Collet emphasizes Bresson's exceptional rigor and unity as applied to the theme of communication, and reveals many insights into the specific visual compositions of Pickpocket which he illuminates with comparisons to other film stylists and other arts. Collet has interviewed Bresson and reports here on his ideas and his manner.
One of the conditions of the interview was that Bresson see the article before publication. And so, printed here, next to the article, is a page from the original manuscript, extensively rewritten and corrected by Bresson. Review primarily concerned with the differences in character and theme between the film and the novel. Positive review of this film, in which the object is "systematically valorized" and man "systematically scorned"; a fascinating film about theft committed purely for the sake of theft, to deny and conquer the world of others.
Durgnat, Raymond , 'Pickpocket', Films and Filming 7, no. Durgnat finds Pickpocket to be Bresson's least imposing film and interprets it as a love story. He argues that Michel's obsession is a self-destructive one that reflects his refusal to admit his need for Jeanne. Pickpocket reviewed as a character study, marked by a dialectic between pride and grace. Michel steals in order to elevate himself above all others, closer to the absolute. Thoughts on the film, without much focus. It "troubles and touches" Gilson, but he does not know precisely why and compares Bresson's searching to the concerns of unspecified "young novelists.
Bresson talks about Pickpocket , the significance of hands, right choices and necessary choices, commentary as a rhythmic element, and his other projects. Description of Bresson's work habits and methods during all phases of production, including a section on his directing of actors. Positive review, though critical of the "dramatic pirouette" that ends the film. Rhode, Eric , 'Pickpocket', Sight and Sound 29, no. Review that suggests there is a sexual-economic core in the film, but is mostly concerned with Bressons manipulative approach to the characters.
Survey of career through Pickpocket. Roud argues that tragedy is not only implicit in the plots, but also in the form and tone. Seguin, Louis , ''Pickpocket': le phono', Positif 33 April , In a very negative review, Seguin discusses Bresson's ideas as "simplistic. Includes many psychological insights into the work. Tailleur, Roger , 'Pickpocket: la phearme', Positif 33 April , Negative review: "Dostoevsky written by an abusive disciple of Hemingway. A perfect exercise in style if one accepts a definition of style as the act of jumping over intermediate ideas, points, and words.
Vas, Robert , ''Pickpocket. Wagner argues an increased objectification and depersonalization of Bresson's characters, which culminates in Pickpocket : Bresson's style is "arid and secret"; it is "difficult to be impervious to its beauty, but also difficult to get to its bottom. Review of Pickpocket : "Not only a brilliant exercise in style," but the most "mysterious" of Bresson's films. Wuilleumier distinguishes a new kind of language in the films of Resnais, Tati, Bresson, and others -- different from the traditional language, which is based on dramatic continuity. From this introductory section, she focuses on Resnais and Bresson and their inclination to include what happens between events, to mix up time and space, and to use the word voice-over as an "instrument of the search.
Though philosophical opposites, these two films have much in common, as adaptations of novels and as documents of a spiritual journey that puts into question the place of Christ in the modern world. Ripkins admires the documentary detail and editing, and finds the themes to be the same as Bresson's other films: the illustration of a "power of consciousness, through which one person is able to influence and change others. Chapters on adaptation, space and time, the main characters, acting, Bresson's aesthetic, and the particularity of his worldview.
He groups the films chronologically according to the extent to which they move away from what he sees as Bresson's initially literary sensibility. In this way, Pickpocket becomes a high point, revealing an aesthetic where the image gains precedence over the word. The films as a whole are characterized by space manipulated to explore the dialectic of the abstract and the concrete, a sophisticated literary sense that produces subtle and respectful adaptations, and an entirely subjective approach to time.
A valuable section; only the extracts from Pickpocket are included in the second edition. Also a long section of excerpted criticism, filmography, and bibliography. See entry for annotation of the second edition. Cited in British Humanities Index, Guitton, a historian and authority on Jeanne d'Arc, speaks at length of her spirituality and similarity to Christ. Bresson then talks of his own fascination with Jeanne, her youth, her lack of prudence, her purity, her failure martyrdom , and the analogy with Christ.
Both deemphasize her as a symbol of nationalism. Baroncelli feels that Bresson has taken a serious risk with this film and considers it Bresson's "secret" that emotion comes from such simplicity and austerity. Capdenac, M. Plot synopsis and criticism. Collet sees the film as a "dialectic of man and destiny," taking note in particular of the objectifying of parts of the body, which he interprets as an equivalent to the idea of man as an object of destiny.
A collection of quotations from Bresson and his critics arranged by subject: realism-abstraction, tragedy, Bresson at work, the theory and practice of acting, and so forth. See separate entries under each author. Study guide for the novel, focusing on its structure and illustrated with stills from the film. Detailed interview on Jeanne d'Arc and the historical circumstances and personalities that surrounded her trial. Excellent questions, to which Bresson gives more than his usual clipped responses.
General discussion of amateur and nonprofessional actors, as well as a specific analysis of Bresson's philosophy of acting and the results of it as seen in his films. Rhode argues in a letter of response to entry the question of realism and Bresson's failure to establish or use conventions. Using a vague distinction between a novel-like film and a fable-like film, Roud places Pickpocket in the latter category, a "new kind of narrative which frees the filmmaker from the obligations of story-telling.
