The Women of AngelFire have a spiritual bond that transcends age, and their ethnic and cultural diversity. Friends are the family we choose and our bonds with them can only open our hearts more fully, more deeply. Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , pages. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Gathering at AngelFire , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Gathering at AngelFire.
Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Angelfire is a series of young adult urban fantasy novels by author Courtney Allison Moulton , beginning with the inaugural entry of the same name. The story follows a teenager named Ellie, who learns that she is actually the reincarnation of a powerful warrior, tasked with aiding angels in their battles against demons on Earth. Amidst this conflict, the tale follows her challenges in adjusting to her newfound role.
Angelfire introduces Ellie Monroe, a teenager who discovers that the monstrous beings in her dreams, called reapers, are real. A boy named Will reveals that Ellie is the reincarnation of an ancient warrior known as the Preliator, continuously reborn after falling in battle to aid angels in their fight against the reapers. With each reincarnation, she becomes more human, though she fails to remember her past lives. Will also reveals himself to be a mystical soldier sent to assist Ellie, having served as her guardian for centuries.
Wielding twin khopesh swords, and an immense power called angelfire, Ellie begins a slow journey of adjustment to her role. Prior to Angelfire , Courtney Allison Moulton's creative background consisted of artwork and photography.
Moulton has also noted the influences of R. While watching a film adaptation of The Time Machine , Moulton became curious about writing a character "who wouldn't stop trying to save the person he loves. He has always kept this secret from her throughout the centuries because he fears how it might complicate their mission and also because it is forbidden by the one who gave him this responsibility," she said. Prior to creating Ellie, Moulton developed a fondness for stories about "quirky, but strong heroines who have these enormous supernatural destinies".
At the beginning of the series, however, Ellie is presented as a spoiled girl with seemingly questionable priorities. Moulton has stated that her protagonist "is a bit of a reluctant heroine at first, but she really steps up to the plate when she needs to. Angelfire is noted for cinematic fight scenes. They each have a bit of their own style, a way of fighting that works best for them and whatever situation they're in.
Moulton has noted music as a significant factor of her work, citing songs which have facilitated her writing. Regarding Globus 's "Preliator", the author has stated, "I write most of my fight scenes to this song. Prior to the series's debut, Moulton was asked about thematic elements in Angelfire. Her response was as follows:. In anticipation of the series's debut, HarperCollins produced a video interview with the author, while an Internet book trailer was also released.
Many of the images were produced by a DeviantArt user named Yue Wang, while Moulton herself also contributed illustrations. Fravarti or fravashi, derives from an alternative meaning of "protect," implying the divine protection of the guardian spirit, the fravashi. As the Winged Sun-disc of Horus it hovered over the Pharaoh of Egypt; it hovered over the Hittite King, and in Assyrian art it is depicted over the Assyrian King, often with weapons in its hands, helping the Assyrian monarch wage war. So when it enters Persian art, it is already a symbol of divine guardianship of the king.
The Dacian Tarabostes had similar prerogatives to the Persian fravashi, being the protectors of the king. The tablet shows two Tarabostes accompanying their king while a foreign delegation is received. The king has in his right hand a ring having a skew cross inside St. Andreas' cross. Between the king and the delegates is written "VETO", indicating that the Dacian king declined the proposal. As a consequence, the Dacians were attacked, as shown into the next tablet. The plates are written using a mixture of Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. The second tablet shows the tarabostes outside their fortress, accompanying their king, Diecio, who is represented mounted on a horse, while a foreign army was approaching.
Into the lower right corner is written Daci, while behind the foreign army is written Bisino. The plates are probably from the fourth century AD. The five Tarabostes, having the five rings of Apollo, are the counselors and guardians of the king Diecio and are closely related to the five Hyperborean Perpheres carriers described as the servants of Apollo, carriers of wheat straw rings from one community to another.
They are mentioned by Herodotus: "at first, they say, the Hyperboreans sent two maidens bearing the sacred offerings, whose names, say the Delians, were Hyperoche and Laodike, and with them for their protection the Hyperboreans sent five men of their nation to attend them, those namely who are now called "Perpheres" and have great honours paid to them in Delos.
