentation, dewatered and further processed to zinc sulfate ZnSO 4.
ZnSO 4 is reused in the viscose fiber production. Formation of H 2 S in anaerobic wastewater treatment plant. One part of the wastewater pretreatment is an anaerobic process where sulphate SO 4 2- contained in a high strength wastewater stream is reduced to sulphide S 2- by sulphate reducing bacteria.
COD is removed as well by sulphate reduction, relieving the following biological wastewater treatment activated sludge process. Precipitation of dissolved zinc. The sulphide formed in the anaerobic step is used to precipitate the zinc Zn as zinc sulphide ZnS.
For this purpose a part of the effluent of the anaerobic reactor is pumped backwards and mixed with the Zn-rich wastewater prior entering the anaerobic reactor. As zinc sulphide has a lower solubility than zinc hydroxide, the applied process is advantageous with regard to effluent concentrations 0. Separation of the settled zinc sulphide. After the second step the settled zinc can be dewatered in centrifuges. Afterwards, the dewatered zinc sulphide can be brought to recovery. Dissolution of zinc sulphide and cleaning the zinc solution. Zinc sulphide is dissolved in a dedicated process with sulphuric acid and can be used again in the viscose production process as zinc sulphate.
The running costs of the zinc recovery process Process steps 2, 3 and 4 can be covered by the savings of zinc. Considering that primary zinc production has a carbon footprint of 1. The recovery and reuse of zinc at Lenzing is an important contribution in depleting two major environmental impacts of winning zinc ores: sulfur dioxide can form acid rain and cadmium vapor: Through the applied technology Lenzing is able to meet the emission limit values for zinc in the treated effluent wastewater, significantly contributing to water quality protection in the receiving water body.
Furthermore, the zinc content in the disposed ash sewage sludge incineration is below the required limits. Municipal wastewater that is discharged through a sewage system to a wastewater treatment plant WWTP contains high quantities of suspended solids, existing for a major part of cellulose that finds its origin in the use of toilet paper.
Extraordinary feature of this project is that all recovered cellulose will be used as a raw material in high end products.
The recovered resource is cellulose, one of the most important building blocks of the biobased economy. In the EU alone 2. As cellulose from toilet paper is of high quality and an excellent raw material for various biodegradable products, it is a waste to not recover this valuable resource.
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Cellvation is a chain technology, consisting of several innovative processes, inspired by mainly the paper- and food industry. It is new and first in its kind, meaning that there is no comparison on best practices. It has been demonstrated, in pilot projects VAZENA and Zeefgoud that the technology is working stable, producing a product that can be applied as resource in high-quality products. Separation of components from the cellulosic sludge takes place mechanically, without the addition of chemicals.
Typical steps are sedimentation, flotation, separation, dewatering, pre-drying, pelletizing and post-drying. Sanitation takes place during the drying process. One step in the Cellvation process is the application of rotating belt finescreens 1 , harvesting cellulosic screenings 2. There are now an important number of installations in operation. These finescreens have to be installed in the mainstream waterline. The rest of the process is installed as a side stream treatment and therefore does not affect other processes.
We have collaborated with partners in almost the entire chain. With different waterboards as supplier for the cellulosic screenings feedstock for Cellvation. The EFGF and individual waterboards to align the technology to the future vision of the water boards and to strengthen each other by promoting solving legal issues.
With KNN Cellulose as a knowledge carrier between the waterboards and the target markets for cellulose. With all SMART-Plant partners consortium existing of 9 universities, 7 waterboards and 9 companies to have the project and the technology embedded into the European frameworks, supported by scientific research.
For the project, it is important that it is carried by almost all stakeholders in the value chain. Also outside the project, we maintain contact with all concerned, both national and international. Bioclear has expertise on biological contamination and KNN Cellulose is a partner for bringing cellulose to the market. The conclusion of the economic analyses is, that at a scale of 1, tonnes of cellulose per year, recovery of marketable cellulose on-site is economically feasible under current market conditions.
To make it feasible, a technical depreciation period of 6 years, should be considered. This amount is lower than the value that can be obtained if the right quality is produced. Cellvation closes the value chain for cellulose, while saving energy less aeration and chemicals less polymers for dewatering that are required for the purification process of sewage.
