The historical and societal factors explaining the rise of renewable energies will also be presented, but the focus of this course is more on the technical side. After course students are able to evaluate scenarios connected with energy costs, as well as make plans and calculation useful in practical experiences. The overall goal of this module is giving future industry leaders the required wherewithal to be able to cope with the difficult equation of protecting the natural resources whilst running a business.
State-of-the-Art methods, techniques and tools will be presented, as well as actual research. At the end of the module, attendees are expected to be able to assess, formulate mitigating measures and control the impact of their activity on the environment e. Noise, air and water quality. They should also be able to consider the problem and the respective solutions as a whole; taking into account technical, economic and social dimensions.
Yet, even though all those dimension will be presented, the focus of this module will be on the technical competencies of the students —the economic and social dimension will be presented more deeply in other modules of the curriculum— and the lecturers will ensure that they are able to apply mathematics, computer know-how and engineering principles to solve environmental problems. In addition, Students will deepen their knowledge on one of the most important challenges of environmental engineering: the production and management of energy.
In the area of utility vehicles, public transportation operators are among the first companies that gained interest in micro-HSF as they need to mitigate the risk of fuel price volatility. Furthermore, flywheels fit the mental frames and mechanical core competencies of the traditional automotive sector. However, we also found serious concerns by a heavy-duty vehicle manufacturer who considered the potential for accidents was too high for micro-HSF and chose to use super-capacitors instead.
However, as their adoption in mass transportation demonstrates, safety is hardly discussed in automotive markets, as micro-HSF passed crash tests and so far no accidents have been reported. In the grid sector, legitimacy is much lower. This can be explained by several important factors.
First, there is currently no specific demand for clean energy storage. Second, when storage is discussed, HSF is absent from discussions dominated by batteries. Third, the emerging regulatory framework for grid balancing is significantly shaped by the battery lobby and is therefore tailored to the specificities of batteries and is unfavorable to HSF. Fifth, FES does not fit the dominant mental frames about storage. Unlike in the automotive sector, actors are less familiar with kinetic storage than with batteries or large infrastructures such as pumped-storage hydropower.
These accidents led to public distrust that still persists. Even though low legitimacy is a central issue, only few legitimation activities were observed. FES manufacturers are not even part of a lobby or industry association. In addition to achieving legitimacy among experts, the technology also needs to gain the trust of the broader public. Unfortunately, this technology seems too specialized to receive media attention, as even more mainstream storage technologies receive little media attention, with the exception of a single German television documentary ZDF, Leading manufacturers in the automotive sector benefited from funding by motorsports.
This extremely short development time shows the important accelerator role that motorsports played. As the demand for micro-HSF had already been articulated, other firms co-developed it with customers who also participated in funding. It is mainly the smaller firms in the electricity grid area that experienced funding difficulties, in particular when it comes to the demonstration projects necessary to showcase their technology.
Some of them also experienced difficulties hiring qualified engineers with the interdisciplinary knowledge needed. Hence, resource mobilization is not only a question of money, but also of competences. In the automotive sector, positive externalities emerged when the technology was adopted by motorsports and several new entrants joined the innovation system.
The entrance of new actors brought in important knowledge, competences, and resources strengthening Functions 1 and 6 , resolved uncertainty about technology development F2 , demonstrated its safe use as onboard storage, and overall increased legitimacy F5. In a more recent phase, the positive externalities were further strengthened with the entrance of two large UK automotive players, which further supported technology development, and demonstrated the market potential of micro-HSF F4 , and safety F5.
The situation in quite different in the grid sector, where actor participation in the TIS is more volatile, with many firms entering but also leaving in the past years. We could at the moment of the analysis not observe any positive externalities for existing or new actors. Indeed, uncertainty about the technology and its application is high weakening F2 and F5 , knowledge development and diffusion slow F1 , and advocacy coalitions weak F5. The analysis revealed differences between the functional patterns and dynamics interplay between structural elements, functions, as well as external inducing and blocking mechanisms in the automotive and electricity FES subsystems.