Most probably, the rings were made from gold and were bounded in straw. The five sacred rings of Apollo are known today as the Olympic rings and their signification is given by Pausanias: [5. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Dactyls of Ida, who are the same as those called Curetes. It is said to have been introduced into Greece by Heracles from the land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of the North Wind. When Melanopus of Cyme composed an ode to Opis and Hecaerge declaring that these, even before Achaeia, came to Delos from the Hyperboreans.
Heracles of Ida, therefore, has the reputation of being the first to have held, on the occasion I mentioned, the games, and to have called them Olympic. So he established the custom of holding them every fifth year, because he and his brothers were five in number. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5. IV of Th. Mommsen shows that Julius Caesar was prepared to attack the " Danubian wolves ", being obsessed by the idea of the destruction of the non-Roman religious centers, which represented major obstacles for the Roman colonization.
During the summertime of the year 87 A. The Romans crossed the Danube River, trespassing the Dacian territory on an improvised vessel-made bridge. The Dacian warriors managed to ambush them within the extremely narrow mountain pass of Tapae a zone also longtime nicknamed "Transylvania's Iron Gates" and to draw an awesome victory over the invaders. As a result, the famous V-th Roman Legion "Aludae" was totally destroyed and its military insignias captured, with its commander- in-chief, veteran General Cornelius Fuscus, being killed on the battlefield.
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The commander of the Dacians was Diurpaneus , according to the Roman historian Tacitus, a "tarabostes" namely an aristocrat, according to local denomination and to whom the king Duras Durbaneus, would grant his throne soon after Tapae's victory. Following deeds, to be carried out during the entire rest of his turbulent life, entitled Thraco-Dacian population to granting him the legendary nickname of Decebal , meaning Lord Bal of Dacia Dece. Dio Cassius writes in Epitome of Book 67 about Domitian's war: "At this time the Romans became involved in a very serious war with the Dacians, whose king was then Decebalus.
This man was shrewd in his understanding of warfare and shrewd also in the waging of war; he judged well when to attack and chose the right moment to retreat; he was an expert in ambuscades and a master in pitched battles; and he knew not only how to follow up a victory well, but also how to manage well a defeat. Hence he showed himself a worthy antagonist of the Romans for a long time.
I call the people Dacians, the names used by the natives themselves as well as by the Romans, though I am not ignorant that some Greek writers refer to them as Getae. Once, Decebalus "cut down the trees that were on the site and put armour on the trunks, in order that the Romans might take them for soldiers and so be frightened and withdraw; and this actually happened. On learning of this Decebalus sent to him an embassy anew with the insulting proposal to make peace with the emperor, on condition that every Roman should elect to pay two obols to Decebalus each year; otherwise, he declared, he would make war and inflict great ills upon the Romans.
III, 6. The bridge was built between AD by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. It had a length of 1, m. In A. To celebrate the conquest of Dacia, Trajan ordered the longest festivities ever took place in Rome.
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The celebrations, which lasted for days, while in a year there were only 66 days of festivities, starting from emperor Augustus. It was perhaps the most magnificent spectacle of ancient Rome. With the the huge amounts of gold taken from Dacia, Trajan built impressive buildings, like Basilica Ulpia and the Trajan's Column. But there are few monuments of antiquity that enjoyed a greater and more enduring prestige, or that did more to shape the subsequent course of architectural history. The roof of the basilica was covered with tiles of gilded bronze, which especially impressed the traveler Pausanius, who thought it "worth seeing not only for its general beauty but especially for its roof made of bronze" Description of Greece, V.
The Vatican archives contain the manuscript of Emperor Trajan's personal doctor, Criton, who was describing, Geta-Dacians, as well. Seemingly he was the one who, after hearing the language commonly spoken by Dacian war-prisoners, is said to have exclaimed: "Why, are these Dacians Romans? About the year the Roman garrisons withdrew across the river, and took with them all the Daco-Roman colonists who cared to follow them.