Review that stresses the plainness and everyday quality of "this most direct, this most classic" of films. Dreyer's Jeanne is a "victim ruled by her heart," while Bresson's is a "prisoner ruled by her conscience. The film is a "modern rendering of Joan's story. Positive review: "Bresson bullies his actors into wood and then makes them bloom. He is one of the few which prove that movies are art. The introduction states that the three main "keys" to Bresson's work are Jansenism, homosexuality, and interior realism.
This approach sets the tone for the rest of the discussion, which centers on Bresson's "creative impotence," his narcissism, and the lack of continuity in his films. Bresson discusses the film in detail and how it relates to the rest of his work. Also comments on improvisation, historical films, and the "auteur" theory. Positive review emphasizing the integrity of Bresson's career.
Baroncelli is somewhat afraid, however, that the "grave, noble, and pure" style has reached it limit and might be approaching mannerism. Bresson wishes that his characters transcend appearances; but because of this desire, he risks their appearing as mere objects. Review critical of the sparse treatment, though impressed with the language. Admires the film, but finds it impossible to respond emotionally to the "impoverished images.
Though critical of the severe treatment and "arbitrary" choice of dialogue, Chauvet thinks Florence Carrez is "perfect," and in general finds the film moving. Edited by Jacques Chevallier and Max Egly. Bresson is not only a creator, but an analyst and critic who concentrates on the poles, never the ameliorating center or intermediary path.
His art is to accept the limited frame of the camera of the self and then to step back and see only what is there. Comolli most interestingly notes the absence of water in the film: "Cosmic fusion where matter and ether melt easily one into the other. Universe where water loses its familiar role as intermediary. There is left only earth and air and their fusion point: fire. In this way, Garrigou-Lagrange argues that Bresson has chosen a text as the living material, instead of a character.
Giard, Robert , 'Pickpocket', Seventh Art 1, no. Pickpocket described as an "oddly wooden and very solemn picture. Positive review of Pickpocket despite the "offbeat material. Negative review of Pickpocket : "Bresson too often opens a scene with a shot of the setting into which a character walks. The girl is a Gallic platitude.
The hero is a vacancy, not a character. Mauriac is critical of Bresson's refusal to allow his characters any freedom and of his yen for purity, which destroys what he wants to describe: Jeanne's God is not merely God, but Robert Bresson, a proposition Mauriac finds distasteful. Visual analysis based on a notion concerning "detached camera"; Mayersberg focuses on symbolic interpretation of the images and compositions, with frequent references to other films.
Munier, Roger , Contre l'image , Paris: Gallimard, pp.
Nous sommes tous Américains
Annotated filmography of Bresson's work. Discussion of the film, in particular its physical environment among Ian Cameron, Paul Mayersberg, and other Movie editors. Testimonial to the beauty of Bresson's work and a plea for its understanding. Bresson speaks of his prestige, the New Wave, and of being described as a Jansenist. An editorial on justice prompted by the "profoundness" of the film.
Long introductory analysis of Pickpocket as Bresson's most perfect film, but also the "least controlled. Scattered discussion of conventional and uconventional forms of narrative in film, with comments on Bresson and Godard, the problems of motivation and conflict, and the traditional conventions of the theater and the novel. Synopsis and analysis based on an idea of the film as a duel between Jeanne's sainthood and the bishop's pride.
The style is judged daring in its extremity, but also criticized for not being extreme enough. Yvore claims that the shots of Jeanne's feet walking over the stone path and of the dogs are not successfully placed in the dual formation that dominates the film. Account of the reconstruction of the film after twenty minutes had been cut by the American distributor. The author claims it was put together under his supervision at Dartmouth College Films. Jacob feels that Bresson walks a fine line between the intelligence that dominates his films and the passion that bursts from underneath.
He argues, though, that he succeeds in leaving both paths open to an understanding of the films. Review of Pickpocket. Ripkins compares it to Hitchcock's Rope and argues that it is a "renouncement" of that film. Review of Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne : A "brilliant work" unjustly vilified and an aesthetic investigation of "determinism and free will.
Taylor characterizes Bresson as a "quietist" and a practitioner of the "autocratic view" of the director. He then indicates several "dangers" of Bresson's technique, which actually turn out to be only one -- the casting of nonactors to "be" the part. Canziani characterizes Bresson as a personal author who "has created a style [and] steered clear of. Includes many personal details, as the interview takes place in Bresson's home. Los Angeles. Blue, an educator and filmmaker, questions Bresson mostly on his methods.
The responses here excerpted are generalizations similar to those in Notes on Cinematography. John , 'Early Bresson', New Statesman 69, no. Negative review of Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne , which is described as having "smug" dialogue and a "cold economy. Interview done at Guyancourt, where Au hasard, Balthazar was being filmed. Gilles emphasizes Bresson's other occupation as a painter and his intention to return to it some day. General comments from Guitry on Bresson's faultless sense of taste and lack of pretension. Kauffmann admires Bresson's "purity of intention and execution," but pronounces it "not enough" to make the film moving.