These dynamics and the influence of contextual structures are further analyzed in the next subsections. The figure illustrates how motors of innovation emerge as result of a number of positive interactions between functions — sometimes forming feedback loops — as well as the positive and negative influence of external factors. The first motor, the incubation motor, provided an experimentation space and important funding in the early market formation phase. It was fueled by the presence of motorsports, which allowed the mobilization of financial resources F6 for the development of knowledge F1 and for testing the technology in real-life applications F3.
Furthermore, motorsports acted as a nursing market F4 , which some firms successfully used to develop other markets. Innovation dynamics in the automotive subsystem system dynamics representation based on Sterman, The second motor of innovation, the market motor, was later induced by two external factors. Indeed, engineering firms were already developing micro-HSF when vehicle manufacturers began to search for solutions to comply with emission regulations and when some large fleet operators became interested in reducing volatile fuel expenses.
A market opportunity emerged F4 and some engineering firms successfully positioned micro-HSF as a mid-term solution in the transition to the all-electric car. This market opportunity strengthened the motivation of other actors to support the innovation system F2 , aided market formation F4 , increased legitimacy F5 as customers articulated a demand for the technology, eased access to resources F6 , both through co-development with customers and by means of government subsidies, and eventually strongly contributed to developing positive externalities F7.
The second factor relates to the good institutional fit with the automotive sector and in particular the similar underlying physical and mechanical principles of the flywheel and the ICE technologies. Indeed, flywheels fit the mental frames and the competences of automotive players, who rapidly came to understand their benefits. This proximity made the technology more interesting for new actors to join the TIS F2 and supported its legitimacy F5.
However, hindering factors in the form of market entry barriers and safety issues work against micro-HSF development.
First, the vision of the battery-powered electric car as the ultimate clean vehicle dominates discussions on clean mobility. Second, in line with this vision, several leading automakers are working to develop the battery technology, which is the main competitor of micro-HSF.
Third, other less innovative automakers are still pursuing incremental improvements in the ICE and consequently are becoming interested in complementary, mid-term solutions to improve its efficiency, such as micro-HSF. Therefore, while flywheels are becoming established in the mid-term solution niche market, paradoxically, this positioning might well confine it there, making it less suitable to diffuse to mass markets.
Fifth, and perhaps most importantly, automotive markets are problematic as they are dominated by a few large firms controlling market access. Thus, diffusion depends on these firms adopting the technology F5. Finally, safety issues still reduce its legitimacy, which may prevent some actors from adopting it.
Renewable energies in Germany's electricity market : a biography of the innovation process
TIS actors will need to overcome these factors to become established in automotive markets. In the electricity sector subsystem, the dynamic is influenced by one main positive external influence: the political demand and technical need for storage to stabilize the grid for greater penetration by renewable energies see Fig.
Innovation dynamics in the electricity subsystem system dynamics representation based on Sterman, Two important system weaknesses Jacobsson and Bergek, counteract the clear demand for storage and explain the overall stagnation. The first is an institutional weakness caused by two external factors. The first is the unfavorable institutional environment and the little attention that HSF receive. Indeed, there is simply no demand for environmentally-friendly storage negatively influencing F5 , which is however the main advantage of HSF.
As the environmental performance of mainstream storage technologies has escaped scrutiny, actors are guided away from clean storage F2. Consequently, HSF is not seen as creating benefits for other actors F7. Then, HSF do not fit the mental frames of the incumbents or the public , who expect a battery i.
Finally, safety issues, negatively affect FES legitimacy F5. The second external factor relates to market development barriers.
Australian-German clean energy entrepreneurship and innovation landscapes
The regulatory framework of the emerging storage market is unfavorable to HSF, providing a possible explanation for why there is so far no market for HSF in this sector negatively influencing F4. Then, there is the fact that batteries represent a very popular and affordable substitution technology, are currently technologically more advanced, and as a result receive a much greater share of subsidies thus also negatively influencing F4. A second system weakness explains that HSF are also not performing well in markets less dependent on this institutional context such as the market for UPS.