South of the Danube, in parts of what are now Serbia and Bulgaria, a new home preserved under the name of "Aurelian's Dacia," or Dacia Aureliani , the memory of the old. These tribes, who spoke Oscan and were probably an offshoot of the Sabini , apparently referred to themselves not as Samnite but by the Oscan form of the word, which appears in Latin as Sabine. The story recounted by Plutarch that Romulus , the founder of Rome, invited the Sabines to a feast and then carried off raped their women, is legendary.
According to Heraclides Ponticus Fragm. Their neighbors, the Hirpini , took their name from hirpus , the Samnite word for wolf. According to the tradition transmitted by Servius, an oracle had advised the Hirpi Sorani to live "like wolves," that is, by rapine. And in fact they were exempt from taxes and from military service, for their biennial rite-which consisted in walking barefoot over burning coals-was believed to ensure the fertility of the country. This ritual was practiced in Thrace and, most probably, in Dacia. It survived up to now in Bulgaria in the form of nestinari circle dance.
The Volscians were living in central Italy, neighbouring the Oscan-speaking Samnites. Modern knowledge of the language is mostly derived from a single inscription from Velitrae modern Velletri , Italy, dating from the early 3rd century BC. The wolf was the symbol of the fugitive , and many gods who protected exiles and outlaws had wolf deities or attributes. Her powerful uncle Amelia, apparently not "buying" her explanation, orders his servants to throw the bastards into the Tiber River. However, designated executioners would prove to have a heart and decide to better abandon both babies into a floating basket, going down the wild river's stream only to be, subsequently, found by a "She-wolf", meaning a woman from a neighboring wolf-named tribe, probably the Samanite tribe of the Lucani.
A similar legend is found in Central Asia, in several variants, where the marriage between a supernatural wolf and a princess gave birth to a population or to a dynasty. Most probably, the Romans adopted this legend from east. According to the legend, Romulus established a place of refuge for exiles and outlaws on the Capitol F.
Altheim, Roman Religion, pp. Most probably, all of them were " wolf people " coming from Thrace and Dacia. Servius informs us that this asylum was under the protection of the god Lucoris who was identified with Lykoreus of Delphi , himself a wolf-god. Every year on February 15 ancient priests killed a dog and two goats and smeared the foreheads of two boys from noble families with the sacrificial blood as part of the Lupercalia celebration. The ceremony survived until A.
Archaeologists have unearthed Lupercale—the sacred cave where, according to legend, a she-wolf nursed the twin founders of Rome and where the city itself was born. The long-lost underground chamber was found beneath the remains of Emperor Augustus' palace on the Palatine, a foot-tall meter-tall hill in the center of the city. The foot-deep meter-deep cavity "show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells, too rich to be part of a home. That's why we think it could be the ancient sanctuary , but we can't be sure until we find the entrance to the chamber" said Irene Iacopi, the archaeologist in charge of the area.
Rhea Sylvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, being a vestal virgin, lived into the temple of Vesta, located also on the Palatine hill, just as the cave where she give birth to her twins. The capture of the Sabines originates from the practice of the wolf-people to capture their wives.
After Romans raped their women, the Sabine tribes attacked Rome and in order to survive, the Romans asked their Sabine wives to intervene to prevent the seizing of the city. In accordance with a treaty drawn up between the two peoples, Romulus accepted the Sabine king Titus Tatius as his co ruler. Titus Tatius' early death left Romulus sole king again, and after a long rule he mysteriously disappeared in a storm. The capture of the Sabines remained in the custom of simulated capture in the Roman marriage ceremony. This custom is present today in the Romanian marriage ceremony, where the groom has to pay for having back the kidnapped bride.
Lupercalia was an ancient Roman festival, conducted annually on February 15 under the superintendence of a corporation of priests called Luperci, from lupus Latin: "wolf". Each Lupercalia began with the sacrifice, by the Luperci, of goats and a dog, after which two of the Luperci were led to the altar, their foreheads were touched with a bloody knife, and the blood wiped off with wool dipped in milk; then the ritual required that the two young men laugh.