Another substantial benefit of recovering cellulose from wastewater is reduction of waste production less sludge. Quantitative environmental benefits on a European scale are:. The demand for iron sludge by manure plants is a potential of This best practice shows a proven and currently running application of iron sludge iron hydr oxide from the drinking water industry —after treating with sulfuric acid also a byproduct, in this case a regeneration acid of the chemical industry.
The coagulant is produced onsite at the manure processing plant. Iron sludge is considered in the Netherlands as a product not waste and there no extra permits are needed. It also needs a mixing facility. Manure is either owned by 1 farmers or farmer-cooperatives or 2 professional manure processors. In other words: 50x better.
This means that the iron, originating from groundwater, is brought back to the soil where it came from. The scaling was identified as struvite. Struvite is a magnesium ammonium phosphate crystal that has commercial value as a fertilizer. During the anaerobic digestion process biologically bound phosphorus is released into the liquid phase and with the present ammonium and magnesium levels struvite formation is very likely.
After extensive research, including pilot tests, Waternet concluded that struvite recovery from digested sludge is the best phosphorus removal and recovery technique for this WWTP. Struvite is a ready to use fertilizer. The product is sold to ICL fertilizers. This technology uses the addition of a magnesium salt and elevation of the pH by aeration in order to produce struvite from the digested sludge.
After settling, clear crystals of struvite are recovered. The struvite installation is owned by the Water authority Amstel, Gooi and Vecht and is operated by Waternet. Market opportunities and clients for struvite were determined in cooperation with Aqua Minerals, a company that acts as a broker for residuals and wastes of water companies. An important bottleneck was the legislation on the use of struvite as a fertilizer. The registration in the REACH database, co-signed by Berlin Wasserbetriebe, made it possible to use the struvite as a resource in fertilizer production.
Country Netherlands Sector Drinking water Loads m3 of humic acid containing Three drinking water production plants have ion exchangers to remove organic substances that cause a yellow colour in drinking water. A new installation has been built at location Spannenburg. There were no changes in production location itself; it is an additional process next to main process of producing drinking water. The recovered sodiumchloride is implemented for the IEX washing step. Processing of the waste stream lowered the operational costs to a ROI of 1. Time of decision process was 3 months.
Building and implementation 1 year. Payback-time was less then 9 months. Both the larger, year round plants have an Ostara nutrient recovery facility. CWS is a consortium of municipalities that combined into one wastewater district that provides holistic wastewater and storm water management. Clean Water Services has two Ostara struvite precipitation reactors. The WASSTRIP process was invented at our utility and increases the phosphorus released from bio-P sludge which therefore increases the amount of struvite that can be harvested.
The Rock Creek facility is transitioning from chemical phosphorus removal to biological phosphorus removal to improve struvite production. Partnering with technology vendor is important, especially when a utility is an early adopter of a technology. Since the Durham Ostara facililiity was the first full scale North American installation, the project was very risky. There was also very little full scale operating experience with the technology at that time. Not estimated formally. The goal of the clean water grow product is to keep the nutrients within a local community rather than putting a product into a national supply chain with its associated carbon footprint.
Through our agreement with Ostara, Ostara finds end users of the struvite product. CWS is working on creating our own fertilizer product called Clean Water Grow but this is in the early stages of development. Country the Netherlands Sector Drinking water Loads 67 kton lime pellets and 68 kton iron sludge. Processes are made in such a way that the residuals are produced as pure as possible and no additives or chemicals are used that have a negative impact on reuse. Iron sludge: all drinking water companies agreed upon specifications of the sludge as it leaves the production site.
These specifications are met by storing and slightly passively dewatering the sludge. Training is given to operators responsible at the production site, giving special attention to quality management. Procedures are available for:. For new productions plants, RU is involved as a consultant looking at the residuals. At current plants, RU takes the initiative for e. Combining the residuals from the different drinking water companies was essential, giving the costumer a fair price, good quality and guarantees on the availability.
The sales revenues are exceeding these costs.
For the softening of drinking water in most cases sand is used as seeding material. The application of these pellets is, because of these two components, more difficult compared to limestone from a quarry. For example the grinding of the pellets is more difficult because of the different harnesses and for a vast number of applications the presence of sand is a no-go e.
The softening with calcite as seeding material is more expensive compared to the traditional softening, but the higher value of the residual more than compensates these costs. This is not all. Instead of sand calcite will be used as seeding material. No big changes in the softening process are required. The loading of the seeding material in the silo is altered. If the calcite seeding material has too much physical impact, the is a risk the grain distribution is changed. Calcite evidently breaks more easily than sand. Furthermore, the seeding material can be produced from the calcite pellets by drying, grinding and sieving.