McAnany, Emile G. Routine wrap-up of the film in connection with its use in a film series, including questions for discussion. Report from the set of Au hasard Balthazar. Drouget, Robert , Robert Bresson , Premier plan, no. Wide-ranging, irreverent study of Bresson that attempts to fit his work into the larger stream of modern art and literature. Au hasard, Balthazar is discussed at length, and Bresson is generally characterized as a minimalist whose work expresses modern "boredom" and whose absence of breadth condemns him to making the same film over and over.
Editorial celebrating the careers and latest films of Bresson, Truffaut, and Resnais. Notes in particular their hard work and respect for the audience, which leads them to offer the "best of themselves. First edition of entry See that entry for annotation. General discussion of Bresson's aesthetic principles and their variation as displayed in Au hasard, Balthazar. The debate becomes pointed over the question of the unusual number of characters which for some of the critics means a new reliance on stereotyping in the film.
This, in turn, leads to a discussion of Bresson's essentially antirealist stance. Bresson speaks about Balthazar, including comments on the role of dialogue, the importance of hands, and the presence of symbols. Le Monde 17 May , Positive review of the film, which is sometimes "obscure and difficult," though always its enigmatic presence touches us. Attacks Bresson's audience as a passive minority who wish to turn the cinema into a "sort of non-Actor's Studio for neurasthenic zombies. It aired on 11 May Statements by Bresson on improvisation, the wonders of the camera, the Bresson "look," sound, and writing dialogue.
Translated into Italian: entry Capelle, Anne , 'Robert Bresson ho visto improvisamente una testa d'asino riempire lo schermo', Cineforum 6, no. Chapier, Henri e. Chapier introduces a page dedicated to Au hasard, Balthazar with a review of the film that emphasizes its important place in film history due to its pure and direct language and implicit critique of film structure.
Chapier reviews the film again pointing out two levels of meaning: in the narrative and in the "rhythms of light and sound. Review that emphasizes the film as signaling a change in Bresson's work from the study of a single personality to the study of group relationships. Negative review that argues that Bresson "erred" in constructing a conventional scenario. Chauvet finds the end affecting, but it is too little after so many bad people and not enough of the donkey.
Collet responds here to criticism that Au hasard, Balthazar is a disconnected narrative and a thematic break for Bresson. He compares it to Monsieur Ouine and argues that Balthazar is a typical Bresson character, most importantly in his capacity to feel. Durgnat, Raymond , 'Balthazar', Films and Filming 13, no. Reviews Au hasard, Balthazar as a comment on all forms of feeling and a "perfect example of cinema of the absurd.
A study of the film as a "dialectic of suicide and sacrifice"; also a plot outline, biographical information, production details, critical reactions, as well as Durgnat's reevaluation. See crntry for annotation. A series of philosophical statements comprising a meditation on Au hasard, Balthazar. Adams Sitney entry states that it is "a page of excerpts from Maurice Merleau-Ponty altered in part by Godard to refer directly to the film. Positive review of Au hasard, Balthazar : Not a "picturesque animal story," but a tale of "great differences and extremes.
A dense catalog of themes, possible correlations, and impressions from the film: "Only Bresson can make us sense the ineffable, see the invisible, touch the intangible. Klossowski is a novelist who played the part of the corn merchant in Au hasard, Balthazar. Positive review of Au hasard, Balthazar , though Lachize is unable to agree with the extremely pessimistic ideas. Study of Au hasard, Balthazar , as an illustration of the "struggle between God and the devil. Review of Au hasard, Balthazar , an alarmingly pessimistic work: "Death is the hope of the hopeless," and Au hasard, Balthazar is the epitome of this attitude.
Lengthy synopsis and review of Au hasard, Balthazar : "Bresson has invented a new form of discourse. Salachas is particularly taken with Bresson's physical presence and attempts to describe his liveliness in the introduction. The interview itself consists of comments on Au hasard, Balthazar , its title, and its making. Review of Au hasard, Balthazar that describes it as a satirical film with a complex structure and clear intentions. Develops an argument for Bresson as the "master of the reflective mode," a classical style that postpones emotional involvement by presenting form in an "emphatic way.
She then discusses the main theme of "confinement and liberty," and finally, Bresson's "anti-romantic and solemn" sensibility. Bresson, she concludes, creates works of great power that are not "just an assertion about the resources of the cinema. Robert Bresson', Filmkritik 10, no. Collection of excerpts from interviews and press conferences with Bresson that illustrate his theories on filmmaking. Most are from French sources translated into German. Truffaut's diatribe on the "tradition of quality" that dominated French cinema in the s and s, and its way of adapting literary works.
In a review of Au hasard, Balthazar Wuilleumier discusses the film in terms of its absent center, Balthazar, who exists only as a symbolic parallel to Marie. She argues that Balthazar remains entirely inaccessible, and is not revealed to the soul as all of Bressons other main characters are. Godard , Paris: Julliard, pp.
[ pewahomaci.tk | Words | Jane Sloan: Writings about Robert Bresson
Journalistic account of Cardinal's experinces working with Bresson on Mouchette. She played the part of the mother and during the same period worked with Godard on Deux ou trois choses que je sais d'elle. The tone is very personal, having much to do with her being separated from her family, and a great deal of gossip is relayed. She delights in calling Bresson "Bob" behind his lack, but finds the experience increasingly draining.