The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs from the skins of the victims and ran in two bands around the Palatine hill, striking with the thongs at any woman who came near them. A blow from the thong was supposed to render a woman fertile. The celebrations of Lupercalia featured wild group dances and orgiastic rites to insure the year's fertility.
According to Porphirios Vita Pyth. Then Pythagoras spent the night wrapped into a black sheep skin. This custom is similar to the account of Herodian - from his "Life of Pythagora, relatively to Zalmoxis birth": "Pythagoras had another teenager from Thrace, called Zalmoxis, because, at birth, he was wrapped into a bear skin.
The Thracian name for skin is "zalmos"" This confirms that, by being wrapped into a black sheep skin, Pythagoras was initiated into a Thracian ritual. This ritual was considered as a spiritual rebirth. Zalmoxis' re birth as a bear, meant that he become a hermit, as bear is a well known solitary animal. Pythagoras was initiated according to a Morget black Getic ritual, by the initiates of Dactylus the Morget.
The ritual wrapping into a wolf skin had a similar signification: the person was reborn transformed into a wolf. He lost his previous human behavior and became a blood thirsty warrior. Probably, this practice was brought to Dacia by the Scythians. Neuri is the name of an ancient tribe placed by Herodotus iv. He says of it: "It seems that the Neuri are sorcerers, if one is to believe the Scythians and the Greeks established in Scythia; for each Neurian changes himself, once in the year, into the form of a wolf, and he continues in that form for several days, after which he resumes his former shape.
The custom of wrapping in skins was preserved until the 20th century among Aromanian shepherds. He was cured by Aromanian shepherds: they sacrificed two sheep and wrapped his naked body into their fresh skins. He was unconscious the next 48 hours, but after that his fever dropped and he was saved. Some of the oldest evidence on existence of tattooing were left by Herodotus BC in his "Historia" where he described Thracians: "Stitching was their sign for an aristocrat and who has had no tattoos done - descend from ordinary people.
Artemidos mentioned that Thracians were marking children from noble aristocratic families, but Goths were marking their slaves with tattoos. There is a note about one of the Thracian tribes the Agatirians. The Agathyrs coloured their hair and the tattoo in blue. Plinios A. The same was mentioned about the neighbouring tribe of the Sarmatians, who were of Iranian origin, being closely related to the Agathyrs. They did not do only the usual colouring of the body because Plinios reported that those marks and scars can be inherited from father to son for few generations and still remain the same - the sign of Dacian origin.
We should believe it because later Hesychios wrote about tattooed men in those areas where among others lived also Dacians. All mentioned peoples were settled at the east of the Balkan peninsula. At the west there were Japodians and Ilirians. Strabo B. Scythians, according to Herodotus, were a red haired people who practiced tatooing and buried their kings in elaborate tummuli. Cicero called the marks "punctum notis Thraeciis", meaning pricked with Thracian marks.
Tertullian, in the 3rd century, implied that tattooing was the custom of the Britons, Picts and Scots, and called the marks "Stigmata Britonum. As the distinguished historian Mircea Eliade points out in his essay " Dacians and wolves ", the early European warriors - using carefully orchestrated rituals involving wolf-pelts and psychoactive mushrooms - were able to undergo a total psychological transformation into wolves. The Dacians' belief in immortality is the result of the experiences derived from the use of psychoactive mushrooms.
During these altered states of consciousness they were able to meet their dead ancestors and to have premonitory visions. The most commonly used mushroom, for ritual purposes, was Amanita Muscaria. It was leading to a feeling of pleasant invigoration, and the individual would be prone to breaking into song, dance and laughter. This was accompanied by a marked increase in physical strength. Dio Cassius wrote in Roman History, epitome of book LXVIII , 8: "When Trajan in his campaign against the Dacians had drawn near Tapae, where the barbarians were encamped, a large mushroom was brought to him on which was written in Latin characters a message to the effect that the Buri and other allies advised Trajan to turn back and keep the peace.