This second weakness relates to actors Jacobsson and Bergek, and their poor organizational capabilities. It is fueled by four internal factors see also section 4. First, several actors focus on the engineering and put commercial matters in the background, negatively affecting market-related experimentation F3. Second, partly because of their strong focus on engineering, many actors have only a weak knowledge about possible applications and related markets F4.
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Also, they are not organized in an association or in lobbies, which hinders knowledge exchange among them F1 , preventing the collective organization of legitimation activities F5 , and preventing them from organizing effectively as an industry branch in competition with substitution technologies F2. Finally, firms are often small and less professional, which can explain their difficulties to mobilize resources in particular access to public funding F6. Finally, there is no vibrant community with clear business objectives that would attract new actors F2 or create positive externalities F7.
Taken together, these factors create a strong system weakness centered on the negative feedback loop between direction of search F2 , entrepreneurial experimentation F3 and market development F4 but ultimately involving most TIS functions: slow diffusion of knowledge F1 , reduced ability to experiment F3 , to penetrate or develop markets F4 , to advertise and lobby to increase legitimacy F5 , and to mobilize resources F6. The interaction of the TIS with these external structures is discussed in the following subsections and is illustrated in Fig.
The interactions of the focal TIS with the automotive and the electricity sectors interactions I1 and I2 respectively in Fig. Indeed, the sectors are so different that this situation brought the actors of the focal TIS to specialize in the one or the other sector. These differences are located at two levels. First, the two sectors have different technological needs: the automotive sectors a relatively small in watt-hours , compact, and shock-resistant FES whereas the grid needs large in watt-hours and scalable FES with minimum inertial losses to store energy over longer time periods see also Section 2.
These diverging needs imply that actors would need to develop different products for the different sectors and their related markets , which can explain their choice of specialization for the one or the other. Second, the institutional contexts of the two sectors are very different. In the automotive sector, path dependency relates to the use of the ICE as a propulsion system and the related infrastructure, mental frames, and competences.
Here, actors appear to meet the need for less emission intense vehicles. On the other hand, in the electricity sector path dependency relates to the paradigm of the large centralized power generation system. In this sector, actors for instance try to play a role in balancing power markets.
In addition to the different technologies needed, promoting the FES in these two sectors involves different strategies. Thus, the strongly differing institutional settings may further explain that actors specialize in one sector, as competing in both sectors would be too resource intensive. Batteries are a more mature technology and represent a substitution technology Norton and Bass, to FES. Therefore, in most applications, batteries and FES compete for the same function of short-term storage.
Both TIS also compete for attention in public and political discussions about storage, but batteries are currently leading the technological competition Eggers, , and are therefore not threatened by developments in the FES innovation system. The two TIS are coupled in the grid sector in shaping the emerging regulatory framework on grid storage.
It supports the electricity subsystem of the focal TIS by advancing political and public discussions on grid storage, which also increases the legitimacy of FES. Finally, batteries create funding opportunities for storage in general, which FES may benefit as well. In the automotive subsystem, competition with batteries is also strong, primarily because batteries shape the vision of the ultimate clean car, one that is battery-powered. However, to some extent batteries also support micro-HSF by creating this clean car vision.
Indeed, some manufacturers have become interested in less radical clean vehicle solutions and are searching for a mid-term solution. This creates a market in which some micro-HSF manufacturers are positioning themselves. Our qualitative case study results draw attention to non-technological factors related to the development of clean storage technologies, in particular the importance of institutional fit with the targeted industry sectors. Moreover, the case provides insights into the reasons why this clean technology is almost completely ignored, amongst others for political and national competitiveness reasons in the context of large scale efforts to develop the battery as a core technology in the German energy transition.