The final chapter is typically ambivalent: She becomes ill and demands after much hesitation that her part be completed. Bresson is very attentive; they finish in one day, and he drives her home, where she is more than happy to be. But Bresson's car breaks down, and he returns for help, whereupon Cardinal rushes to hide in the bedroom, where because she is sick she "belongs.
Vimenet, a painter, played the part of Mathieu the gameskeeper in Mouchette. In this interview, he speaks of Bresson's sadistic treatment of the people on the set he himself was made to endure icy water for hours while Bresson stood by warmly sweatered , and sympathetically tries to explain the director's actions as those of a man lost in creativity. He says he came near hatred for Bresson during the shooting and painted several portraits at that time, three of which are reproduced here. In an interview, Bresson speaks of Mouchette, the Bernanos novel that it is taken from, and its relationship to Au hasard, Balthazar.
Positive review of this masterpiece, which is the "summit of a difficult journey. A famous essay, which translator Gray calls "the most perfectly wrought piece of film criticism" that he has ever read. It is a dense description of "the most paradoxical, maybe even the most complex [aesthetic principles]. The second is more complex, an "interplay of literature and realism," whereby Bresson refuses to adapt dialogue from the journal descriptions of conversations , insists that what dialogue there is not be interpreted, but spoken, and refuses the possibilities of psychological development.
Reprinted: entries , Benayoun, Robert , 'En trois personnes', Positif 85 June , Review of Mouchette. Benayoun praises the bumper-car scene "when Bresson wants to, he knows the technique" and ridicules the rest as "ritual masturbation. Positive review of Mouchette though Bertin is critical of the heavy-handed metaphors. Positive review of Mouchette noting that the film is organized around the looks of the characters and describes Bresson's cinema as "a window wide open on the palpitating shadows of life.
Bory is upset by Mouchette , this darkest, most pessimistic of Bresson's works, and argues that by his sensuality and cruelty, he separates himself from the less modern, but more sensitive Bernanos. Reprinted: enty Survey of Bresson's work that judges Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne to be the height of his career; aso an account of the two opposing French critical views, whch are resolved in a notion of Bresson as a particular "cloistered" case.
Review that finds the film perfect and the rape scene the "poignant and despairing" center of the "scrupulous application" of a "brilliant theory. Positive review. Charensol feels the "sordid reality" becomes almost "surreal" in Bresson's hands, producing a wholly different beauty from what the naturalistic images would indicate. Ciment, Michel , 'Bibliographie', Positif 83 April , Essay review of Drouguet's Robert Bresson entry , which is admired for its "fresh approach," having been written by a nonspecialist. In a review of Mouchette , Dadoun deemphasizes the religious aspects of Bresson's work and concentrates on his "world oriented toward death.
Denton notes an "awareness of paradox" new to Bresson's work and pleads against "the probable neglect of an immeasurably fine and beautiful film. Review of Mouchette comparing it to the Bernanos novel. Positive review of Bresson's "first truly dark film. Review suggesting that this film was perhaps too easy for Bresson to make and hence reveals complacency in his feelings and degeneracy in his style. As such, it cannot approach the heartfelt sympathy of Bernanos's novel.
In a review of Au hasard, Balthazar Gilson discusses Bresson's "no longer cultivated" sensibility. Bresson is "detached, lighter than air. In a long interview, Bresson compliments Godard and his films and speaks about people of talent, actors, and the complexity of character, why he does not go to see films, and Au hasard, Balthazar , "the freest film I've ever made.
La Vie de Marianne
Long analysis of Bresson's films through Au hasard, Balthazar. Gregor argues that Bresson investigates the battle which ends in redemption between God and his fallen angels against a disordered and disquieting background. The analysis depends an various theological concepts that describe the characters as the "chosen ones, who are blessed with a "saving grace" and predestined to a tragic life. Also a gestalt-influenced discussion of Bresson's "practical art" and his evangelistic view of Christ and religion. A listing of images and possible interpretations.
Jacob suggests that the film is superior to the novel; in fact, very little of it was taken from the novel. Johnson, William , 'Balthazar', Film Quarterly 20, no. Describes Bresson's career as a series of ups richness and downs rigor. Au hasard, Balthazar is a high point that fuses these extremes by having several main characters instead of one.
Kotulla, Theodor , 'Mouchette', Filmkritik 11, no. Review of the "most paradoxical film Bresson has ever made"; by adding the bumper-car sequence to Bernanos's gloomy tale, Bresson expresses in the person of Mouchette both the desperation and joy of life. Review of Mouchette arguing that it is a film "done in the manner of Bresson," as if by a student in Bresson's absence.
In place of synecdoche, we get naturalistic inserts; the film is not only naturalistic, but complacent in its persistent visual tautologies and the unrelieved misfortune that surrounds Mouchette. Mortier emphasizes the universality and directness of the film, and suggests the presence of a wedding motif in the final death scene. Interview on Mouchette that emphasizes Bresson's feelings about Bernanos, his interpretation of the novel, and his disagreements with Bernanos's ideas.