Nevertheless he engaged the foe, and saw many wounded on his own side and killed many of the enemy. And when the bandages gave out, he is said not to have spared even his own clothing, but to have cut it up into strips. Etruscan funerary paintings shows Aita wearing on his head the head and fur of a wolf! Upuaut had a double role, being the god of war just like the wolf headed Dacian banners!
Note that the Romanian word stands from lup wolf , the symbol from the banners of the Dacian warriors. It is not the case of the Latin word, which seems to be imported from Dacian, the Romans maintaining themselves the cult of the she-wolf, mother of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome! In the Balkan folk medicine and apotropaeic magic, the destructive aspect of the wolf's mouth is symbolically turned around and used against demonic forces and diseases.
The magic act of pulling children through the wolf's mouth in the context of birth ritual and infant care shows that the symbolism of the wolf's mouth is connected with the female reproductive organs. The wolf appears at the most important transitory moments in the human life cycle birth - marriage - death.
The ability to change into a wolf by the power of certain rituals is connected with lycanthropy properly speaking-an extremely widespread phenomenon, but more especially documented in the Balkano-Carpathian region-or with a ritual imitation of the behavior and outward appearance of the wolf. Mount Lycaeus was the scene of a yearly gathering at which the priests were said to prepare a sacrificial feast that included meat mixed with human parts. According to legend, whoever tasted it became a wolf and could not turn back into a man unless he abstained from human flesh for nine years.
Pliny relates from Evanthes, that on the festival of Jupiter Lycaeus, one of the family of Antaeus was selected by lot and conducted to the brink of the Arcadian lake. He then hung his clothes on a tree and plunged into the water, whereupon he was transformed into a wolf. Nine years after, if he had not tasted human flesh, he was at liberty to swim back and resume his former shape, which had in the meantime become aged, as though he had worn it for nine years.
Agriopas relates, that Demaenetus, having assisted at an Arcadian human sacrifice to Jupiter Lycaeus, ate of the flesh and was at once transformed into a wolf, in which shape he prowled about for ten years, after which he recovered his human form and took part in the Olympic games. The essential part of the military initiation consisted in ritually transforming the young warrior into some species of predatory wild animal. It was not solely a matter of courage, physical strength, or endurance, but "of a magico-religious experience that radically changed the young warriors mode of being.
He had to transmute his humanity by an access of aggressive and terrifying fury that made him like a raging carnivore. The young warrior accomplished his transformation into a wolf by the ritual donning of a wolf-skin, an operation preceded or followed by a radical change in behavior. As long as he was wrapped in the animal's skin, he no longer felt bound by the laws and customs of men. Such representations are found in Orthodox Church in icons and an wall-paintings. Hristofor having a cross in his hand. That indicates a Christian metamorphosis of a formerly pagan wolf-god.
In the Romanian popular tradition, in January is celebrated the winter St. Peter, also known as the Lame St. Peter, the patron of the wolves, that protects people from wolves. In the Catholic Church, St. Cristopher is protecting the travelers from being attacked and robbed or murdered. That's an interesting similitude with the Lame St.
Peter, since the outlaws were called "wolves" since the ancient times. The old Dacian Wolf-Dragon banner, having a wolf head ending through a dragon tail had two significations: it showed that the bearer is initiate into the wolves' brotherhood, therefore a brave warrior, and was meant to protect the bearer against the evil forces. All the members were sworn to uphold the Christian faith by fighting off the advancing Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
The famous Vlad "The Impaler" was born in the town of Sighisoara in the early fourteen hundreds. He was the second son of the Prince of Wallachia, Vlad "Dracul" the Dragon who was a member of The Order of the Dragon a position from which he derived his surname. Vlad "Dracul" ruled between and AD, when warfare was almost continuous in Wallachia and the surrounding areas and the local nobles boyars were fighting for power. He wore the dragon medallion, showing a dragon swallowing its own tail, crucified on a double cross, which is the Slavic cross.