The next sections discuss the implications for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. Our research contributes to TIS literature in two ways: first, we innovate in the way TIS dynamics can be communicated and, second, we contribute to the current discussion on contextual structures. First, we use system dynamics representation Sterman, to illustrate TIS dynamics.
Australian-German clean energy entrepreneurship and innovation landscapes | Energy Transition Hub
In our view, a weakness in the TIS literature lies in the lack of visual tools to communicate the dynamics within the TIS — specifically, between system functions and contextual elements. To keep the illustrations simple, we decided to represent only the most important relationships.
Consensus about which relationships to represent was based on an iterative dialogue process between the two co-authors, knowledgeable colleagues, and feedback obtained at conferences. The second contribution relates to the recent critique that TIS analysis is too focused on internal processes and dynamics Jacobsson and Bergek, , Markard and Truffer, , thus neglecting contextual elements, which are merely treated as external factors, with the risk that influential processes external to the focal TIS are not fully captured.
Our case shows the role two of these structures plays sectors and competing TIS and contributes to better understanding their influence on the focal TIS. We argue that a typical bottleneck at this stage is that entrepreneurial experimentation is too weak in relation with the many possible future markets in which the technology could be established.
To overcome this bottleneck, TIS actors may benefit from focusing their activities on one industry sector — the one with the best institutional fit — in order to avoid their efforts being fragmented in the pursuit of too many uncertain directions. Therefore, the emergence of specialized subsystems may be the result of actors specializing on one sector when the TIS is closely coupled with several.
We show that supportive and symbiotic relationships, which have been less well researched, can play an important role as well, for example when the competing TIS helps bring the storage topic into political discussions. In fewer cases, symbiotic interactions were observed as well, for example when the focal technology complements the competing one.
Our case study thus provides evidence for the importance of these two contextual structures to understand TIS development. Future research should further examine the influence of contextual structures on the direction of TIS development, particularly the role that coupling with multiple sectors plays on the direction of search of TIS at the formative stage.
In this context, the role of actor strategies should also be further investigated, both of incumbents who may support or resist TIS development and how TIS members react to this. Another avenue for future research is to examine how competing TIS at different stages of maturity such as batteries and flywheels co-evolve and influence each other in the energy transition. Understanding how they interact — in ways other than competition — could help further improve innovation support policies, particularly to avoid lock-in situations of rapidly emerging but suboptimal technologies. This research demonstrates the importance of non-technical aspects in technology development, as FES development was shown to be very different in the automotive and the grid-related sectors.
Given that the electricity grid subsystem is developing less well, we also provide insights for practitioners working in this context. First, our findings show that individual actors likely have only a limited influence on the current institutional development as powerful lobbies are shaping the future regulation of grid storage. Practitioners would benefit from developing applications less dependent on electricity grid regulations, such as in the growing global market for UPS or for island grid stabilization, where regulatory pressure is lower as is pressure on prices.
The innovation system is composed of many smaller actors that share similar commercial objectives. They could benefit from joining forces in some areas while remaining in competition in others. For instance, forming professional networks could improve the image of this nascent industry, contribute to increase its legitimacy and visibility, and thereby possibly attract new actors. Further, partnerships with larger industrial groups could ease access to financial resources and to various competences such as marketing.
Beyond suggesting practitioners to reduce their actor weaknesses, this research also shows that TIS dynamics significantly influence innovation practices at firm level Pohl and Yarime, Hence firms benefit of adjusting their internal innovation management to the specific TIS context and, particularly in pre-competitive stages, coordinating it with other actors. The most alarming finding for policy makers is that environmental criteria for storage technologies have hardly been considered to date in the context of the energy transition.
The rapid diffusion of hazardous batteries might create important rebound effects, at the latest when they need to be disposed of. Therefore, policymakers are strongly advised to consider the environmental impact not only of energy generation but also of storage technologies. Policy support for storage has so far been technology neutral, which is a minimum condition for FES development but not sufficient, according to Jacobsson and Bergek The flywheel case shows that technology-specific support is also needed.