Positive review of Au hasard, Balthazar that interprets Balthazar as a symbol of human isolation, separated from others by his innocence and impotence. Positive review that suggests that Mouchette's misfortunes are of two kinds: the cruelty of the characters who surround her and the obsessive scrutiny of Bresson himself. In particular, Pena illustrates the care taken in the making of the film.
Mostly a discussion of Bernanos's two different Mouchettes: Sous le soleil de satan and Nouvelle histoire de Mouchette. Rhode discusses it in terms of paradox and purification, Bresson's detailed documentation of the real, and his fascination with formalist constructions.
He concludes that Bresson measures the present "against the highest intellectual and moral standards of tie 18th century," and therefore "works in a void. Martin , 'Im Wettbewerb: 'Mouchette'', Filmkritik 11, no. Positive review of this "simple" film, which refuses poeticization and theological implications. Roulet, Sebastien. Review of Mouchette that points to its looser construction as a new departure for Bresson.
Annexe:Liste de proverbes anglais et français équivalents
Roulet distinguishes two forms of gesture in the films and levels of meaning that accompany each. In an interview, Bresson comments on adaptations, sound, and his working methods. Review of Mouchette , which Sadoul values for its purity and considers to be a protest against violence and cruelty. Susini, a novelist who played the gamekeeper's wife in Mouchette, describes here her "strange experience," Bresson's courtesy and condescension, and her awe of him. Short review of Mouchette: "Quite simply, and without any shadow of a doubt, a masterpiece. Favorable review, primarily a comparison of Bernanos's Nouvelle Histoire de Mouchette and Bresson's films.
Viscidi, Fiorenzo , 'Cinema e liberta', Cineforum 67 September , For a special issue on sound, an interview with Bresson on his use of it, including specifics on his method of gathering and rearranging sounds, as well as his use of music. Chabot decries the "myths" of the naturalistic, old-fashioned Bernanos and the pure, modern Bresson.
Discusses the attitude toward violence, the Catholicism, and the social conscience that drives each work. Clurman, Harold , 'Films', Nation 7 October , Positive review of Mouchette : "Every shot of the pic- ture is a simple and telling declarative sentence. Lengthy analysis of the film and the novel, and the distinctly different tone that characterizes each. Special issue with three articles on Bernanos's novel and two on Bresson's film: "Bernanos and Bresson," by Pierrette Renard-Georges, and "L'accueil de la critique en et ," by Jacques Chabot.
See entries , for annotations. Review of Mouchette Greenspun argues that the portrait of the girl is based too much on worldly, human concerns to "submit meaningfully to the elegant finality of her death," which is "perhaps more beautiful than any other sequence in Bresson's virtuoso cinema. Michelson, Annette , 'Etc. Short but suggestive article on Bresson's style and the failure of our "literary culture" to accord it the understanding granted other poetic styles. Milne, Tom , 'Mouchette', Sight and Sound 37, no. Review that describes the film as a "thinner experience" after the complexities of Au hasard, Balthazar.
Mouchette and Marie, however, are said to mark a new kind of character for Bresson, one who is solitary not by choice, but by imposition. This in turn marks a "shifting of the emphasis from the malleability of the Christian soul to the implacable indifference of the Christian world. Petrie, Graham , 'Mouchette', Film Quarterly 22, no. Petrie points out the "rhythmic and visual bases" of the film that "act as a controlling counterbalance to the emotions contained in the material. Extensive quotes from the book illustrate Bresson's fidelity to its atmosphere and aesthetic, but the author feels that Bresson misses the depth of Bernanos's portrait of Mouchette by concentrating arbitrarily on the events and things that surround her.
Rhode, Eric , 'Mouchette', Listener 21 March , Notes that Bressan has abandoned the guidelines of allegory and so made it impossible to know what Mouchette represents. Nonetheless, he "has managed to hew a neoclassical tragedy out of the lives of near cretins. Cameron, Ian ed.
See separate entries for annotations. Also a filmography by Elizabeth Cameron. This first edition is lacking some of the material of the American edition entry Review that describes the film as a product of the "perfect union of subject, author, and time. Statements from Bresson on color and from Ghislain Cloquet on working with Bresson. Review of Une Femme douce that sees it as Bresson's most accessible film and the "best of the festival. Review of Une Femme douce in which the author meditates on his lack of sympathy with the fixed notions of Bresson's cinema.
Ayfre describes Bresson's universe as 'one of "unfailing unity," then discusses the various poles of Bresson's work: the balance of abstraction and reality achieved through the use of concrete detail; the shift between film from character to person, as Bresson increasingly leaves our knowledge of his characters short of a full portrayal; the movement from loneliness to communication, a process Bresson explores graphically through his use of space and time; and the movement from immanence to transcendence, which Bresson portrays through paradox, death, and the "inexpressiveness of faces.
After an introduction disparaging the distortions of criticism that wrap a film up "too neatly," Barr inaccurately describes the film and interprets it at length. The essay attempts to unite the film through the concepts of will and responsibility, and eventually concludes that it is "profoundly ambivalent. Mouchette is described as a "dialectic between involvement in the world and withdrawal from it. Baud suggests that between Ayfre and Bresson there is a "spontaneous and total sympathy" that is expressed in their fascination with the questions of grace and free will.