Vlad received the three cloaks of the order: green for the dragon's scales, red for the blood of martyrs, and black for the mystery of Christ's passion, all of which he wore proudly. Two of Vlad "Dracul"'s sons, Vlad and his brother Radu, were kept as hostages in Galipoli where Sultan Mehmed II, conqueror of Constantinople, was trying to indoctrinate them into Islam, making allies of them.
He hoped to use their claim to the Wallachian throne to his advantage. Radu converted quickly, and was released from prison. Vlad, however, was far more stubborn. It has been suggested that Vlad's sadistic tendencies started as a result of his imprisonment by the Sultan. Vlad "Dracul" f ought aside of Iancu of Hunedoara, but in AD he was forced to make peace with the Ottoman Empire , because many local nobles were aside the Turks, who were ready to invade the country. At the time of his death, his son Vlad was 17 years old and was still the Sultan's hostage.
After his father's death, Vlad was released and is believed that he made a pilgrimage to the Order of the Dragon chapel in the imperial fortress at Nuremberg, where he joined the twenty-three other members of the inner circle, pledging to protect Christendom from the forces of the Muslims. He won a famous victory, which saved Hungary from Ottoman conquest for 70 years.
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A few days later Iancu of Hunedoara died of an epidemic that had broken out among the troops. Less than two weeks after his sudden death, Vlad seized the Wallachian throne. Vlad ruled for six years, spreading the terror among his enemies and was called Vlad "The Impaler" or Dracula the son of the Dragon. In April he won a famous victory against Mahomed II, who led "the mightiest army after the conquest of Constantinople", according to the chronicle of Laonic Chalcocondil. The ritual initiations in the Wolves' brotherhood were passed from Dacia to the Germanic tribes through the Celts' Druids and through the Goths.
An unamalgamated group of Baltic tribes occupied the area from the Warnow to the Rugen, round the Oder mouths and up the Peene. These were given the collective name of the Liutuzians today's Lithuanians meaning "terrible" or Wilzians from which comes today's capital name Vilnius meaning "wolf" people. Their feminine counterparts were the Valkyries also spelled Walkyries , Old Norse Valkyrja , the female wolf warriors, in Norse mythology.
They picked up the heroes to fill Valhalla. A man choosen to die was said to see a Valkyrie just before the fatal blow. The Valkyries also worked as Odin's servants. They served food and drink to the warriors in Valhalla. Valhalla is depicted as a splendid palace, roofed with shields, and hving doors, each big enough to let armed men through, side by side. There the warriors feasted on the flesh of a boar slaughtered daily and made whole again each evening. Valaskjalf meaning Shelf of the Valasks was Odin's other hall where his great throne, Hlidskjalf, stood. The Vedic heaven, the "world of the fathers", called Valak-Hilyah, was inhabited by the Valakhilyas, the Lilliputian sages were said to be drinkers of Sun-rays maricipah.
They were worshipping the sun god. Most probable, Adolf Hither was initiated into the Germanic branch of wolves' brotherhood. The following facts are sustaining this assertion. In an article in his party newspaper written in , Hitler used an unusual metaphor to describe how the crowds began to react to him: they began to realize, he said, 'that now a wolf has been born, destined to burst in upon the herd of seducers and deceivers of the people.
The special agent he chose to supervise purchases for his Linz Library and Museum was a Dr Wolfhardt literally, "hard wolf". He approved of naming the Volkswagen factory "Wolfsburg". When he telephone Winifred Wagner, he would say "Conductor Wolf"calling! The secretary he kept longer than any other more than 20 years was Johanna Wolf. She recalled that while Hitler addressed all other secretaries formally as "Frau" or "Fraulein", he invariably called her "Wolfin" She-Wolf.
In his book, "Hitler Speaks", published in , Hermann Rauschning writes: "My informant described to me in full detail a remarkable scene - I should not have credited the story if it had not come from such a source. Hitler stood swaying in his room, looking wildly about him.