Indeed, the policy framework is being successfully shaped by the leading technology battery actors. In the early development phases, competition is more about actor expectations and political power than about technological performance Alkemade and Suurs, , with the risk of being locked-in into a suboptimal technology that prevents better technologies from diffusing.
Therefore, less well organized TIS are disadvantaged, unless a technology-specific support for a range of alternative technologies is provided. The most important limitation of this paper relates to the delineation of the innovation system boundary. The analysis would benefit from a more systematic study of the processes and dynamics taking place a in the two industry sectors the flywheel TIS plays a role in, b in the competing battery TIS, and c in the US-based FES innovation system.
Another limitation is the use of system dynamics representations to communicate TIS dynamics. The paper shows that FES is almost a fully mature technology that is being commercialized — though at different speeds — in several markets. Through its low environmental impact and high efficiency, FES could play a beneficial role for the energy transition in many short-term storage applications. However, its diffusion is below its potential. The findings of the qualitative case study explain this situation and reveal how modern FES are emerging in the automotive and the electricity grid sectors.
In the automotive sector, micro-HSF is developing well as a braking energy recovery technology and is close to introduction in mass transportation markets. Development was fueled by two motors of innovation. First motorsports provided an important technology and market incubation space. Second, development was favored by market demand and a good institutional fit with the automotive industry.
Further development is uncertain because it strongly depends on technology adoption by major incumbents. In the electricity sector, HSF is developing in various markets but stagnating at the stage of demonstration projects because of two system weaknesses. The first, an institutional weakness, relates to the absence of a clear role for HSF in the energy transition.
HSF does not fit dominant mental frames about storage, and the emerging markets are strongly shaped by more popular substitution technologies batteries. The second is an actor weakness that relates to their weak organizational capabilities. Many actors lack a clear market perspective and are weakly organized, which prevents them to establish as an industry. Finally, we thank Hendrik Schaede for his helpful input of technical aspects of the flywheel technology.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sponsored Document from. J Clean Prod. Hansen b. Erik G. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Samuel Wicki: ed. Hansen: ta. Abstract The emergence and diffusion of green and sustainable technologies is full of obstacles and has therefore become an important area of research.
Keywords: Technology innovation system, Functions of innovation systems, Green technology, Sustainable energy, Flywheel energy storage, Short-term storage, Batteries, Kinetic energy recovery system. Introduction Energy storage has recently come to the foreground of discussions in the context of the energy transition away from fossil fuels Akinyele and Rayudu, Open in a separate window.
Literature review 2.
Structural elements Description Actors Actors and their competences shape the development of a technology. They can be part of a value chain when the system becomes commercially organized , or they can be policy actors, researchers, funding organizations, etc. Networks Networks emerge when actors organize themselves to achieve common goals. Networks are seen as important ways to exchange knowledge and transfer technology.
Networks have different purposes and include developing academic knowledge and transferring technology between academia and industry, as well as collaboration among industry actors consortia and between users and suppliers Jacobsson and Bergek, Institutions Institutions form the regulatory and socio-cultural contexts in which a technology is embedded. They cover elements such as the laws and regulations that govern the innovation system. But institutions can also include less tangible elements such a culture, mental frames or cognitive representations Tripsas and Gavetti, , dominant world views, and typical ways of thinking about a problem e.
Technology Technology is understood as a field of knowledge, typically centered on one primary knowledge area, but also composed of complementary areas needed for its functioning. This knowledge is materialized in the form of technological artifacts, which are applied in products for instance, a flywheel in a storage device Jacobsson and Bergek, Name Description Associated event types F1 Knowledge development and diffusion The depth and breadth of the research and practice-based knowledge, and how actors develop, diffuse, and combine knowledge in the system.