Edited by Ian Cameron. Translated by Hugh Gray. London: Studio Vista, Review of Une Femme douce in which Bory criticizes the plot contrivances surrounding the husband's ignoble past and claims that at least one of the scenes makes no sense because of Bresson's transposition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
By scorning the psychological, he says, "Bresson condemns his characters to nonexistence. Part interview and part review of Une Femme douce ; Bresson comments on the film, on suicide, on the themes of money and communication. Edited by Andrew Sarris. New York: Avon, Review of Une Femme douce , a film that concretely portrays the abyss between any two people.
Bresson is the only filmmaker to conceive and use an autonomous grammar, the only "musician of film. Positive review that emphasizes the economic relationship between the characters and the symbolic playing out of the plot -- the young innocent crushed by the orderly oppressive man. Londen: Studio Vista, Durgnat discusses the film as part of Bresson's "nonhumanist" vision, and says that its atmosphere, its "sense of convent life," is its "strongest claim to greatness. Positive review of Bresson's "most direct film," which is a reflection on love in modern society.
Positive review of this "most Bressonian" of films, which refuses us the satisfaction of understanding, but nonetheless commands our attention at every "impeccable image.
Reviews and a comparison of Une Femme douce and Ma nuit chez Maud as they fit into the Pascalian-Jansenist philosophical tradition. Greene speculates on the faith of the two main characters and concludes that grace is the alienating, isolating factor for all of Bresson's characters, which creates an "unconsolable vision. Positive review: "The usual language of critical praise seems beside the point in discussing Bresson's films. Martialy, Felix e.
Mekas's reflections upon seeing the film for the first time are more poetic than critical: "About flowers picked and never taken home. About bourgeois jealousy. About jealousy. About two diagonal lives. Discusses the film in relation to Bresson's other work and considers it an oddity in that respect. Various camera and sound effects are listed, as well as Bresson's "expressive use of physical objects," but Millar comes to no conclusion, evidently feeling the film to be of an interim nature. Discusses Pickpocket as atypical, a film quickly and simply made, with a "relatively straightforward basic pattern.
This balance is especially evident in the virtuoso pickpocketing scenes shot in the streets of Paris. Factually inaccurate article that portrays the film as a celebration of the theological mystery of human free will. Murray analyzes the beginning sequence and sees the entire film as an elaboration of it. Detailed essay in which Murray describes the formal elements that make up this "very musical film" and argues that fragmentation of time and space is an attempt to realistically present Jeanne's point of view, 'to make us see the voices.
Nahun, A. A poetic essay that defies summary, but here are some hints of its richness: Oudart examines Bresson's attempt to create "a discourse totally transitive. From this long and sketchy introduction, Oudart moves to a Freudian-inspired discussion of Une Femme douce , a film in which "it is obvious that, for Bresson, nothing has weight. No more subjective images, intentional or not, and no more obsessive right angles.
Bresson is through with the eroticism of a point of view. It is not the desire that is the problem for Bresson's characters, but love. How can there be truth in their relationship, if in their communication, an Identity is not created by the signs exchanged? Still, Bresson asks, how can representation be avoided? What must be inscribed in the film to ensure the truth?
And thus, he marks this otherwise "anonymous film," and justifies this "fantastic obliteration, this editing that could not create anything. Oudart is a formidably dense theorist, and Bresson has been a persistent inspiration to him see index. By using repeated shot-reverse shots and an oblique angle of framing "frankly admitted and used as a system" that results in the character's glance being imperfectly subtended, Bresson reserves, that is, never visibly defines -- part of the space of the absent. This space is reserved for the "imaginary subject of the discourse," and the suture is then able to reveal this "other" subject.
In an interview, Resnais comments on the meticulous soundtracks and poetic dialogue of Bresson's early films. Skoller, Donald S. Short review of "the most classic" of Bresson's films; Wagner compares the heroine to Antigone and claims that Une Femme douce marks the point where Bresson's style "establishes itself as universal. In an admiring review, Wenders hypothesizes that the "creator" of the photographic image would have been pleased to know that the invention is being used so "unfathomably well. Review of Une Femme douce , Bresson's "first non-Christian film.
New York: Praeger, pp.
Second edition of entry Includes two new articles: an interview by Ian Cameron and an essay by Phil Hardy. Even-handed study of Bresson's work through Une Femme douce. Armes stresses the poetry of the films and the careful selection of "incidents from the flow of everyday life," through which Bresson, by his control of speech and gesture, conveys the oppressiveness of life. He also argues that the collaboration with each successive photographer has signaled a major change in style for Bresson. Armes, Roy , French Film.
London: Studio Vista, pp. Short wrap-up of Bresson's career. An introduction to Bresson's work as a whole, with a good description of his style, mostly in quotes that have been taken from interviews with Bresson. Armes claims that Bresson is "interested in the spiritual and emotional aftermath of violent and startling events. Atwell argues that the film is not a typical example of the Bressonian universe because Bresson has "eliminated any spiritual or religious context.