He's been here! His lips were blue. Sweat streamed down his face. Suddenly he began to reel off figures, and odd words and broken phrases, entirely devoid of sense. It sounded horrible. He used strangely composed and entirely un-German word formations. Then he stood quite still, only his lips moving After that he lay asleep for many hours. The Kiev Chronicle "Povest vremennykh let" , a 12th to 13th century account of events and life in the Kievan state--enumerates seven Russian pagan divinities: Perun, Volos , Khors, Dazhbog, Stribog, Simargl, and Mokosh.
Adopting the functions of Volos, Vlas became patron of cattle and as such he appears in icons, normally surrounded by the flocks and herds under his protection. However Vlas is another name for Vlach. This suggests that Volos and his successor, St. Vlas, were divinities associated to the Vlach shepherds. Both these cities derive their name from the Vlach communities which are present even today the Aromanians. The Romanian population from Romania, Moldova and, as smaller groups, from the Balkan Peninsula, south and west of the Danube River, were named by their Slav neighbours as Volokh.
From this name were derived the terms Vlach or Walach together with the name of the country called Valachia or Wallachia , named in Romanian "Tara Romaneasca" and bordered on the north and northeast by the Carpathian mountains, on the west, south, and east by the Danube river, and on the northeast by the Siret river. In the Russian Chronicle of Nestor end of the 10th century or the beginning of the 11th is written: " when the Volochi attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi ".
The celtic tribes, which took their beliefs and philosophy from the Dacians, used to call themselves as Volker latin Volcae. Between the 8th and the 12th century they were named as Walh, Walasg, Walah by the germans and as Walch between the 12th and the 16th century. The corresponding adjectives wal a hisc, wel hi sch, waelhisch or welsch , are meaning foreigner, speaker of a foreign language.
Some of these Celtic tribes kept similar names up to nowadays as the French speakers of Belgium, Walloons and the Welsh of Britain. Gunther, bishop of Bamberg, describing the passage of the crusaders through the Balkans in , has this to say about the Wallachs: "We suffered from the fury of the Romans Wallachs who were cruel and inhuman even more than is the nature of beasts. At the closest distance to us, this included the territory of Upper Slovakia, south Tesin and south Poland. History also instructs us that the Valachs, the mountain shepherds, were involved in a special kind of herdsmanship entirely unique in Central Europe and that they originally came from Balcany in what is now Romania.
The people from Maramures, a forest covered land with mountains and valleys in the north, north west of Romania, were nicknamed of the "wolf people" in the Middle Age. They have a fierce individuality and they had been an independent State under Decebalus in the first century AD and fought against invasion after invasion to preserve their customs and folklore. They even successfully resisted the communist collectivization of farms.
Few other parts of Europe have preserved so distinctively a rural culture. Valcau is name of a river and of several villages from Salaj county. Valcau today Valeni village is attested since , when was named " villa Vulchoi". Probably, the Vlachs were also called Valkans. Possibly, these Valkans were also called Valk-kyrs "kir" meaning Sir, in Greek. Let us note that the German word for church, "kirchen" stems from the Greek "kir", the meaning being "the house of the lord". In a large number of pieces of very massive gold plate were found at Pietroasa Petrossa in Romania; much of this find was unfortunately broken up and melted, but a considerable portion was saved, and is now in the museum at Bucharest.
These magnificent objects are all of solid gold, and consist of large dishes, vases, ewers, baskets of open work, and personal ornaments. The most exquisite piece is a patera, 10 in. The only inscription was found on a ring. Most of it's letters are Etruscan.
The Dacians used Vulcan as the generic name for blacksmith. Since Dacia had the richest gold and silver mines from Europe, it had also a large number of blacksmiths. Vulcan remained as a place name for mountains and cities, up to today. The chronicler Dudo of St. Quentin's wrote in Gesta Normannorum about the Dacians, naming them also as Vulcans: "For these Dacians, once ejected from their own lands by means of the reported rite, have savagely landed with duke Anstign where Francia extensively spreads out its tracts.
He has attacked a powerful lordship in Gaul; he has unlawfully appropriated the Frankish realm for himself. He has profaned the priesthood; he has tread in the sacristy.