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Since Sand published his book, many distinguished historians have disagreed with him, including Israel Bartal who published a powerful response. Bash is considered a leading researcher of Zionist culture and Jewish religion and has written thirty-two books, most of which slander the Jewish religion, the Torah, and Christianity. His primary conclusions are that. Sand's book became a major best-seller in the Arab world and is treasured by Palestinians. The first edition of Bash's book was published at least five years prior to Sand's book.

Bash also analyzes what he calls "Zionist incitement literature," which he claims is based on the belief in an imaginary Jewish past. This literature allegedly teaches violence and aims at justifying the theft of Palestine from the Palestinian people, who are "descendant of the ancient Canaanite Arab and Amalekite people and of others who lived in this country since the beginning of time. The unique aspect of Sand's book thus is not its content but rather its context. Sand's innovation is that he, a Jewish professor of history from a leading "Zionist" university, step-by-step, in beautifully phrased Hebrew, justifies and approves all the Palestinian historical claims.

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It is no surprise that The Invention of the Jewish People became a major best-seller in the Arab world and is treasured by Palestinians. The damage caused by The Invention stems from its misrepresentation of established historical facts as lies. Leon Hadar, in an analysis review, summarizes the point well:. He concludes that the Jews should be seen as a religious community comprising a mishmash of individuals and groups that had converted to the ancient monotheistic religion but do not have any historical right to establish an independent Jewish state in the Holy Land.

In short, the Jewish People, according to Sand, are not really a "people" in the sense of having a common ethnic origin and national heritage. They certainly do not have a political claim over the territory that today constitutes Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories, including Jerusalem. So the Jews as a nation have no real historical claim to the territory of the State of Israel, including Jerusalem.

That this ignores millennia of Jewish theological focus on the ideas of return and the place of Jerusalem is obvious.

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Among other things, the mysterious Jewish blessing said by Jews for thousands of years, "And to Jerusalem Your city, may You return in compassion and may You rest within it, as You have spoken. May You rebuild it soon in our days as an eternal structure and may You speedily establish the throne of David within it," [11] must be regarded as irrelevant or anachronistic.

The Jewish people, according to Sand, were never exiled and—in distinction to Zionists—the majority of Jews have adopted this myth for no reason. In France, as in many other countries, Sand above, right received praise for the book and even won a prize in from the French press. More than 25, copies of Sand's book were sold in France, and it topped the best-seller lists for seven weeks in a row.

Not one of the reviews bothered to address the book's countless flaws exposed by academics in Israel and elsewhere. It should be emphasized that in the past Jewish rights to a national homeland flowed from widespread appreciation of history and were recognized without any hesitation.

Shlomo Sand

It is right that Palestine should become a Jewish state, if the Jews being given the full opportunity, make it such. Contrary to Sand's opinion, the Jewish nation has been recognized not only by Europeans but also by Arabs. In his book, Qutb described the struggle against the Jews throughout the ages and the obligation to carry out war against them. He also recognized Jews as a nation with a special tie to Palestine that he hoped would be destroyed.

Sand's conclusions are directly related to his political stand as an ex-activist of the Israeli communist Rakah party. In France, as in many other countries, Sand received praise for the book and even won the "Prix Aujourd'hui" in from the French press. These showed, among other problems, that Sand used sources erroneously, took material out of context, and in fact, totally adopted the Palestinian narrative of a Jewish ethnic cleansing carried out in the name of an imagined ideology.

The Rakah context is vital. Sand's conclusions are directly related to his political stand as an ex-Rakah activist, his familial background, and his connections and friendship with the famous Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish. Fatah, the PLO's largest constituent organization, continues to support Sand's research.

Sharif noted that he learned of Sand's book in May when, during a conference in Rome, he was given the book's French edition, dedicated to Bassel Natasha and to "Palestinians and Jews who wanted to live in liberty, equality, and brotherhood. Sharif emphasized that "even then, the young man Shlomo felt that he was sitting on lands that were taken from another people. With great appreciation, Sharif analyzed each chapter in the book and agreed with Sand's historical analysis. Sand's conclusions are not new and are accepted in every branch and form of the communist movement, both in Israel and the territories.

So, Sand's book is, in effect, a product of the communist Rakah party. A wide-ranging article on Sand was published in the al-Quds newspaper, the most widely read East Jerusalem newspaper in Palestinian society. The title of the article speaks for itself: "The Israeli historian Shlomo Sand: The 'Jewish people' is such an extensive figment of imagination that even the act of return was invented retroactively, and the 'myth' was created based upon which the State of Israel was founded.

The article dealt with a conference held in Brussels during which Sand presented his main conclusions and in which Arab intellectuals and Europeans participated. Sand explained to the reporter that he did not accept the theory that the Jewish people was exiled from its land and sent into captivity. But to his dismay, he could find no book that told the truth regarding the origins of the Jewish people.

The newspaper quotes Sand as saying that "there is a greater possibility that the Hamas fighters are the descendants of King David than the possibility that he [Shlomo Sand] could be the descendant of David. The conference participants and Lebanese author Elias Huri, who called Sand his "friend," complimented the Israeli professor for his brave position. Huri even stated that "we turn to all participants and to all those who believe in justice and in the rights of the Palestinian people for self-determination to participate in the fight against the Zionists … Sand's book calls for action for the Palestinian people.


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During the conference, calls to boycott Israel were frequent as were voices against maintaining normal relationships with the Jewish state. Huri noted that the Association of Lebanese Authors first thought that it should prevent the distribution of the book because it was written by an Israeli professor. However, parties responsible for censorship had not read the book, and the decision was later reversed. At the end of the conference, Sand was quoted as saying that today there is "an Israeli people" comprising Jews and Arabs and based on Israeli language and literature.

The only solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, in his view, was the establishment of one nation in which Israelis and Palestinians would live together. But Sand added that he was pessimistic about this possibility, an assessment he had made previously. Sand's perceptions continue to cause waves across the Arab world. For example, the popular Egyptian newspaper, ash-Shuruk al-Jadid , published an article, "Shlomo Sand: There is no such thing as the Jewish people," [26] as part of a series that examined the "institutional myths" of the Israeli government.

The author focused on two issues—the illusion of the Chosen Jewish People and the illusion of the Promised Land—that have allegedly been marketed by the Zionists as historical justification for the foundation of the "Zionist entity" on Palestinian land. Georges Sorel and Marxism. The Chronicle Review. Genome Biology and Evolution. Retrieved November 18, The Sunday Times.

Retrieved November 29, The Financial Times. Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved June 10, New York Times. Retrieved 22 January Prix Litteraires. Archived from the original on Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 26 December The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. All photos Order Online.

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