In the Netherlands annually 67 kton metric softening pellets are produced. The production of calcite seeding material for the sector is estimated at a maximum of 5 kton. Legislation is a hurdle. Reusing raw materials in the drinking water process is something that is not supported by policies or regulations. The added value of the pellets in sales revenue is more than these costs.
Investments in the production process are small. A ROI is inapplicable in this case. This category shows best practices which are cases that show an integrated, holistic approach. Country : The Philippines, Quezon City Sector : Drinking water production and distribution; domestic-quality wastewater treatment Loads : 21, It has two components—watershed rehabilitation and mangrove rehabilitation program.
The program has two major components—watershed rehabilitation and mangrove rehabilitation program. Maynilad implemented certain changes in its facilities to improve operations and make it more efficient. Carbon Sequestration is the long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon from the atmosphere and soil biomass. By growing mangroves in coastal areas, Maynilad aims to offset its contribution to global GHG. The reforestation and afforestation arm of the project is undertaken with various stakeholders. This is achieved through formal agreements with private organizations and government agencies such as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; institutionalized participation by partnering with the National Commission on Indigenous People; and leveraging ties with non-profit institutions and other volunteer organizations.
Estimated expenditure of mangrove rehabilitation since is Php , The project addresses the municipal wastewater treatment sector with an innovative technology configuration aimed to increase the energy self-sufficiency of the process and recover phosphate, while maintaining high effluent quality. The new installation was commissioned at the end of , starting with the LysoTherm TPH, followed by the Pearl reactor in February treating dewatering centrate only.
Following phosphorus release, the SAS is thickened and the liquors are diverted to Pearl. In Pearl, the phosphorus rich thickening liquors are combined with ammonia rich dewatering liquors from digested sludge and magnesium to precipitate nutrients in the form of struvite magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate. Once struvite particles have grown to the desired size in the reactor they are harvested, dewatered and dried. Amersfoort STP is owned and operated by Waterschap Vallei en Veluwe and serves a population equivalent of approximately , in the Utrecht province of the Netherlands.
Benefits are comprised of a combination of revenue from power exports and fertilizer, and operational cost savings notably power, sludge disposal and chemicals. The Crystal Green fertiliser produced at Amersfoort offers good properties due to the mode of action — Crystal Green is not water soluble therefore reducing phosphorus tie-up in soils and run-off into water bodies where it causes eutrophication. Korea's sewage treatment plant, Anyang Saemul Park has secured its self-sufficiency through the recovery of water and energy resources.
This case shows the transformation of a sewage treatment plant from the one where energy was consumed and water was released to the one that produces energy and collects the water resources. By reaffirming the value of the rainwater and sewage that flow into the sewage treatment plant, the sewage treatment plant was improved so that it could reduce the supply of external water and energy resources, and thus restored the water and energy resources to the level of self-reliance. The purpose of this case study at Anyang is to explain the technology that can restore the resources, show its appropriateness, and to re-establish the meaning of resource recovery as the role model in this area through the philosophical interpretation of the technology.
Positive Impact Development PID technology as development role model pursues development through restoring resources while positively affecting the environment. YDF Fiber Disk Filter was applied to the tertiary total phosphorus treatment process to minimize eutrophication of discharge stream. Biofiltration and ozone treatment facilities were selected to provide T-N and chromaticity processing capability and to internally supply water that meet the re-used water quality standards.
In addition, rainwater was used after being treated simply by physical precipitation and UV disinfection. In the anaerobic digestion process, THP with high solubilization rate due to cell membrane breakdown of excess residue and anaerobic single-phase digester were applied. Cost and benefit analysis shows that the payback time is about 12 years, which is considered to be economical. In the Danish wastewater sector energy consumption is addressed savings and production and also recovery of phosphorous.
Energy production is based on digestion, and in the specific case in Billund Biorefinery it is codigestion of WW sludge and organic waste from households and industries local. The key idea is to produce more refined products out of wastewater and organic waste — i. The biorefinery is an "open concept" that can collect all types of waste, including wastewater and convert them into valuable resources. Thus, there are obvious opportunities to assemble the entire circuit of carbon and nutrients from farm to table and back to land.