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New York: Museum of Modern Art. Short articles on each of the films through Une Femme douc. Chin sees Bresson's work as a "supreme example of Christian tragedy. Farcier, Jean-Paul , 'Une Femme douce',. Fogliehi, Mario , 'A proposito di stesso. Cited in Film Periodical Index Negative review of Une Femme douce , though Cow is impressed with the cinematography. The main character, however, "appears to develop all the symptoms of a thorough going bitch," and the scene from Hamlet is "too crude a put-down of the antithesis of [Bresson's]. Greenspun sees the film as differing from other Bresson works "in the degree to which it accepts and sustains a multiplicity of actions, objects, and.
Review describing Mouchette as "most human heroine" and her death so beautiful as to suggest "a theatricalism of the spirit. New York: Praeger An interpretation of the film based on liberation and death, freedom and privacy, and contemplation: "In Bresson, details are not signifiers, but rather containers of meaning, and so constructed that the meaning and its container are inseparable. Praises Mouchette for its vivid detail and criticizes its failure to present Mouchette's softer, more appealing side. Unfortunately, the criticism is based on a scene noted in error; Mouchette does, in fact, sing at Arsine's side in the film, just as she does in the book.
Hurley, Neil P. Includes inaccurate quotations and synopses. Johnson, William , 'Balthazar', in Renaissance of the Film. Edited by Julius Bellone. New York: Collier, Positive review that discusses the themes of communication and marriage, and Bresson's dry style in general, which is ameliorated in this film by the use of color. Negative review of Au hasard, Balthazar : Bresson's movie is a "religious statement, not an entertainment. Rhode gives the literary background and then compares Dostoevsky's story "A Gentle Creature" to the film, which he finds somewhat implausible in the transpostion.
About the woman he says, "It is a fact of life, worth Bresson's continual attention, that some people are scategoats willing to bear the mental pain of others. Summary of Bresson's career emphasizing the increasingly streamlined narratives, the quick editing, and the "disappearance of word and image.
Review of Au hasard, Balthazar : "plucks out the roots of existence and presents us with a very morbidly beautiful flower of cinematic art. Bresson's vision of life and his cinematic style may seem to be bleak. Yet, no film I have ever seen has come so close to convulsing my entire being as Au Hasard, Balthazar.
It stands by itself as one of the loftiest pinnacles of artistically realized emotional experiences. Reprints of entries , Negative review of the film, which merely gives evidence of Bresson's continuing mental deterioration. Short article on Pierre Charbonnier Bresson's art director off and on since ; mostly points out that Charbonnier rarely speaks of Bresson. Also comments on why he bases films on literary works, on art in contemporary society, on being a pessimist, and on his education.
Discusses the film as a "simple rendering," and Bresson's cinema as "gestural" and "erotic. Gilliatt hints at a feminist and even antimale strain in Une Femme douce , describing it and all Bresson 's work as "reflections on escape from states of being buried alive. Review: "The intense covert eroticism of the earlier films. Whole scenes have an emotional complexity to match their deep refreshing cinematic purity.
Positive review of Une Femme douce , which more accurately comprises a plea for attention to work as a whole, rather than a discussion of the film. Hatch, Robert , 'Films', Nation 21 June , Review of Une Femme douce arguing that the transposition from nineteenth-century Russia to twentieth-century Paris, despite Bresson's "visual grip on the story," cannot be made to work.
Review concluding that the film has a "missing" center; it provides plenty of atmosphere, but the dramatic conflict is too thin. An analysis of the classic Hollywood cinema and the contemporary European cinema represented by the Bressonian model. The two types of film -- the first involving the dramatic resolution of an antagonistic situation, the second involving the impossible-to-resolve situation of an alienated innocent -- are contrasted in terms of the characters' positioning in the frame relative to each other and to the frame itself. The positive ideological effects of the latter are produced by the main character's "signifying in excess" of the fictional requirements and her corresponding "lack" relative to the other characters.
This signifying, augmented by Bresson's emphasis on "the look" of the character and his "anchoring" of metaphysical connotations in the image, leads to the "refutation of the 'object position' and constitutes the finality of the Bresson fiction. Prokosch, Mike , 'Bresson's Stylistics Revisited. Prokosch defines a materialist analysis and then attempts to show that Bresson's films, particularly Au hasard. Balthazar , emerge favorably from such an analysis because Bresson refuses to encourage the spectator's inclination to relate to the characters, and he presents events as "equivalent emotionally" without dramatic emphasis or ordering.
With this comes a "new mode of understanding. Review of Une Femme douce that discusses it primarily as a character study: "Dostoevsky attributes the distance [between people]. He also points out the strangeness of the ending, which is without the finality of virtually all Bresson's other films. Article that argues that Bresson himself, by virtue of the evidence of his work as a whole, is heading toward suicide.
Zeman claims that Bresson is obsessed with the question of whether or not suicide is religiously acceptable. Zimmerman, Paul, D. Review of Une Femme douce : It "makes no concessions to the audience's appetite for alleviating humor or accelerated action [but]. This film is in "perfect correspondence to the Dostoevsky novella. In its refusal of the tragic, this beautiful and smooth film has a sorrowful resonance and reaffirms Bresson's importance in French cinema. At the core of them is the "correspondence between realism and abstraction, between body and soul," but Clouzot agrees with those who feel that the presentation of these correspondences only confuses further an already muddled critique of modern society.