Academic research, consortia, alliances, workshops, technology literacy of entrepreneurs F2 Influence on the direction of search The extent to which actors are induced to enter the TIS by directing their research and investments in this technology. How new knowledge is turned into concrete entrepreneurial activities experiments to generate, discover, or create new commercial opportunities. Demonstration or commercial projects F4 Market formation Articulation of demand and market development in terms of demonstration projects, nursing markets or niche markets , bridging markets and, eventually, mass markets large-scale diffusion.
Expectation, areas of application generating common interest, market regulations F5 Legitimation The socio-political process of legitimacy formation through actions by various organizations and individuals. Central features are the formation of expectations and visions as well as regulative alignment, including issues such as market regulations, tax policies, or the direction of science and technology policy.
Mental frames, lobbying, advocacy coalitions F6 Resource mobilization The extent to which the TIS is able to mobilize human and financial capital as well as complementary assets. Subsidies, investments F7 Development of positive externalities The collective dimension of the innovation and diffusion process, i. It also an indicator for overall dynamics of the system since externalities magnify the strength of all the other functions. Interest of new actors in joining TIS, quality of the other functions. Furthermore, TIS actors did not join forces when it came to developing a vision, shaping expectations, and advocating the technology.
Negro and Hekkert Biomass digestion in Germany Successful development of biomass digestion in Germany was due to a well-functioning system all seven functions and the role of the government as a system builder, not only as fund provider. Pohl and Yarime All-electric and hybrid electric vehicles in Japan Successful development of all-electric and hybrid electric vehicles was carried out in-house by automakers as a result of a specific type of competition in the domestic market, without support of national policy.
Andreasen and Sovacool Hydrogen fuel in Denmark and the USA The two countries have similar strategies aiming at ultimately replacing incumbent fossil-fueled power plants and vehicles but widely different pathways. However, neither system achieved important commercialization because of important vested interests. Research method Investigating both structures actors, networks, institutions and dynamics functions , this study presents a qualitative explanatory case study Yin, using the theoretical lens of TIS for better understanding the strengths and weaknesses as well as the drivers and barriers linked to the diffusion of FES.
Analysis of the flywheel innovation system 4. TIS structure As explained in the literature review, any TIS can be structured into actors, networks, and institutions. Technology sold to Bosch, unknown future projects Enercon DE Offered a commercial flywheel to level the output of a wind turbine.
Markets for off-highway machinery and cars are also targeted. Functions Automotive sector Electricity sector 1 Knowledge development and diffusion Knowledge development began decades ago, but motorsports consortia suddenly and dramatically accelerated it. Basic research at universities but slow diffusion to industry. Demand most strongly articulated in the automotive sector, where the first flywheels are already being used in buses to reduce fuel consumption and ease compliance with EURO-X emission norms.
Demand not articulated yet. Unfavorable regulatory frameworks in the electricity sector and unclear business case for storage explain low interest of new actors and investors to participate in FES development. Limited technical experimentation. Many applications are discussed but overall market experimentation remains weak. Public transport buses is currently developing as a bridging market. Market for passenger cars discussed as largest consumer market in this sector.
Several promising potential markets are discussed: control reserve, stabilization of island grid, uninterrupted power supply UPS , home storage of renewable energies, etc. Low legitimacy: no demand for clean energy storage, misalignment with current institutional and regulatory frameworks, misalignment with mainstream view of storage as a chemical battery, not a rotating device.
Concerns about the technology because of safety issues. Good access to financial resources for larger firms government subsidies and co-development with customers. Small firms struggle to fund demonstrators and access to qualified human resources. Few positive externalities observed because of volatile TIS participation and several weakly performing system functions leading to overall stagnant situation.
Function 1: knowledge development and diffusion In the automotive sector, knowledge development started decades ago Dhand and Pullen, but dramatically accelerated when the use of kinetic energy recovery systems KERS was allowed in Formula One races in FIA, Function 3: entrepreneurial experimentation Engineering firms and universities are experimenting along technology and market dimensions.
See also Khammas and Dhand and Pullen for a chronological review. As such, it functioned as a technology incubator.