Billund Biorefinery is a prototype of the biorefinery concept and includes several technologies at different stages of development. Also Magnesium as precipitating agent, in order to create a more refined fertilizer product , is an area of development in the project. Total payback time is estimated to be under 10 years without recovering of Struvite and biopolymer. By rebuilding the wastewater treatment plant for biorefinery Billund Water achieves increased capacity for the treatment of wastewater and waste, while the company's CO2 footprint for all activities is CO2 positive.
Billund Water also achieves a significant operating savings and new opportunities for finding more new partners from agriculture, municipalities food waste , as well as the opportunity to reduce wastewater- and waste charges for customers. Conventional systems focus on the strict separation of water supply, wastewater treatment, and waste treatment. It enables the coordination between the sectors, creating synergy effects such as energy self-sufficient operation and the reduction of greenhouse gases.
The same applies to wastewater and waste. Non potable water is reused in households. Driver for the City of Qingdao was the embedded energy in the water cycle. GHG reduction and social aspects will be evaluated within the next 2 years. MBR in the water cycle and thermophilic instead of mesophilic digestion to enhance quality of biosolids.
Subsidization of water and wastewater make it difficult to implement water saving technologies and systems. This is an incentive independent of the cost for water and energy cost.
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First implementation without full-scale reference makes a the technological and b the financial feasibility more challenging. Dealing with much more authorities water supply, sanitation, solid waste, hygienic department, energy suppliers compared to non-integrated approaches are a challenge. Best Practices Resource Recovery from Water. Submit your application for the Best Practice Award May 20 Aug 8 Dec 7 Best Practices.
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Briefly, the effluents generated from batch operation were collected by wastewater collection lines. Each unit has its own PLC system. It was operated by SCADA system and fully automated depending upon requirement of water of the production. Additional reference used:  G. Stakeholders Supplier: Banka BioLoo in Hyderabad India They work with other organizations and companies in implementing the system-solution. For instances, they partner with some large companies and implement the system in hundreds of schools Financial impact The bio-digester system is very cost-effective.
Technology The AWPF uses a three-step purification process which includes microfiltration, reverse osmosis RO and a combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide. Financial impact The Factory was also the first in the world to perform advanced treatment of used water for injection into coastal drinking water aquifers. Environmental impact There was a demand to increase the available pool of water, to decrease the demand of the imported water as well as a prevent seawater intrusion.
Internal optimisation of all water usages. Financial impact Project costs for overall plant spread over 20 year period and justifications mixed from stay in business through environmental and economic benefits. Environmental impact Reduction in carbon footprint related to on site anaerobic waste treatment against municipal aerobic treatment. Additional reference used : waterrecyclinginvestment. Stakeholders Maynilad Water Services, Inc. Environmental impact Plant for Life. Technology Anaerobic digestion for energy recovery Biological biogas scrubber for sulfur recovery ThioPaq Struvite precipitation for phosphorus recovery PhosPaq Production of Vitalphos from the struvite: drying and blending with various natural materials, custom made Marathon organic buffer complex, patented Anammox for N removal Stakeholders The struvite recovery is in use since Crucial was the involvement of an agricultural and retailer expert.
Financial impact The Industry pays for the treatment of the wastewater imposed in the wastewater discharge permit by outsourcing this activity to another company Waterstromen. Waterstromen Waterstromen owns and operates several wastewater treatment plants. Technology Shared service centre Reststoffenunie and SME Van Lijssel took the initiative to develop a truck where the pellets can effectively be dried on board with the warmth from the engine. Stakeholders Buyers: Wanting a secure supply of dried pellets. Brought in knowledge: Research company: Studied the possibilities and advised the adjustments of the trailer.
Suppliers: commitment on supplying for a longer period of time, guaranties on the moisture content of the pellets. Add On Loan. Financial Disclosure Statement. School Closure Discharge. Disqualifying Status. Unauthorized Signature. False Certification of Ability to Benefit Discharge. Public Service Employment Certification. Unpaid Refund Discharge. Teacher Loan Forgiveness Application. Total and Permanent Disability — Discharge Application. Recurring Payment Authorization Form. Identity Theft Affadavit. Form ES.
Family Size Statement. Hearing Request Form. The resources included in this section are provided by third parties that are not affiliated with Reliant Capital Solutions, LLC. They are provided to assist with any relevant account that may or may not apply to you. Reliant Capital Solutions, LLC makes no assurances and is not responsible for any information provided in this section.