Collet is struck by the many uncharacteristically pleasing elements of the film and sees it as a definite break in the traditional view of Bresson as a "haughty stranger to the anxieties and hopes of our time; here, he is engaged with a less serious, even charming, neurosis. See entry for anntation. Positive review emphasizing the change in tone that this film represents for Bresson. Guiguet discusses in detail the film-within- a-film sequence, the visit of Jacques's pompous artist friend, and the rich string of theoretical notions that each brings to the film.
Edited by David Denby. Knudsen, M and Braad Thomson, C. Cited in International Index to Film Periodicals A tour de force of analysis that should be read in full. To Oudart, it is an exceptionally weak "idealist transcription of internal contradictions, a film so completely devoid of the ideological effects" of Bresson's previous films that it neutralizes their value. Bresson's desire has been "foreclosed"; he confuses the shooting space with a real space presented "live" that is supposed to reflect the contradictions of contemporary society. This inscription of a real social practice is "the last resort of idealist cinema to give itself a seeming political position.
This rapport is "the inhibition of the Bressonian fiction," and its denegation results in a "castrated lover. Putnam's Sons, Interview that focuses particularly on Bresson's methods of directing actors, including a direct question about his "closed off manner on the set. A study of Bresson's work as it exemplifies "the transcendental style in the West. Seguin argues that Bresson, by his use of minimalist imagery and metonymy, reduces coherent reality to a contradiction. Bresson "burns the bridges" of accumulated culture, but replaces it with "nothing. Points out the extremely simple and clear construction of the film; though not at all like Bresson's other films in its worldview, it is one of the most Bressonian in its "calm unfolding.
Svensson, Arne , 'Samtel med Bresson', Filmrutan 1, It deals with the illusions of youth, the limits of idealism, the ironies of the mating game and the resilience of the young. Cited in Film Literature Index, Review that sees the film as a "meta-cinematic fable" and a comedy. Bongioanni, M.
Translated by Helen R. New York: Praeger. Bresson is only periodically mentioned here, but always as an innovator and prime practitioner of the kind of cinema that Burch espouses. Almost every chapter is a discussion of some formal concern, of which Bresson "above all" has sensed the value: the relationship of screen and off-screen space, the structural use of fades and dissolves, the relationship of sharp and soft focus, the problem of duration, and the structural use of sound.
A well-supported socioeconomic analysis of Au hasard, Balthazar that begins by comparing the film to more traditional cinematic portrayals of French rural life. The feminist as well as economic themes of the film are explored, but the authors conclude that because "the possibility of revolutionary social transformation remains outside Bresson's vision," such anticapitalist sentiments lead only to the "nihilistic endorsement of selfdestruction" that can be seen in the later films.
Chiarini, L. Cited in Film Literature Index Edited by Peter Cowie. New York: A. Barnes, Wrap-up of Bresson's career that emphasizes the theme of fatalism. Bresson speaks relatively freely and at lenght here; he relates anecdotes from the set, comments on his religious beliefs, and declares that he stopped painting because he was "too nervous. Synopsis, production details, long section of character analyses, section of quotes from Bresson on the origin of the film and on his conception of it, thematic and visual analysis, and questions for discussion.
Murray, L. Peruzzi, G. Interview with Bresson and report from the set of Lancelot du Lac. Comments about the film, modern art, and the modern church. Derivative discussion of Bresson's method of adaptation. Most of the chapters have been rewritten to include examples from the later films and much of the support material e. His critical attitude, which emphasizes a distinction between literary and nonliterary elements, remains the same. Two opposing viewpoints of Bresson's career. Amengual describes the films as a "game of oppositions and structural contradictions," and Bresson's recourse to the voice-off as "the central pivot of the Copernican revolution imposed by Bresson on the modern cinema.
Like God the Father. Not the actors, even less, the story. Report of the last-minute selection of the film for showing at Cannes, after several people protested. Report of Bresson's complaint that the Cannes Festival is a commercial mediocrity, with only one advantage for the filmmaker -- the fees that are paid. Editorial portrait of Bresson and a scolding of the Cannes selection committee for ignoring Lancelot du Lac.
Photo essay. Interview with Bresson on Lancelot du Lac ; includes statements on why he wanted to film it and how he views the myth. Wrap-up of Bresson's career through Lancelot du Lac that bemoans the growing antipathy toward his work since Au hasard, Balthazar. Drouin A. Fourez G. Les logiques des inventions scientifiques. Bruxelles : De Boeck. Gilbert J. Guerra-Ramos M. Halbwachs F.
Justi R. Lecourt D. Paris : PUF. Martinand J. Rumelhard G. Weil-Barais A. MEN Classes de 6e, 5e, 4e, 3e. Munier V. Morge L. Etude de cas en formation initiale. Orange C. Osborne J. London : Nuffield Foundation. Pope M. Halkes et J. Lisse : Swets y Zeitlinger. Paris : Payot.
Rabardel P. Approche cognitive des instruments contemporains. Paris : Armand Colin. Raghaven K. Romanens F. Robardet G. Caillot dir. Sensevy G. Soler L. Tiberghien A. Van Driel J. Viennot L. Walliser B. Plan 1. Introduction [link] 2.